Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Transactions"

See other formats











^ ' 




I. On certain peculiar and advantageous properties of the written 

Language of China. By SIB JOHN F.DAVIS, BART., K.C.B. 1 
II. On the names of the Wood-louse. By ERNEST ADAMS, ESQ., 

PH. DR 8 

III. On Sisterfamilies of Languages, especially those connected 

with the Semitic Family. By Dr. C. LOTTNER .... 20 

IV. On the word Cu/oruw. By HERBERT COLERIDGE, ESQ. . . 27 
V. English Etymologies. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, ESQ. . . 30 

VI. On the exclusion of certain words from a Dictionary. By HER- 

VII. On Metrical Time, or, the Rhythm of Verse, ancient and 

VIII. On the Norse origin of are, the plural present of the English 

verb substantive. By Dr. C. LOTTNER 63 

IX. On who as a relative. By R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ 64 

X. On the last syllable in the words knowledge, revelach, and 

wedlock. By DANBY P. FRY, ESQ 75 . 

XI. On the names of Caterpillers, Snails, and Slugs. By ERNEST 

ADAMS, ESQ., PH. DR 89, 

XII. On Sisterfamilies of Languages, especially those connected 

with the Semitic. Part II. By Dr. C. LOTTNER . . . .112 

XIII. Some proposed emendations in the text of Shakespeare, and 

explanations of his words. By W. C. JOURDAIN, ESQ. . . 133 

XIV. English Etymologies. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, ESQ. . . 145 
XV. On the connection of the Latin dulcis with delicice, delicatus, 

delectare. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, ESQ 150 

XVI. Observations on the Plan of the Society's proposed New English 

Dictionary. By the Rev. DBRWENT COLERIDGE 152 

XVII. Notes on Comparative Syntax. By a Member of the Council 168 
XVIII. On the third Person Singular Imperative Active in Cornish. 

By a Member of the Council 171 



XIX. Miscellaneous remarks suggested by Ritschl's Plautus, especi- 
ally on the formation of the Latin Perfect. By Prof. T. 


XX. A query on the phrase diametrically opposed. By R. F. 


XXI. On the name Welsh, and the word aqua. By the Right 
Rev. CONNOP THIRLWALL, D.D., Lord Bishop of St. David's, 

President of the Philological Society 199 

XXII. Cambrica. By a Member of the Council 204 

XXIII. On the Homeric epithet Zjioiuof. By R. F. WEYMOUTH, 

ESQ., M.A 250 

XXIV. On the Homeric epithet paianue. By R. F. WEYMOUTH, 

ESQ., M.A , 276 

XXV. Notes on the Roxburghe Club Morte Arthur. By R. F. 


XXVI. The family relationship between the Finnish and Indo- 
Germanic Languages maintained. By HENSLEIGH WEDG- 
WOOD, ESQ 281 

XXVII. Cambrica, see p. 204 seq. (Addenda et Corrigenda) . . . 288 

INDEX 294 


Notices of the Meetings, Treasurer's Cash Account &c 303 


THE PASSION, a Middle-Cornish poem, transcribed and translated, 
from a British Museum MS., Harl. N. 1782, by WHITLEY 
STOKES, ESQ 1-100 

THE PLAY OF THE SACRAMENT, a Middle -English Drama, 
edited from a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, with a Preface and Glossary, by WHITLEY STOKES, 
ESQ 101-152 






IT is just seventeen years since, as an original member of 
this society, I had the honour to contribute a Paper (Pro- 
ceedings, 1843, vol. I.) on the 214 Roots of the Chinese 
Language; which Roots, as I therein observed, enter into 
the composition, and influence the meaning, of every word 
in that Language. By the ingenious , and often philosophical, 
combination of these elementary symbols , expressing as they 
do (according to the analysis which I before gave) the prin- 
cipal objects or ideas which occur to men in the infancy 
of their knowledge , all other objects or ideas were destined 
to be expressed. How superior to the more rude and in- 
artificial scheme of going on to form new and additional 
characters, altogether independent and arbitrary, and thus 
launching on a sea of multitudinous perplexity, to which 
scarcely any human intellect could ever have been equal! 

Such, however, has been the notion attached to the Chinese 
by many uninformed persons, who have in this manner 
most erroneously enhanced the supposed amount of labtur, 


and power of memory, required in the mastery of the lan- 
guage ; at the same time that they have ignored the extreme 
ingenuity by which an ideographic system has been rendered 
comparatively simple and easy of acquirement. Comparative 
simplicity and facility of acquirement, however, are not the 
only merits of the system. These will be best developed 
by considering in succession the three distinct uses which 
the Roots serve. First, as supplying, in their simple and 
uncombined state, the place of an Alphabet for Lexicographic 
arrangement and reference. Secondly, as indicating, when 
combined, the derivation and meaning of compound words. 
Thirdly, as constituting the heads of distinct Genera, under 
which all the other words of the language are ranged like 

I. An alphabet the Chinese roots certainly are not, for 
they are not phonetic, but ideographic symbols; but, as 
already stated, they have been made to serve all the pur- 
poses of an alphabet in Dictionaries. The arrangement and 
succession of the letters in our European alphabets would 
seem to be purely arbitrary. There is no reason in the 
nature of things why Z might not have been the first letter 
in the English alphabet, and A the last; or why, in the 
Greek, Omega should not have come in time to imply "the 
beginning", and Alpha "the end". But a good and suf- 
ficient reason exists for the arrangement of the Chinese 
roots. They succeed each other strictly according to the 
number of strokes of which each is composed. The limited 
number of Letters in our Western alphabets renders their 
arbitrary arrangement of little importance, for the "abece- 
daire", as the French term it, is easily committed to 
memory; but, the Chinese roots being rather more than 
eight times as numerous as our phonetic elements, this 
disadvantage has been greatly mitigated by the numerical 
classification; and those ideographic elements are thus turned 
to in their dictionaries, and found with equal facility and 
dispatch by the above simple method. The obvious advan- 
tage of this numerical system has been extended, in the 
Chinese Dictionaries, from the Roots themselves to the 


Compounds which are ranged under them. Similar ends 
suggest analogous means. As the Chinese extend the ar- 
rangement by the number of strokes from the Roots them- 
selves to the Compounds ranged under them, so we of the 
West extend the alphabetic arrangement from the letters of 
the Alphabet themselves to the words ranged under them, 
according to the alphabetic succession of the letters in each 
word. On turning in Chinese to the Root, you find the Com- 
pound under it, in its proper place, indicated as this is by the 
number of distinct strokes which compose it, independent of the 
Root. Thus in looking at the character or word which signi- 
fies Copper, before he seeks it in the Dictionary, the searcher 
sees at a glance it is Kin tsze Pbo, "the root Kin 5 ', or 
"metal", with the addition of another character of six 
strokes, and thus easily discovers the word in its proper 
place, defined as the species "copper" under the genus 
"metal"'. We shall see presently that the Chinese have 
not availed themselves, to the fullest extent, of the advan- 
tages which this admirably ingenious method held out. 

II. Our alphabetic spelling affords no indication of the 
meaning of a word to him who has never met with it be- 
fore. The first letter M, or the first syllable Man, would 
be no clue to the import of the word Manacle. But when 
a Chinese sees that Jf\^ jldn "a man" (or the contracted 
form 'j when compounded) is the Root of a Character, he 
knows the word has a reference to the human race in some 
one or other of its relations, and this at once assists his 
conception of the meaning, and helps him to remember it. 
The writing of his country conveys at once its impression 
through the eye, and produces a more vivid effect on the 
mind than by the less direct phonetic medium; for 

Segnius irritant animos deniissa per aurem, 

Qnani quae sunt oculis suhjecta fidelibus. 

For this reason the 214 Chinese Roots are remembered with 
little difficulty; but an alphabet of 214 mere elements of sound 
(if this were necessary, or even possible,) would be a 
serious affair. A Chinese has \\\ first no ronn'ption of the 

A * 


use of our letters. He sees on a page a perpetual repetition 
of a few (to use a schoolboy phrase) pot-hooks and hangers; 
he is astonished to hear that we have only about 26 cha- 
racters in all; and if he proceeds to learn them, his pre- 
vious literary notions are completely upset. To him the 
"premier pas qui coute" is the trying to acquire mere 
elements of sound, instead of elements of ideas. In his own 
language he had learned that the root Q jih meant the 
"sun", and the root J^J yue, "the moon", and as these 
bore some real or fancied resemblance to the objects, he 
easily remembered them. When, again, he learned that the 
combination of these two elements signified 0)=j ming, "bright, 
enlightened " , the relation was obvious , and he did not for- 
get it. This in a measure compensates for the disadvantage 
of so many as 214 ideographic elements, in lieu of only 
26 of a phonetic description. I do not intend this as a 
piece of special pleading to prove that their system is better 
than ours, which it certainly is not, nor nearly as good; 
but to show that the case of the Chinese is not altogether 
so bad as has been supposed. 

The peculiar advantages of this medium have rendered it 
a universal character, not only among the 300 millions of 
China, but in the kingdoms of Japan and Annam (or Cochin- 
china), Corea, and Tungking, in fact nearly half the human 
race. I proceeded in 1847 with two of Her Majesty's ships 
to Turon Bay (where the French have now been fighting 
for two years ,) with the view of trying to conclude a com- 
mercial treaty; and there I found that without knowing a 
syllable of their spoken language I could correspond with 
the officers of government as perfectly as in China 1 . 

III. We now come to notice at length the third and most 
interesting office of the Roots, in serving as genera under 

1 It was soon found that, besides an extreme disinclination on their 
part to deal with foreigners, there was not much trade worth having in 
a country, where the absolute sovereign is chief monopolist of all trade, 
and the arts so little advanced that raw produce is sent to China to be 
returned in a manufactured state. 


which all the compound words of the language are arranged 
like species. In my former paper I quoted the opinion of 
Adam Smith, (in an essay on the first formation of Lan- 
guages), that the institution of nouns substantive would 
probably be the first step; and that these would include all the 
principal and most striking objects in nature, having some 
relation or other to man and his wants. The Chinese roots 
are a remarkable confirmation of this, as the slightest in- 
spection will prove. Among the Roots which stand at the 
head of the greatest number of compounds are Fish, Bird, 
Insect, Tree, Grain, Bamboo, Herb, Metal, Earth, Hill, 
Sun, Water, Fire, (fee. The majority by far consists of the 
names of the most prominent objects in nature or early art. 
As might be expected in China, the Roots "Bamboo*' and 
"raw Silk"' are among those which have many compounds. 
"Man" naturally stands nearly at the head of all in com- 

The associations that have governed the formation of com- 
pounds are often obvious ; and they are occasionally curious 
lessons in psychology , or the operations of the human mind. 
The Root "Man" combined with "one" simply denotes alone, 
deserted; with "thousand", a chiliarch, the chief of a thou- 
sand; with "hundred", a centurion; with "white", a senior, 
(laou pih-tow, "old white head", a common term for an old 
man;) with "afield", a husbandman ; with "a village", rustic, 
untutored; with "emperor", noble, elevated; with "justice", 
right, correct. The root Ta "great" combined with koong, 
"a bow" forms the word E, "a barbarian", which has raised 
so much trouble and discussion with the Chinese. On this 
point of etymology, however, we have turned the tables on 
them, for they retain the bow, while we have advanced to 
the rifle, which latter article will in time call for the in- 
vention of a new term among them. 

It may be remarked that the Root sin "heart" enters into the 
composition of more words than most of the others. With us 
the heart is the seat of the affections or emotions, but with them 
of the intellect also. Combined with hea, "downwards", it 
means literally "downhearted"; with taou, "a knife", the 


meaning is taou, "grieved"; with seny, "nature, birth", it 
implies sing, "natural disposition"; with urh, "the ear", it 
forms eke, "conscience, a sense of shame", thus presenting 
in a single word the idea conveyed by our phrase, the 
whisperings of conscience. 

With regard to the classification of the three kingdoms 
of nature we find under the Root che "hog", the compound 
seang "elephant" which, as one of the pachydermata, may 
be correct enough. Many of the compounds, however, are 
very incorrectly classed, and have not the remotest affinity 
with the root. Under new "ox" is found se "rhinoceros". 
The wolf and fox are properly ranged under the root keuen 
"dog", but so also is the ape, and strange to say, the lion! 

The vegetable kingdom is (with the exception of a very 
few instances as "Rice" and "Bamboo", which are them- 
selves Roots par excellence) arranged mainly under the Roots 
7J Muh "Trees", and ijnjl Tsaou "Herbs", the former 
indicating not only all species of Trees, but every thing 
composed of, or having relation to ivood; the latter all her- 
baceous plants and vegetable productions that are not ligneous. 
The cereal grains are, from their importance, arranged 
under a distinct Root ^j^ Ho. From imparting their direct 
meaning to compounds, the roots proceed to convey a figu- 
rative signification. Thus ^j^ Ho "grain", in composition 
with ^ Ho "fire", "heat", means the "autumn"; ^ 
Tung, "winter", is distinguished by the presence of Ping, 
"icicle", "cold"; the meaning of ^j: Chun "spring" is 
indicated by the "Sun" appearing from below. If Anglo- 
Chinese Dictionaries would always point out these relations 
between the composition of words and their import, not 
only would the meaning be elucidated, but the memory of 
the searcher at the same time greatly assisted. He has 
generally been left to do this for himself. 

The mineral kingdom is classed principally under 
Too "earth" and ^> Kin "metal", and these Roots also 
compose the names of every implement or thing having a 
relation to those materials. A philosophical Chinese chemist. 


in advance of his countrymen , might arrange all our alkaline 
substances under the Root Too "earth*", and their metallic 
bases under Kin "metal". But their usual mode of de- 
signating any new foreign importation is by adopting the 
name of something native, that bears a real or fancied re- 
semblance to it, and adding the term "foreign". 

It is curious that a language, constituted so differently 
from all others, should possess so many things in common 
with them. Among the rest, a system of Poetry which (as 
I long ago shewed in another place J ) includes poetical num- 
bers or measure ; the observance of a regular caesural pause 
in its verse; the use of terminal rhymes; and that quality 
termed parallelism , noticed by Bishop Lowth with reference 
to Hebrew poetry, and especially illustrated by him in an 
elaborate treatise on the subject, 

Little or nothing was known in England of Chinese be- 
fore the commencement of the present century ; but the last 
fifty or sixty years have produced a list of Dictionaries, 
Grammars, and Translations which afford abundant aid in 
its acquisition. The opening of so many new points of ac- 
cess, in addition to Canton, and the encouragements held 
out by the Foreign office, have had the effect of supplying 
a number of very able and accomplished linguists. Additional 
motives are now afforded by the opening of Japan , where 
the Chinese character still forms the medium of their sacred 
and higher literature ; though a contraction of the same cha- 
racter has been adapted to the formation of a phonetic syl- 
labary of the spoken language, entirely different from the 

1 Royal Asiatic Trans. 4to. 



I will commence my examination of the synonymes of the 
wood-louse with an extract from a Lecture delivered by Mr. 
Wright before the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 
(1857) for the purpose of introducing the singular name 
Lockchester. "An English-Latin Dictionary of the 15 th cen- 
tury, known by the title of the Promptorium Parvulorum, 
furnishes us with another example (i. e. of words not found 
in Anglo-Saxon literature, but still surviving in our pro- 
vincial dialects). You will there find, under the letter L, 
the words "Locchester, wyrm", meaning that Locchester 
was the name of a kind of worm , and the Latin equivalent 
multipes is added. Now as the word worm had in A. S. 
and 0. E. a very extensive meaning , and as the Latin mul- 
tipes, meaning simply an animal with many feet, was not 
much more definite, the modern editor of the Prompt. Parv., 
Mr. Way, was unable to fix the exact meaning of the English 
word; and there seemed no means left of ascertaining it, 
until two or three years ago my friend, Mr. Halliwell, 
walking in a garden in Oxfordshire, accidentally overheard 
the gardener talking about Lock-chesters , and immediately 
asking what these were , received for answer that they were 
wood-lice. On a further enquiry he ascertained that lock- 
chest or lock-chester was not an uncommon word in some 
parts of Oxfordshire for a wood-louse, although it was 
rapidly going out of use. As the Prompt. Parv. was com- 
piled in Norfolk, this must in the 15 th century have been 
an ordinary word for a wood-louse and not confined to a 
special locality." 

From this extract we may infer that Mr. Wright considers 
it an A. S. word which , from its non-occurrence in the ex- 
tant A. S. literature, has never found its way into the dic- 
tionaries of that language. In default of a more satisfactory 
explanation, the following is suggested. The passage in the 
Promptorium to which Mr. Wright refers, is as follows: 
"Lokdore, wyrm, or locchester, multipes" (p. 311). On com- 


paring the terms lok-dore and loc-chester, it is evident that 
the first portion of the word is an independent element, 
tok; and this is still further confirmed by another synonymo 
for the wood-louse recorded by Halliwell with no indication 
of time or locality, viz. luy-dor. This I assume to be an- 
other form of lok-dore. The termination dor is that general 
name for a beetle or fly to which I have alluded in a former 
paper. What is the meaning of lok, log or lug? In Hamp- 
shire, and I believe in other counties, the word lug is fre- 
quently applied to a certain salt-mud worm used in fishing 
called lug-icorms, and in Manx lugg means "a sea or sand- 
worm used for bait". Halliwell says that "the term lug 
was applied to anything slow in movement", and hence I 
imagine the name of these worms. Compare the words 
luyyardy a sluggard; Ittgyish, dull; lug-loaf, a heavy fellow ; 
luysome, heavy, and the phrase "I cry lug" , meaning 'I 
am in no hurry ". Again the root lug appears with an initial 
s; as we find mash and smash, moulder and smoulder, lug- 
yard and sluggard &c. , so we have lug and slug. Hence 
the name of that slow-moving mollusk that infests our gar- 
dens; and further, the modern English slow is a later de- 
velopement of this word slug. Hence we meet with the 
term slow-worm, as well as lug-worm. 

I imagine then that the element lock means 'sluggish* or 
'slow 1 , and the propriety of its application to the wood- 
louse cannot be doubted, if we reflect that its common name 
in ancient times was ovog and asellus if we watch the 
asinine movements of the animal, and recall the solemn 
march of the "lente gradientis aselli". 

With regard to the second element Chester, I believe that 
it has originated in a false orthography. The primitive form 
of the word appears to have been log-, or lok-estre, a ter- 
mination which is generally assumed by Anglo-Saxon gram- 
marians to be a feminine suffix, but which is not unfre- 
quently found as an affix simply denoting the agent. Mouffet 
speaks of "those wall-lice, which the Dutch call Knol-sters 
and Qual-sters*' (L. I, 29). Compare the A. S. lopp-estre, 
the c leap-er, which appears in modern English as 'lob-ster\ 


T believe this suffix will also be found disguised in the 
North-country word for a wood-louse, lobstrous-louxe , a word 
which I cannot pass by without adding a few remarks on 
the element lob. 

In addition to the forms lok, log, lug, we find the col- 
lateral forms lop, lob, lub, with an identity of meaning so 
striking as to induce a suspicion of an identity of origin. 
Labial and guttural forms are frequently interchanged. Thus 
at our last meeting I called your attention to cop-web, coo- 
web , and cock-web ; and Skinner says that ' Cop of Hay ' is 
'vox agro Cantiano usitata' for a Hay-cock. 

In Hampshire, and elsewhere, there are not only lug- 
worms, but lob-worms. The large, sluggish, garden worms 
are so called. Skinner mentions them as the food for trout. 
"Lob-ivomn, vermis Troitae piscis esca", but when he pro- 
ceeds to derive it "ab A. S. Loppe, pulex", and to describe 
it as a "vermis valde vividus, vivax et vegetus", I believe 
that he is utterly wrong both in theory and fact. The word 
lob is evidently akin in meaning to lug: e. g. Lob-cock, a 
term of contempt not uncommon in Old E., is thus employed 
by Cotgrave, "Baligant, an unweldie lubber, great lob-cock "; 
and if we compare the 0. E. loby, and the modern terms 
looby and lubber, this idea of slow, sluggish, movement is 
confirmed. The word appears in the 0. N. , where lubbi 
means 'servus ignavus'. The Lancashire word lobb is "a 
heavy, clumsy fellow"; the Welsh Hob, "a heavy lump, a 
blockhead", and the Gaelic liobar, "a lubberly, awkward 
fellow" (see Trans. Phil. Soc. 1855, p. 235). Shakspere's 
'Lob of spirits' and Milton's 'lubber-fiend' must be included 
in this family. Mr. Davies, however, has claimed for them 
a Welsh parentage. 

The word sometimes appears under the form lop. In the 
North a leech is called a lop-loach, and it is probable that 
the word lop-sided means heavy on one side. To lop, in 
Kent, is 'to lounge slowly'; lop-lolly, in the West, is 'a 
lazy fellow', and loppeting is an old adjective meaning 
"loitering, idle'. We have already seen a similar change in 
the word lop-web, from the A. S. lobbe. a spider. I infer 


then that the term lobstrous-louse is identical in meaning 
with lock-Chester., "a loitering, sluggish louse". 

I would take this opportunity of pointing out that we 
possess, in English, three distinct lobsters , as I believe, 
from three distinct sources. 

(1) The well-known crustacean, derived from the A. S. 
loppestre, a 'leaper", from its quick, jerking movements 
in its native element; hence called locusta marina by Latin 

(2) The wood-louse, from the root lob- , "the sluggish 

(3) I mid that a stoat or weasel is called a lobster in the 
Eastern counties. In this word the ster has no connection 
with the suftix in the other two. I find the following syno- 
nymes for the animal, lob-stert and lop-start. This is the 
A. S. stert, 'a tail', and the word means 'heavy tail'. Com- 
pare the Start Point, and the bird Red-start, which is also 
known as a Red-taiL a Fire-tail, and a Bran-tail. Another 
name for the stoat, clubster, is derived from the club-shaped- 

Before passing from Lockchester 1 would mention another 
very singular word for a wood-louse, quoted by Mr. Wright 
from a MS. of the 15 th century. It is Socchetre. I cannot 
avoid the suspicion that the initial S is merely a clerical 
error of the transcriber of the MS. , and that Locchetre is a 
mere corruption of Lok-estrc, just as the French ctre is a 
softened form of estre. 

The following extract from TopselFs Serpents (p. 786) 
will introduce another, and a very perplexing, synonyine. 
"In rotten and hollow trees there are also to be found ex- 
ceeding black spiders having great bodies, short feet, and 
keeping together with the Cheeselips, or those creeping ver- 
mine with manie feet called of some Soioes'\ Mouffet de- 
votes a separate chapter to Chcdips. The word had evi- 
dently perplexed our forefathers, for Mouffet, who commonly 
ventures upon a derivation of any unusual term, candidly 
writes: "In some places also they call them Cherbugs and 
Chcsfys, but / know not %", (L. II, c. 9), and Skinner 


(v. Cheslip) remarks: "Hoc animalculum vulgo Sowes voca- 
mus ; nescio an ab aliqua hujus bestiolae et ventriculi (quod 
A. S. ceosol dicitur) similitudine." As I can iind no satis- 
factory explanation of the word, I am again compelled to 
offer a speculative solution. 

If we compare the word cheese-lip with another synonyme 
cheese-boll and chissel-bol, it is clear that we may separate 
the element Up as a distinct word. I will deal with this 
first. I believe it to be merely a modified form of the word 
lop, and I am supported in this belief by the Swedish name 
sugga-loppe, 'sow -lop'. But the element cheese or ches 
presents greater difficulties. The solution of the difficulty 
may possibly be found in the Gothic sees-lip. The word 
sees I interpret as sows, and with the entire word would 
compare the Swedish sugga-loppe, the German schwein-laus, 
the 0. Eng. Hog-louse, Sow-louse, and the modern Somer- 
setshire Pigs-louse. 

To account for the change in the later form of the word, 
it is necessary to bear in mind, that there exists another, 
and, as I believe, totally distinct word, Cheese-lope, Ches- 
lop, or Kes-lop, meaning rennet, derived from the A. S. ceselib, 
a word which may be connected either with ceosol, a paunch, 
or with cese, cheese. I imagine that some confusion has 
existed in the popular mind between these two words. 

If this explanation of the element ches is correct, it will 
equally apply to the first part of the synonymes chese-bolle 
and chissel-bol. The last part of these words is identical 
with the modern English Ball. Bolle in 0. E. means a seed- 
pod, and the plant Ball-weed was formerly called Bolle-wed. 
The same root appears in Bull-feist, a provincial word for 
Puff-ball, in Bull-head, a tadpole, and in Bullies, round 
pebbles. The name is applied to the wood-louse from the 
animal's well-known habit of rolling itself up into a ball 
when disturbed; a habit mentioned by Bacon in his Nat. 
Hist. (Cent. VII, 696): "We see that the worms with many 
feet, which round themselves into balls f are bred chiefly 
under logs of timber." Hence also the names Kitchen-bole, 
Kitchen-ball, and Kitchen-bell. 


With the word Kitchen compare the Hungarian name 
Pincze-logdr , a 'cellar-bug', and the German Keller-warm 
and Keller-esel; the latter a name of some antiquity, for it 
is thus mentioned by Mouffet (L. II, c. 9) : " George Agricola 
calls it also a schefflein and vulgarly Kcller-csel, as if you 
would say a cellar-hog.'' 

Not to disguise the difficulty attending the investigation 
of this word, I think it right to mention the fact that the 
term Cheese-bol is constantly employed to designate a poppy- 
head, and that too from a very early date. Whether the 
name was applied to the plant from the animal, or whether 
it springs from a different source, I am quite unable to 

The name Sow appears to be of considerable antiquity. 
In an old MS., cited by Wright, containing remedies against 
various diseases, we find: "also give him of these sowes 
that creep with many feet and fall out of howce rovys" 
(MS. Lambeth, 306, f. 177). We have seen that the term 
is recognized by Topsell and Skinner, and Mouffet speaks 
of it thus: "The English from their form call them soives, 
i. e. little Hogs" (L. II, c. 9). They are also known in 0. E. 
as Dirty-Hogs. In various modern dialects they are called 
Pigs; in the Eastern counties Hogs and Old-Sows; in Corn- 
wall Grammcr-sows, and in Northampt. Tiggy-Hogs; Tiggy 
being, I presume, a diminutive of Tick or Tike, a louse. 
In Italian they are known as Porcelli and Porcelletto; in 
Swedish as Grds-sugga ' grass-sow ' , and in A. S. as gcrrs- 
wyn 'grass-hogs'. The term Hog-lice is also recognized in 
0. Eng. They were highly esteemed in those times as a 
specific against asthma. Thus Mouffet writes (L. II, c. 9): 
"Asclepias also building on the authority of the ancient 
physicians much commends live Hog-lice, burnt in the fire 
and taken to a spoonful, for by their property they cure 
asthma. Hollerius and Johannes Agricola make good this 
opinion by their practice. Some do torritie in a dish a 
small quantity of them into most white ashes and then give 
them with honey, &c." But, rendered soim'\\h;it sceptical 
by experience, he adds: "To conceal nothing from you I 


thought fit to add that Pennius himself, lying sick of the 
Asthma, used for a long time Hog-lice steeped in wine: 
but having done it always to no effect, by my advice at 
last he did take in the smoke of brimstone through a tunnel, 
and he grew perfectly well from that horrid symptome." 

In French it is sometimes known by the name Truyettt, 
'little sow'; but the common name is Cloporte. The deri- 
vation of this word appears to be quite unknown; but 
I believe the explanation is to be found in a synonyme 
in the Walloon dialect, gros-porc, or 'fat-pig'. This will 
account for the apparent anomaly that Cloporte, with a femi- 
nine termination, is masculine in modern French. In pro- 
vincial Swiss it is called Holz-mohre , 'wood-sow'. 

The Portuguese name Porquinha de santo Antad contains 
an allusion to a tradition widely diffused in mediaeval times 
that pigs were placed under the special guardianship of St. 
Anthony. An amusing account of the origin of the phrase 
'St. Anthony's pigs' may be seen in Brand's Antiquities 
(vol. I, p. 358), and in Hone's Every Day Book. In Kent 
to the present day the youngest of a litter is called T An- 
tony -pig. -) rvwvV 

The ordinary Spanish name is Cucaracha, but it was also 
called Cochinilla. Hence , as Mr. Wedgwood remarks in his 
Dictionary (v. Cochineal), "when the Spaniards came to 
America, they transferred the name to the animal producing 
the scarlet dye (the Cochineal insect), which somewhat re- 
sembles a wood-louse in shape." 

A certain marine species of wood-louse is abundant on 
the sea-shore, and it is to this, I presume, that Mouffet 
refers in the following passage: "The Flea, or Sea-ascllus, 
is like to a soft squilla. From its bunched back it is called 
a sow" 

Another animal which frequently supplies the wood-louse 
with a specific designation, is the Ass. Aristotle in his 
Hist. Animal. (IV, 1. 6) calls it ovog and Ttokvnovg; Theo- 
phrastus in his Hist. Plant. (IV, 3. 6), ovog, OVLOXOS, and 
iovlog. and Mouffet states that in his time the Germans 
named it esel, eselchen, and Kellar-esel. He observes that 


"it is called ovog, not from the forme or slownesse of an 
ass, but because it is of the same colour" (L. II, c. 9), and 
this remark he repeats on two other occasions. u lt is a 
little creature of many feet, asse- coloured", and again: 
"the Saxons call it esclchcn from its asse-colour." Its de- 
nomination in modern science is oniscus ascllus. 

The ordinary English name Wood-louse appears to be re- 
cognized by most of the European nations. The animals 
are so called, not from being wood-borers, but because, 
as Mouffet remarks, "they are oft times found between the 
bark and the tree." In his time the Germans knew them 
as Hol:-u'ant:el In Dutch they are Ilout-luis; in French 
Pou de Bois; in modern German Holz-laus, and in Swedish 
Tra-lus. In 0. Eng. we find them mentioned as Wood-Pews 
(Mouff.) ; Pews being an Anglicised form of the French Pou. 
The Irish call it Reudan, 'timber-worm'. 

Another 0. E. synonyme, Tylers-louse, is thus explained 
by Mouffet: "The English call them, from the place where 
they dwell, Tylers-louse, i. e. lice from the roofs of houses." 
The old MS. before quoted asserts that they "falle oute of 
howce rovys". 

The same MS. gives them the singular name of Whif<>- 
worms: "also give him White-worms that breed between the 
bark and the tree", and this may perhaps explain the Ger- 
man Weissc-Ameise, the Dutch Wittc-Mier, and the French 
Fourmi-blanche. I am somewhat at a loss to account for 
tliis name; but modern Coleopterists, who in their search 
after rnyrmecophilous beetles have had the temerity to dis- 
turb the internal arrangements of an ant-hill, must frequently 
have observed numerous individuals of this order, living in 
perfect harmony with their irascible neighbours, and uni- 
formly -ir/iifc. 

Among the miscellaneous names by which the animal is 
known, are the following. Mouffet states that "the Asiatic 
Greeks call them xvatmg from their likenesse to a bean 
(Galen), for it looks like it when the Cheslip rolls itself 
up into a round body." In Hampshire they are popularly 
known as Cfa evidently from their connection with 


wood. I am informed, on the authority of a Kentish coast- 
guard-man, that the inhabitants of his district uniformly call 
the creature a Monkey-Pee. The explanation of this mys- 
terious word I obtained last summer, on exhibiting a speci- 
men of the animal to an urchin who was tending pigs in a 
rural part of Kent. He unhesitatingly pronounced it to be 
a Molti-pee, and was supported by a young companion who 
was invited to give his opinion. This is of course the Kentish 
form of the Latin multipes. I confess I was somewhat sur- 
prised at the time, because from that class of English boys, 
in a thoroughly rural district, I had expected a lawful Saxon 
word rather than a miserable specimen of corrupt Latin. 
It was the ghost of Aristotle's nolvnovg troubling these 
shores. We find the good 0. E. term Many-feet in the West 
of England, sometimes with an addition, Maggy-many-feet: 
and in the North we meet with the variation Meggy-mony- 
legs. The term Many-feet appears in Mouffet's time to have 
had a rather more extended signification; he says (L.II, c.8): 
"The Scolopendrce and Juli and Cheeselips march in the last 
rank. They far surpass in the number of their feet Cater- 
pillers, Staphylini and Whurl-worms and all kindes of In- 
sects , whence they are called Many-feet by a peculiar name 
belonging to them." In Hungarian the wood-louse is also 
distinguished by the term Szdz-ldb, 'hundred-feet', and in 
English it is sometimes called millepede and Pill-millepede. 
It also bears the name Armadillo. 

We have seen above that Mouffet professed his inability 
to explain the term Cher-bug. I find an Old Eng. word 
chire, meaning 'a blade of grass', and Halliwell quotes a 
'chyer of grasse' from Drayton's Harmonie (1591). If we 
consider the Saxon Gcers-swyn, and the Swedish Grds-sugga, 
we may possibly make cher-bug an equivalent of 'grass-bug'. 
The name chur-worm, a cricket, is from a totally different 

The origin of the names Wei-bode and Wol-bode is some- 
what uncertain. I have heard it suggested that wel or wol 
is our English word wall, and reference was made to the 
German Wand-laus or 'wall-louse'. My objection is that 


the Wall-louse of the Gothic nations is a member of another, 
and far more offensive, order of insects. I venture to sug- 
gest the following explanation of these words. The element 
bode, seen in such words as */,aru-bode, I have explained 
on a former occasion as meaning 'worm' or 'beetle'. Of 
the two forms wel and ivol the latter is the earlier, as in 
the case of Kitchen-bell and Kitchen-bol. The root icol must, 
1 think, be connected with a verb used in the Eastern 
counties, wold-er, 'to roll up'. That the d in this word 
is not radical, is shown by another form of the verb re- 
corded by Halliwell, wole. This, I presume, is the root of 
the verb wallow, A. S. ircalt-ian, where the t is a streng- 
thening affix. The same root appears in the Latin volv- 
and the Greek /A- in the word fa-ix-, a snail, and in the 
English whel-k. If this theory be correct, u-ol-bode simply 
means 'the worm that rolls itself up', a name well suited 
to the character and habits of the insect. 

I will conclude these remarks on the wood-louse with 
a brief examination of the name Thrush-louse. A careful 
consideration of this name will, I think, throw some light 
upon a vexed question which has frequently tasked the in- 
genuity and research of commentators on the Midsummer- 
Night's Dream, viz. the origin of Puck. Critics have travelled 
far in search of his prototype, to Arabia, Persia, India, 
Scandinavia, and where not, and Dr. Bell, in his elaborate 
volume on the subject, arrives at the rather unsatisfactory 
conclusion that he is the "Man in the moon". I believe 
that the object of their search was lurking in this island 
buried among our national traditions, and that he once held 
a subordinate , though definite , position in the mythological 
system of our Saxon forefathers. The name Thrush-louse is 
a North-country synonyme of the Cheslip. Who or what 
was Thrush? An earlier form of the word is contained in 
the 0. Eng. Thurs-louse. This Thurse (A. S. thirs or thijrs) 
was an old Anglo-Saxon spirit of a very uncertain character. 
Ho is sometimes represented as a malignant giant or spectre: 
at other times as a good natured, harmless goblin. In some 
aspects of his character he resembles the Norse Troll; in 


others the mocking, mischievous , or, if kindly treated, help- 
ful goblin, called Robin-good-fellow. Bosworth compares 
him with the Icelandic Thuss, bipes bellua, gigas, and 
describes him as "a giant, spectre, hobgoblin, ignis fatuus". 
His harmless character is maintained by Mouffet in the fol- 
lowing passage: "They are also called Thurs-lows, or Jovial 
lice, from a spirit that was not hurtful, to whom our an- 
cestors superstitiously attributed the sending them to us" 
(L. II, c. 9). The 'hairy strength' of the 'lubber fiend' is 
a reminiscence of his giant form , and his ignis fatuus freaks 
are familiar to all readers of our Fairy Mythology. In Lan- 
cashire he is viewed in the light of Orcus, or Hades, and 
is called Thruse, a connecting link between Thurs and 
Thrush. We find traces of him again in the word Thurs- 
house which Kennett describes as "a hollow vault in a rock 
that serves as a dwelling house to a poor family". The 
name evidently implying that the cave was the native haunt 
of the Thurse. I would remind you of the mixed character 
of Puck, as drawn by a master hand: 

Either I mistake your shape and making quite 
Or else you are that shrew'd and knavish sprite 
Called Robin-good-fellow. Are you not he 
That fright the maidens of the villagery; 
Skim milk; and sometimes labour in the quern, 
And bootless make the breathless housewife churn, 
And sometimes make the drink to bear no barm; 
Mislead night-wanderers, laughing at their harm; 
Those that Hobgoblin call you and sweet Puck, 
You do their work, and they shall have good luck; 
Are you not he? 

Evidently then there exists a striking similarity of charac- 
ter in the Thurse and Puck. But this similarity might be 
accidental. Evidence is still required to prove that our an- 
cestors positively identified the Thurse with the Hobgoblin 
or Robin-good-felloiu so popular in their day. That link in 
the chain of evidence can be supplied. Wright furnishes 
us with the name Hob-thrush, and explains it as "an old 
name of a goblin or spirit'', and accordingly we tind the 
millepede bearing the designation Hob-thrush-louse. This is 


an approximation to Hob, the goblin. But all reasonable 
doubt respecting the identity of the two spirits should be 
removed, when we learn that Huloet (1552) supplies us 
with another synonyme for the Cheslip, Robm-yood-felloivs- 

That the Saxon Thyrs is the true prototype of Puck ap- 
pears at least highly probable. Robin-good-fellow had un- 
doubtedly been introduced to the reading world before the 
creation of the Midsummer-night's Dream, but in a coarser 
form ; and our great poet seems to have employed the gross 
materials, but, with his marvellous genius, to have trans- 
muted them into gold, and stamped them with his imperial 

In the passage quoted above Mouffet interprets Thuralotw 
by the phrase 'Jocial lice'. In this he was apparently wa- 
vering between two opinions. He was evidently acquainted 
with the popular tradition that associated the name with 
"a spirit that was not hurtful"; but as a literary man he 
was also fully conscious that the scholars of his time, 
probably ignorant of the current superstition, sought for an 
explanation of the term in the god Thor, or Jupiter. This, 
the bookworm's view of the word , is clearly stated by Skin- 
ner, who adds a remarkable excuse for associating the Thun- 
derers name with so lowly and undignified an animal. He 
writes: "Thurselice, Millepedes, Aselli, nnaxni, a Thor 
priscorum Saxonum et Gothorum Jove, q. d. Joviales vel 
Jovi sacri pediculi. Et sane hoc animalculum licet aspectu 
sordidmn , tainen ob eximias virtutes qtiibtis contra Calculum, 
Ictenim, Ophthalmiam, et alios morbos pollet, dignum est 
quod Jovi consecretur."' 

I may remark that I have been unable to meet with any 
account of this Saxon goblin in those works to which L 
naturally referred for such information, viz. Brand's Anti- 
quities, Hones' Every Day Book, Wright's Essays on the 
Lit. and Superstitions of England in the Middle Auvs, Ar. &-. 
The Thnrse seems to have been overlooked. 




As the number of linguistic families is so very great 
in Asia and Europe alone there are about thirty , it is 
but a natural question, whether some of these families, each 
of them taken as a whole, may not stand to one another 
in a more remote yet traceable relationship. 

Several attempts in this sense have been made to connect 
our own family with the Semitic. However, they were at- 
tended with so little success, that, besides being failures in 
themselves, they have thrown this whole branch of linguistic 
enquiry into discredit. More especially the undeniable points 
of resemblance between the Semitic and certain African 
families of speech, though repeatedly brought forward by 
scholars of no small merit, have not been considered by the 
general mass of philologists with that degree of attention which 
they certainly deserve. Thus Bunsen and Schwartze pointed 
out the salient traces of relationship between Koptic and 
Semitic, but they maintained at the same time that the 
Semitic family was also related to our own. This latter 
being an untenable doctrine, the former theory of theirs 
also met with only a very indifferent reception on the part 
of their fellowlabourers in the domain of linguistic science. 
It is true that Benfey, who first called attention to the nu- 
merous coincidences of Egyptian and Semitic, and Newman, 
who showed that the Berber is allied to the Semitic, did 
not bring in the Indogernian family. Nevertheless they too 
have been little regarded, partly no doubt because the truth 
they teach is not given by them without some alloy of spu- 
rious metal. Under these circumstances, and considering 
moreover that none of these writers has embraced in his 
comparison at once all the sisterfamilies of the Semitic, I 
deem it not unnecessary to go over this ground again, 
especially as I have to bring to light some new facts that 
seem hitherto to have escaped general observation. The end 
J aim at in this matter is, not to give a great number of 


doubtful comparisons, but a few facts that are in my 
opinion decisive. At the end of this enquiry into the sis- 
terfamilies of the Semitic, I shall add the other instances 
of a similar relationship that I have found, with more or less 
certainty, in other quarters of the globe. They are however 
few, and being so, hold out no hope that every family of 
human speech may one day turn out a relation of some 
other family, far less do they justify a belief in the pos- 
sibility of establishing the mutual relationship of all linguistic 
families. On the contrary, whatever may be a man's belief 
concerning the historical unity of all languages, let it be re- 
membered that scientific enquiry is unable to countenance 
it in any way. No such attempt at the impossible was con- 
templated even from afar by the present writer. 

The three sisterfamilies of the Semitic are the Saho-Galla, 
the Berber, and the Egyptian. 


It has not been overlooked by Ewald (Journal for the 
Knowledge of the Orient, V, 410 sq.) that the Saho, a lan- 
guage of upper Abyssinia first made known by the French 
traveller Abbadie, has a certain similarity with the Semitic, 
and consequently he calls it at once a Semitic dialect; how- 
ever with the prudent qualification, that the separation from 
the Semitic stock must have taken place in an unmeasurably 
high antiquity ('unermessliche Urzeit', 1. c. p. 421). Since 
then, by Tutschek's labours, we have become acquainted with 
the Galla; and I can hardly doubt that Ewald, had he known 
anything of the latter language, would have modified his 
view of the Saho so as to say, that this language is nearly 
related to the Galla, and that both in spite of unmis- 
takeable Semitic features differ by far too much from 
it to constitute with it one family, in the same sense as 
the different Indogerman languages do. The scanty in- 
formation on the Saho showed indeed the similarity with 
the Semitic, but the difference was not clearly perceived. 
It will be therefore my task at present, to put both equally 
in full relief. This task comprehends three stages. First 


it must be shown, that the Saho and Galla are very near re- 
lations; secondly, that the Saho-Galla family thus found 
offers points of resemblance with the Semitic which could 
not be explained by loans; and thirdly, that nevertheless 
the differences of both forbid us to call them one family 
in the proper sense of the term. 

First, the dictionary of the Saho, although at present very 
insufficiently known, shows some quite peculiar points of 
coincidence with the Galla, compare 


bol, abyss bola, hole, cavity, pit, grave 

rob, rain ro6a, it is raining 

af, mouth a fan, mouth 

kafa, to-day gafa, day. 

This indeed taken separately is not very much , but somewhat 
more important is the similarity exhibited by the personal 

/ thou he she ice you they 

SAHO anu atu usuk (?) ishe nanu atin usun 

GALLA ani ati iza ('him') iz'in nu izin izan 

But still far more important is the conjugation. 

All the tenses of the Galla originate from the present, 
with which must be compared the form of the Saho called 
future by Abbadie. It ought to be remarked that in Galla, 
as in Saho, the third pers. mscl. sing, and the first pers. sing, 
have no termination. Compare 


sing. 1. beta 'I shall eat' adema { I walk' 

2. bet-ta adem-ta 
3.msc. beta adema 

3. fern, bet-ta adem-ti 
pi. 1. ben-na adem-na 

2. bet'tan adem-tu, J-tan-1 before the suffixed 

3. bet-an adem-u, \-an- / i, see below. 

But the Galla has also an aorist, which is formed by 
adding to the presential form E, or /, before which the con- 
cluding vowels are rejected, and in the plural 2. 3. the ap- 
parently older forms of the terminations TAN, AN appear. 
The same tense is found in Saho, compare 



sing. 1. bet-e '!/<r}'0' adem-e 'fflrjv' 

2. het-t-e adem-t-e 

3. m. bet-e adem-e 
3. f. bet-t-e adem-t-e 

|)lnr. 1. ben-n o adem-n-e 

2. bet-ten adem-tan-i 

3. bet-en adein-an-i. 

In Saho the 2. 3. ps. pi. seem to stand for -tani, -ani, the i 
at the end having caused an infection ('Umlaut') of a into 
e, and then having been lost. 

While the vowel a is the characteristic termination of the 
present, i (<?) that of the aorist, the third original vowel 
u (o) is added to the forms of the Galla present, in order 
to form a subjunctive mood, which Tutschek however has 
partly brought under the imperative, and which besides 
takes for its second and third person plural the correspond- 
ing forms of the aorist. Abbadie gives in his Saho-irnpera- 
tive several forms, that are evidently counterparts of this 
subjunctive, being framed by adding o to the forms of the 
future, compare 


sing. 1. adem-u 

2. adem-t-u 

3. m. bet-o adem-u 
3. f. bet-t-o adem-t-u 

plur. 1. ben-n-o adem-n-u 

2 1 

> (aorist instead) 
3. bet-ona J 

In the third pers. plural of the Saho, ona seems to stand 
for an original ano, the o having entered the preceding syl- 
lable by a sort of 'Umlaut' (see the aorist, above). 

The imperative of both these languages has only two 
forms, but they correspond closely to each other, in as 
much as they both lack the characteristic t of the indicative 
present; compare 


sing. 2. bet adenii 

plur. 2. beta adeina. 

This is at present all that can be said regarding the close 


relationship of Saho and Galla, but it is indeed very much, 
especially if we bear in mind that with what has been said, 
our knowledge of the Saho is nearly exhausted. 

We come now to the second point, the relation of the Galla 
family to the Semitic. 

First, the present of the Galla or future of the Saho is the 
same as the so called perfect of the Semits; compare the 
terminations : 

sing. 1. 2.m. 2.f. 3.m. 3.f. pi. 1. 

J GALL A ta ti na 

\SAHO ta ta na 

("ARABIC tu ta ti at na 

\HEBREW ti ta t(i) at l nu 

pi. 2.m. 2.f. 3.111. 3.f. 

I GALLA tu (tan-i) u (an-i) 

\SAHO tan an 

("ARABIC turn tunna u 

\HEBREW tern ten 3 ^(un 1 ) 

The coincidence is striking, the only and indeed a charac- 
teristicdifference being the absence of any termination of 
the 1. sing, in Saho and Galla. 

But even a form corresponding to the Semitic imperfect 
has been preserved, not indeed in Galla, but in Saho. Namely 
this: Abbadie gives us of the verb 'to be' (the present of 
which shows a root ki or kin) both the future and preterite, 
which we need only put opposite the Semitic imperfect to 
see at once the coincidence. 




e-kke 'I was' 

a-kke 'I shall he' 



2. m. 

} te-kke 







j a-ktulu 










n a-kke 




| te-kki-n 



ti-kt 61-na 

3. m. 


\ je-kki-u 



[ji-kf 61-na 3 ] 

1 old. 

3 Before suffixes tu, mscl. and feni. 

3 Commonly ti-k'tol-nd. The other form is very rare. 

BY DR. ('. I.OTTNER. 25 

It is quite unnecessary to make a long talk about the 
analogy with the Semitic, it is clear as the sun. 

Another point of resemblance is the gender. Like the 
Semitic, the Saho-Galla has two genders, which however are 
only distinguished in the third person sing., but quite after 
the Semitic fashion. Already in the conjugation we found 
in the third person a t as the characteristic sign of the 
feminine, both in the suffixed ti of the Galla present, and 
the prefixed t of the future and aorist of the verb substan- 
tive in Saho. The Galla adjectives frequently add a similar 
suffix in the feminine, as hama 'bad', fern, ham-tu; hieza 
'poor', fern. hie-ti l . T is also the characteristic of the 
Semitic feminine. 

The comparison of the Semitic languages with one another 
shows that the original character of the plural is UN, as 
well in the verb as in the noun. This UN becomes m or 
an in Aramean, in the Hebrew verbs and pronouns partly 
u, partly em, en. In the Saho and Galla verb we find the 
plural character u, an, (i)n clearly enough; which forms 
point back to the same original UN. 

Here now would be the place to treat of the pronouns, 
in as much as they too are very much like the Semitic. 
But this is on the one hand apparent at once from the verbal 
personal prefixes and suffixes being identical, and on the 
other hand the isolated pronouns of the Saho-Galla are some- 
what phonetically decayed , so that they alone would not be 
sufficient evidence for the Semitic relationship. I therefore 
prefer to treat of them afterwards, embracing at once in one 
comparative view all the sisterfauiilies of the Semitic. What 
has been brought forward , is sufficient to establish the con- 
nection between Saho-Galla and Semitic. 

The connection. For nevertheless we cannot call them at 
once Semitic languages, because the points of coincidence 
are counterbalanced by contrasts equally striking. Thus the 
curious tripartition of the present tense by means of the three 
original vowels into present, aorist, subjunctive (adema, 

1 The is lost before t, according to an invariable phonetic law. 


ademe, ademu, s. above), is unsemitic 1 , and so is the dif- 
ferentiation of the tense that corresponds to the Semitic 
imperfect, into two, by giving the prefixes now the vowel 
, and now a. More vital still is the diversity in the for- 
mation of the derivative verbs , which are made in Galla by 
adding sufiixes; as bd, to go, batfa, to go out for one's 
self, ba-za, to cause to go out, ba-facfa, to let go out, 
drive out for one's self, baziza, to cause to let go out, 
drive away, bazizafada, to cause to let go out for one's 
self, &c. &c. Again, the triliteral roots are entirely unknown 
to the Galla, in which apparently at least most roots 
are disyllables, but the vowel is always an integral part of 
them, and not liable to the symbolical vowel-changes so 
characteristic of Semitic speech. Minor differences are, the 
lesser extent of the gender, the want of a termination in 
the first person sing, pres., the total absence of the Arabic 
caseterminations, which have not only left traces in Hebrew 
and even Aramean, but of late have been discovered too 
in the Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions, and must therefore 
have belonged to the original Semitic. 

As in the grammar, so also in the dictionary, the individuality 
of the Galla is very strongly marked. How very great the 
difference is in this respect which is all the more remark- 
able because of the close resemblance of the Semitic lan- 
guages properly so called in their roots and words, is 
evident from the fact that not one of the Galla numerals 
resembles the Semitic. 

Thus to the thesis: "the Saho- Galla is related to the Se- 
mitic" we have the antithesis: "yet they are not one family". 

Thereby we are forced, in order to express this particular 
relationship, to introduce into linguistic science the new 
term of sisterfamilies ; or, to apply ourselves more especially 
to the case in hand, we must assume, that one aboriginal 
nation developed their common speech up to the point of 
common verbal inflexion, common signs of plural and femi- 

1 Compare however the cohortative imperfect in Hebrew, made by 
adding (A) to the original forms. 


nine, common pronominal forms, that afterwards one branch 
of this aboriginal nation continued the forming process of 
speech after their own fashion, by which the original Semitic 
was evolved, while on the other hand in the same manner 
an original Saho-Galla was produced, both f the two in 
their turn of course long after their first separation - 
branching off into individual languages. 

(To be continued.) 


In the Vision of Piers Plouhman (Wright's edition) we 
find the following passages in which this singular word occurs. 

A. The culorwn of this cas 

Kepe I noght to telle, 
On aventure it noyed men, 
Noon ends wol I make. vv. 1927-31. 

B. Ac I wene it worth of rnanye, 
As \vas in Noes tyme, 
Tho he shoop that shipe 
Of shides and of hordes ; 

Was nevere wrighte saved that wroghte theron, 
Ne oothir werkman ellis, 
But briddes and beestes. 

Of wightes that it wroghte 

Was noon of hem y-saved. 

God leve it fare noght so bi folk 

That the feith techeth! 

Of holi chirche, that herberwe is 

And Goddes hous to save 

And shilden us from shame therinne, 

As Noes ship did beestes; 

And men that maden it 

A-inydde the flood a-dreynten. 

The Culorum of this clause 

Curatours is to mene, 


That ben carpenters holy kirk to make 

For Cristes owene beestes: 

Homines et jumenta salvabis, Domine , (fee. 

Ibid. vv. 6415-41. 

In the curious alliterative Poem on the Deposition of 
Richard II, edited by Mr. Wright for the Camden Society in 
1838, two other instances are found. 

C. And thouj that elde opyn it (i. e. this book) other while araonge, 
And poure on it prevyly, and preve it well after. 
And constrewe ich clause with the cutorwn, 
It should not apeire hem a peere, a pry nee thou$ he were, 
Ne harme nother hurte the hyghest of the rewme. p. 3. 

The next passage occurs in the satirical description of the 
"famous parliament which surrendered so readily to Richard 
the privileges of his country". 1 

D. And somme were tituleris, and to the kyng wente, 
And fformed him of foos , that good ifrendis waren , 
That bablid ffor the best, and no blame served, 
Of kynge ne conceill, ne of the comunes nother, 
5 Ho so toke good kepe to the culorum; 

And somme slombrid and slepte, and said but a lite; 

And some were so soleyne, and sad of her wittis, 
That er they come to the clos acombred they were, 
9 That thei the conclucioun than constrewe ne couthe 
No burne of the benche, of borowe nother ellis, 
So blynde and so ballid and bare was the reson. Ibid. p. 29. 

The editor leaves the word unexplained in his Glossaries 
to the two poems. Halliwell in his Dictionary explains it 
as, 'the conclusion, moral or corollary of a tale or nar- 
rative', and there can be very little doubt that this is cor- 
rect. The passage marked C is the only one where an 
uncertainty might find place, but a comparison with the 
5 th and 9 th lines of extract D, where the same phraseology 
is repeated with the substitution of the ordinary 'conclucioun' 
instead of 'culorum', which had been used just before, re- 
moves the difficulty. In B the ' culorum ' is declared to refer 
to the 'curatours', who correspond to the ' wrightes ' of the 

1 Editor's Preface p. vii. 


allegory which precedes , and in which they occupy the last 
or concluding place. A explains itself and need not be 
further noticed. 

The interpretation being thus settled, the next question 
is the etymology and origin of so singular a word. I be- 
lieve it to be nothing more nor less than a corrupted ab- 
breviation of the Latin word sceculorum, which forms tin* 
conclusion of the last phrase in the Paternoster, viz. et in 
scecula sa>culorum; our 'for ever and ever'. As the Pater- 
noster was and is the best known and most frequently re- 
cited of all prayers , its phrases became familiar to the ears 
of hundreds of persons, who could not have construed a 
line of it grammatically ; and it is perfectly natural to sup- 
pose that the sonorous syllables with which it terminates, 
may have been caught up by the ignorant laity and friars 
of the 'mumpsimus' order, and applied generally to denote 
the end or conclusion of anything. We have in our own 
language a singular parallel to this, derived from the same 
source, which goes a long way to confirm the suggestion 
I have hazarded. In many novels and other works of a 
light character the words 'kingdom come'' , which form the 
third clause of our version of the Lord's Prayer, are not 
unfrequently employed, without respect of grammar, as 
a synonym for the next world or a future state. "If 
this place (or mine) blows up, we shall all go to king- 
dom come in a jift'ey" is the prevailing type of sentence, 
in which the phrase occurs; and any one who has Levers 
novels within reach could no doubt easily pick out half-a- 
dozen authentic instances. The parallel here is singularly 
close; the source is the same in both cases; there is the 
same want of respect for grammatical laws, which proves 
that neither can be looked on as a quotation-, and the only 
difference between them is one of which the absence would 
have been as remarkable as the presence, viz. that 'sivcu- 
lonim' , belonging to a dead language, unintelligible to all 
but few, has suffered corruption and mutilation, while the 
latter phrase, consisting of two very common words and be- 
ing of comparatively recent introduction, has retained its 


original form. The word 'rendezvous' , now a simple sub- 
stantive both in English and French , but formerly a French 
phrase or sentence, is another instance in point; and the 
same may be said of 'legerdemain^. Other less striking 
examples could no doubt easily be found. 



1. Figurative derivations from the notion of STAMMERING. 

The idea of bungling, imperfect, impeded action is com- 
monly expressed by the figure of stammering, stuttering, 
imperfect, impeded speech, an image which obviously ad- 
mits with great facility of oral representation. By further 
abstraction the expression often comes to signify impediment, 
hindrance, restraint, defeat. 

The first step in the foregoing train of development is 
from the conduct of the voice to that of the body in walk- 
ing, from imperfect speech to a vacillating gait, which are 
often designated either by the same term or by modifica- 
tions so slight as to leave no doubt of original identity. 
Thus we have Lat. titubare lingua, titubare gressu, as in 
English faltering lips %b& frittering steps; Sc. hamp, to stutter 
and hamp, to halt in walking; Sc. habble, to stutter, E. 
hobble, to limp, to totter; Swiss staageln, to stammer, E. 
to staqqer: G. stammeln* to stammer, E. to stumble* both of 

t/7 ' 7 / 

which are expressed by Sw. stappla; Portuguese taiaro, 
stuttering, E. to totter. 

A large number of expressions for the imperfect speech 
of infancy, stammering, and the related ideas, are formed 
from a combination or repetition of the simplest articula- 
tions, ba, fa, ma, ha, ga; as babble, habble, gabble, haffle, 
fa/le, maffle, mammle (mamelen, to mumble, mutter Prompt. 
Parv.), } amble, from whence may be explained many ex- 
pressions the figurative origin of which has passed entirely 
out of view. 


It must be observed that the imperfect speech of infancy 
connects the idea of mumbling, slobbering, stammering on 
the one side, with that of prattle, purposeless, idle, jesting- 
talk, trifling occupation on the other. Thus we have Du. 
babelen, to babble, speak imperfectly or confusedly, also to 
mumble or chew with toothless jaws; babbcn, to babble, 
trifle, jest P. Marin; Kil. ; Fr. baboyer, to blabber with 
the lips, to famble, to falter Cot.; Ptg. babarse, to slobber, 
stammer, gabble; Fr. haver, to slaver, also to falter or 
famble in speaking, also to toy, trifle, jest; bavasse, an 
idle tale, bible-babble; bavarder, to drivel, to babble, also 
to scoff or flout at Cot.; Rouchi baflier, befler, to slaver, 
bafliou, a stammerer. Here the inarticulate, purposeless 
babble of infancy is applied to express trifling, jesting, 
scoffing, explaining the step from Rouchi baflicr, befler, to 
slaver or stammer, to Fr. beffler, to mock or gull with fair 
words Cot., and It. beffa, a trifle, jest, mock Fl. The 
same train of thought would lead from Prov. E. boffle, to 
stammer from anger, buffle, to speak thick and inarticulately, 
to handle clumsily, buff, to stammer Hal., to E. ba/le, to 
trifle, to work ineffectually, and in a factitive sense, to 
cause another to work ineffectually, to foil his efforts. "To 
what purpose can it be to juggle and baffle for a while" 
Barrow. Baffliny winds are variable winds ineffectual to 
a settled purpose. Pa/ling , trifling, idle, silly; bqffle, to 
change, to vary, to prevent from doing a thing Hal. In 
the same way we have fa/le, to stutter or stammer (and 
in a secondary sense) to fumble, to trifle Hal. Hence 
may be explained Fr. faufeleur, babbler, trifler, faufelue, 
faufeluchc, trifle, toy Koquef., and perhaps fait/Her, to baste 
or stitch in a superficial manner, where the reference to 
false sewing {faux and jil, thread) may offer a deceitful 
clue. Compare the expression of slubbering up a piece of 
work, doing it in a hasty superficial way from the figure 
of slobberint/. 

Again Du. ma/den, moffekii Kil., Prov. E. ma/le, to 
stammer, to mumble: -muff, to speak indistinctly; ino/le, 
to do anything badly or ineffectually Hal., and (like ba/le) 


in a factitive sense, to muffle, to render ineffectual, "to 
envelope so as to impede, embarrass or prevent the action 
of the distinct parts" Richardson. Hence Du. mo/el, E. 
muff, a warm wrapping for the hands ; and from the notion 
of indistinct, purposeless speech, maffling, ma/lard, a simple- 
ton, muff , a stupid fellow Hal. The opposite arrangement 
of the consonantal sounds gives f amble, to stammer ("sta- 
rneren other famelen" Hal.), and thence fumble, to do any- 
thing in an imperfect bungling manner ; Dan. famle , to grope. 
Prov. E. haffle, to falter, stammer, prevaricate; havering, 
unsettled, unsteady; to hafer, to stand higgling; to haver, 
to talk nonsense; havcrit, a simpleton. Sc. habble, habber, 
to stutter; to hobble or hobble, to cobble or mend clumsily 
Jam. E. hobble, to limp, to get along with difficulty; 
hoppling, tottering, moving weakly and unsteadily Hal.; 
hobble, a position of difficulty, where our action is hampered 
by circumstances. To hobble or hopple a horse, to impede 
its action, to tie its legs to prevent its straying. Sw. happla, 
to stammer, hesitate, to be at a loss; Du. haperen, to stam- 
mer, to stick fast, to boggle. Zyn les zonder haperen op- 
zeggen, to say his lesson without boggling, as in Sc. to 
habble up a lesson, to say it confusedly. G. Woran hapert 
es dennf what hinders it, where does it stick? Kiittner. 
Du. hapering, hindrance. The insertion of the nasal gives 
E. hamper, to impede, restrain, entangle; Du. hompelen, 
to totter, stumble; Pl.D. humpelen, to hobble, limp, bungle, 
E. himple, to halt. 

In E. hamel, to limpHal., O.N. hamla, to impede, re- 
strain, disable, the intrusive nasal has swallowed up the 
consonant of which it was originally a mere supporter. To 
hamel or hamble dogs was to disable them from poaching 
by cutting out the ball of the foot, and G. hammeln, to castrate 
sheep, has doubtless the same origin. In the same way 
Sc. hamp, to stutter and also to limp Jain. Supp., leads 
to Sw. hamma, G. hemmen, E. hem, to restrain, stop the 
course of, confine. The hem of a garment is that which 
binds it round and hinders it from ravelling out. 

A similar relation is seen between Sw. stamina, to stammer. 


and stdmma, to stanch, dam, stop. To stem the flood, to 
restrain, oppose it. To the same root belong G. stummeln, 
to mutilate; stiimpeln, stumpvm, to bungle, to speak broken 

To boggle, in the sense of making difficulties, has been 
erroneously explained by me as the action of one frightened 
at a ghost or bogle. But the analogy of the foregoing series 
of words expressing difficulty, hindrance, impediment, leave 
little doubt that baggie or boggle is a similar form with 
babble, gabble, gaggle, originally signifying to stutter, whence 
Fr. begue, stammering, begayer, to stammer, corresponding 
to Ptg. gago, gaguejar, in the same senses; baglon, a gag, 
from the stuttering, inarticulate noises made by the person 
whose mouth is stopped. The original form is preserved 
in 0. N. bagla, in the figurative sense of bungling, imperite 
construere, Haldorsen. Hence bagr, bogulegr, clumsy, awk- 
ward; bdgu-mwli, faulty speech, bcegi-fotr, club footed; 
bcegia, baga, bagga, to hinder. Hvad baggar homim, what 
hinders him, what does he boggle at. Gael, bac, hinder, 
restrain; bacach, crippled, lame; bacag, a stumble; bacail, 
an obstacle, hindrance, explaining Fr. bacler, to bar the 
way, to bolt. 


When we inquire into the meaning of obsolete terms de- 
signating objects of natural history, we are often misled 
by looking for an accuracy of application like that we are 
accustomed to at the present day. In early times however 
a striking character of the most superficial nature was often 
made the basis of nomenclature, and thus a variety of species 
which would be widely separated in any systematic arrange- 
ment, are confounded under a common name. The name 
of dock for example was given to any plant having large 
broad leaves, as the common dock, burdock, and A. S. 
ea-docca ( Swab, ivasser-docklein ) , the water lily , plants of 
no botanical relationship according to our present notions. 
For the same reason the Norse heste-hov (horse-hoof) is 
applied to our colts-foot as well as the water lily, and in 
like manner the term wood-wale or witwaU. Du. weede-wael, 


was given to different birds of which the most striking 
characteristic was their yellow or greenish yellow colour, 
from Du. iveede, E. wad, woad, weld, iveed, terms which 
singularly enough were used to signify both a blue and a 
yellow dye. Du. weed, glastum, isatis, luteum Kil. ; It. 
guado, woad to dye blue with, dyers weed, wad, any 
greening weed to dye yellow with (where weed must not 
be confounded with the ordinary sense of a noxious herb) 

The term weede-wael is explained by Kilian galgulus, gal- 
bula, chlorion, icterus, avis lurida, all terms signifying a 
bird of a yellow or greenish yellow colour. At the present 
day the name woodwal , witwal, whetile, is provincially ap- 
plied to different species of wood-peckers, having no doubt 
been applied in the first instance to the green wood-pecker, 
but when the name was no longer significant to English 
ears, extended to the pied species with respect to which 
it has no etymological propriety. In our old ballad poetry 
however the bird thus designated was classed among the 

The woodwele sang and would not cease, 

Sitting upon the spray, 

So loud he wakened Robin Hood 

In the green wood where he lay. 

And so in Chaucer we find mention of 

And alpes (bull-finches) and finches and woodwahs. 

Among birds of this class the designation would apply 
only to the greenfinch and yellowhammer, and was pro- 
bably used indifferently of either of them, like the Du. 
geelgerse (given by Kilian as a synonym of weedewaeT), or 
the Fr. verdier, although Cotgrave makes a distinction between 
verdier, the greenfinch, and verdrier, the yellowhammer. 

The greenfinch and yellowhammer are both mentioned 
by Bewicke among the class of cuckolled birds or those in 
whose nest the cuckow lays a surreptitious egg. Thus the 
Witwal or Wittal, as it was often written, (godano, a wittal, 
a woodwall Altieri) would afford a natural type of an in- 


jured husband. The Picard Innjan , a greenfinch or yellow- 
hammer (vcrdon Hecart) , is in like manner used in the 
sense of cuckold. It is true that u-ittol is commonly explained 
a contented cuckold, but this is probably a theoretical sense 
from the supposition that the word was derived from A.S. 
H'i/fol, srit'tis. sapiens Som. It is certainly often used 
\\ithout implying any acquiescence on the part of the hus- 
band in his own misfortune. 

They say the jealous wittolly knave hath masses of money. 

Merry Wives of W. 

The same metaphor is seen in Mid. Lat. curmca^ which 
in its primary sense is used by Kilian in the rendering 
of Du. geelgome, the synonym of \aeedewael or E. witwall. 
Then figuratively for a cuckold or wittol. "Curruca, adul- 
terae maritus" Kil. " Curruca est avis &c, vel ille qui 
cum credat nutrire filios suos, nutrit alienos dudendop vel 
hanrei" Dief. Supp. I have little doubt that the G. lutlmrri 
which has so much puzzled etymologists , has been a name 
of the hedge-sparrow. 


O.Fr. yamboison, gambeson, wainbais , a wadded coat or 
frock worn under a coat of mail, or sometimes alone as 
armour of defence. "Armati reputabantur qui galeas ferreas 
in capitibus habebant, et qui wambaxia, id est tunicam 
spissam ex lino et stuppa et veteribus pannis consutaui." 
-- Uiron. de Colmar in Diet Etyrn. G. wamms, a doublet. 

Commonly derived from O.H. G. wamba, the wame or 
belly, as signifying a defence for the belly, but this ex- 
planation is founded on too narrow a meaning of the word, 
which was applied to other wadded structures as well as a 

Raymond des Agiles in his history of the siege of Jeru- 
salem says that the walls were protected against the machines 
of the besiegers by mattrasses, "culcitris de gambasio*'. In 
a bull of Innocent IV it signifies a waddod rug, ^Abbates 
quoque in dormitorio cum aliis super wumbilio* jaceant" 
Carpentier. "Tunicas garnbesatas sive ganibesones" Carp. 
i; Cotes, houppelandes gamboisiees" Due. 



The word is in fact a simple adoption of Gr. fta/ttftaxiov 
or ftaf-tftaxivov , a fabric stuffed with cotton. The Gr. ft 
being pronounced like a v, was rendered in the Western 
languages sometimes by a 6, and sometimes by 10 passing 
into g. The latter mode of writing gave rise to forms like 
wambasia or gambeso , while the former produced It. bam- 
basina, bambacina, any bumbaste in stuff or cloth (i.e. any 
stuff wadded with bumbaste or cotton) Fl. Now bombici- 
nium like gamboison was specially applied to a wadded jacket, 
"Bombicinium, pourpoin vel aqueton pourpoinz fait de coton" 
Gl. in Carp. "Ab hoc nomine quod est bumbace dicitur 
bumbacinum quod est Gallice pourpoinz " John de Garlandia. 
It should be observed that the synonymous hacqueton, au- 
queton, hoqueton, Prov. alcoto, is named in the same way 
from the cotton with which it is stuffed. 


Hansel, or more fully good-hansel, is an earnest, something 
given or done to make good a contract. In the way of 
good-hansel, de bon erre Palsgrave in Hal. Gossips feasts, 
as they term them good-hansel-feasts Withals, ibid. Then 
applied to the first use of a thing viewed as ratification of 

The formation of the word (hand and A. S. sellan, syllan, 
O.N. selia, to give, bestow, deliver) has been commonly 
misunderstood as if it signified delivery of possession, giv- 
ing a thing into the hand of another. The real import is 
a striking of hands, giving of the hand in token of con- 
clusion , making the expression synonymous with A. S. hand- 
fcestan, to pledge one's hand; Sc. handfast, to betroth by 
joining hands Jam.; O.N. Handsal, stipulatio manufacta, an 
agreement upon which hands have been joined, and hence 
a signet-ring as the sign of confirmation; handsala, fidem 
dextra stipulari, to join hands on it. 

From handsal, a contract, were named the Handsals- 
stadir, the Hanse-Towns, a confederation of towns on the 
Baltic and North Sea united by mutual pledges for the 
security of trade. When the term became a proper name 
the real meaning of the word seems to have fallen out of 


sight, leading to a mutilation, to Hansa, Hanse, which 
\v;is applied to other mercantile corporations, and was sup- 
posed to signify an association. Fr. J/a-/Wj a company, 
society or corporation of merchants (for so it signifies in 
the book of the ordonnances of Paris, and in some other 
old books); also an association with, or the freedom of the 
Hanse , also the fee or fine which is paid for that freedom. 
HanKi'i', to make free of a civil company or corporation 
Cotgr. G. hdnscln, to hansel, to initiate a novice Kiittner. 
Here it will be observed we apparently get back to the 
original form of the word, but in reality the second syllable 
of the German verb is the usual frequentative termination 
instead of the element signifying delivery in the 0. N. handsal 
or E. hansel. 


Before I reach the proper subject of this paper, I wish 
to say a few preliminary words as to the nature of the 
communication I am about to make. Several evenings of 
discussion in the earlier part of the present year have re- 
sulted in the production of a series of Rules and Canons, 
by means of which a definite shape and outline has been 
given to our work , and the Editor's functions brought within 
what seemed to some too narrow limits. However notwith- 
standing the supposed stringency of the fetters thus imposed, 
it must have been obvious to every one that numerous minor 
difficulties would necessarily from time to time present them- 
selves to the mind of a man engaged in so complicated a 
task , and that for these difficulties a solution must be found 
somehow; but the Canons did not attempt to indicate any 
source of information or advice which would meet all the 
exigencies of the case. Under these circumstances I feel 
that I cannot do better than assume for myself in Chancery 
phrase 4 liberty to apply', and request the Society, if not 


to decide, at any rate to ventilate the questions I may have 
from time to time occasion to submit to them by discussion ; 
philological matter, unlike physical, usually becomes clearer 
by shaking. 

The difficulty which forms my present subject may be 
stated briefly to be concerned with 'the exclusion of words'. 
Are we to include every word, which can anyhow claim a 
place on any pretext within the wide precincts of our Canons, 
or are there any circumstances or conditions which may so 
affect a particular word as to render it inadmissible, not- 
withstanding it has passed without what I shall take leave 
to term 'canonical' objection. And here I would just remind 
those who may have forgotten it that, supposing such power 
of exclusion to be conceded, we do not expose ourselves 
to any charge of inconsistency or desertion of principle, 
inasmuch as in our Prospectus (p. 3) there is reserved a dis- 
cretion, to be cautiously used no doubt, but still real and 
exerciseable in this very thing. 

Now in answer to my own query I maintain that instances 
of such words do occur, and that it will be in the proper 
decision of these ambiguities that the Editor's judgment will 
be most severely taxed. I have found it difficult, indeed 
impossible , to reduce the various examples I have met with 
to a single class, but those I shall give will sufficiently il- 
lustrate my meaning even in the absence of a logical de- 

I. In the first place then come a number of words, which 
are not exactly slang, because they are free from any con- 
tortion either of form or meaning; nor pedantic coinages of 
an affected author, such as ' palmiferous " , 'medioxumous', 
&c., but yet seem to acknowledge a kind of relationship to 
both the foregoing classes. Perhaps the phrase 'Vocabular 
Parodies' would come nearer, as a short definition, than 
any other, but here is an example. The phrase 'Your 
Lordship' is of course perfectly familiar to us as the proper 
mode of addressing any nobleman under the rank of Duke. 
Nash however in his tract called "Pierce Penniless", having 
thought fit to commence with a solemn invocation of Satan, 


addresses him throughout as 'Your Devilship'. Is such a 
word as l Devilship' to be admitted? Consider its claims 
a little, and see what there is against them, remembering 
always that in such a scheme as ours, every word is prima 
i'acie to be looked upon as admissible, till its inadmissibility 
be satisfactorily established. That it is a (iic.^ foyouevov, 
is nothing against it such is the Shaksperian 'gallow', so 
is Burton's 'diverb' in the sense of 'proverb'; not to 
mention this, that the fact of a word's being a &&rtyo- 
nti'ov may be due to a mere accident. That it is an ugly, uncouth, 
or absurd word, is not necessarily against it; for the same may 
be said with equal justice of c septemfi uous ' and the numerous 
pedanticisms collected in pp. 6, 7 of the Dean of Westmin- 
ster's Essay, 2 d ed. Wherein then does the special ob- 
jection to 'Devilship' lie? In this, I answer, that it never 
was intended even by its author for general circulation or 
adoption, he uses it for the purpose of creating what might 
be termed an acoustic effect , a sort of surprise on the reader, 
which is perceptible enough when the word is read with 
its peculiar context, but which would be lost utterly or to 
a considerable degree by transplantation. Now, when H. 
More called the Nile a ' septemfluous ' river, he meant to 
imitate the terseness of a Latin epithet, which, he was 
aware, could not be done in English but by the adoption 
of the expedient of naturalizing the Latin word itself, and 
he would no doubt have been glad enough to have seen 
this and many of his other attempts received into public 
favour. With him indeed these experiments were seldom 
fortunate but Bentley succeeded in anglicizing several use- 
ful classicisms (idiom for instance) , which had to encounter 
a far more trying hostility from the Christ Church wits than 
was ever directed against the bantlings of the philosopher. 
Nash however, as I have said, evidently used the word 
'devilship' with a view of imparting a quaint comicality 
to a'particular piece of special extravagance, in which he 
was then allowing his pen to run riot. Both 'devilship' 
and septemfiuous" are of course in one sense coinages, 
but Nasli's only bears a private trade-mark, and is therefore 


rather of the nature of a medal than a coin: More's is a 
bona fide attempt to imitate with his own mint the literary 
currency then in use. And on this ground of speciality 
alone I contend that 'devilship' ought not to be received 
into any Dictionary, however wide its scope may be. Other 
examples are 'neckweed' in the phrase 'playster of neck- 
weed', meaning a halter, and 'Knaveship' is a parallel to 
'Devilship' in Pap with a Hatchet. 

II. Here too may be mentioned the numerous quaint verbs 
and past participles formed by prefixing 'be-' to substan- 
tives and verbs, such as 'be-stockinged', 'be-hatted', 'be- 
hugged', 'be-backed', (a word I saw not very long ago in 
a bookseller's catalogue, and intended no doubt for 're- 
backed'); and many playful or 'hypocoristic' terms, as they 
have been called, formed with such suffixes as '-kin', '-let', 
'-ling' &c., most of which are referrible to this category. 

I may in passing just mention another species of this 
word-genus , which employs an already formed and familiar 
word in an extraordinary and unexpected sense, which 
properly it could not bear according to the ordinary laws 
of the language. Thus Marprelate addresses the Primate 
as 'Your gracelessness of Canterbury', thereby creating a 
sort of imperfect pun. It is not however worth while to 
discuss the matter, because the word 'gracelessness', on 
which the author has operated, must come into the Dictionary 
in its own right, and when once there, it would be easy 
to note the quaintness, if sufficiently neat to deserve that 

III. Words such as I have been hitherto describing meet 
us first in the writings of Skelton, but are not much re- 
sorted to till we come to the writers of the numberless 
pamphlets and broadsides, which were produced during the 
latter half of Elizabeth's reign and the whole of that of her 
successor. Few examples, comparatively speaking, occur from 
the reign of Charles II to that of George IV, but withm the 
last 30 years the antipurist reaction which has set in, has 
stimulated the growth of these literary fungi with alarming 
rapidity. Southey's Doctor is an early instance of the kind 


of writing in which they are found witness such formations 
as 'cattery' for a collection of cats, t cattophilist", 'philo- 
felist', ' bonatidely ', and 'sinequanoiminess'; witness Sydney 
Smith's 'foolometer', Carlyle's 'whiskerage' , 'Correggio- 
sity', 'promenaderess', 'rainous', a vernacular rendering 
of the Revolution name for one of the months (Pluviose), 
and 'Youro Majesty', a parody on the German court form 
'ihro', Thackeray's 'snobonomer', Dickens's 'have-his- 
carcase', and a host of others, of which the number in any 
given work is usually in inverse proportion to the literary 
rank and standing of the author. 

IV. There is however another and quite distinct class of 
novelties imported by the writers of our own day, which 
perplex the Lexicographer even more than those I have 
hitherto been engaged with. I allude to a host of terms, 
chiefly derived from Greek or Latin, rivalling the worst of 
Henry More's in pedantry, very commonly malformations, 
owing to the utter ignorance of their authors of the laws 
of composition in the classical languages , and what is worst 
of all, introduced in cases where a word exactly expressing 
the sense required already exists in familiar use. Every 
one knows the meaning of the phrase 'visual organ' as a 
synonym for the eye, what then is gained by a modern 
writer's substitution of 'visive'? Why, when we possess 
'psychologist', are we to be troubled with 'psychologer'? 
why is 'disembarrass' to be discarded for 'debarrass", 
'tentative' for 'peirastic', 'monarchical' for 'monarchal" 
&c., or why should such terms be introduced at all into the 
language? I have no vague fear of new words, because they 
happen to be classical "or foreign, if they supply a want, 
and are formed with such deference to the laws of com- 
position which obtain in the language from which they are 
drawn, as to be intelligible at once and without hesitation 
to persons versed in that language 'orography' and 'urano- 
graphy' are just as useful as ' topography', or 'hydrography', 
or 'geography'; but I do strongly protest against the 
reception of words, which not only are not wanted, but by 
virtue of their malformation either mean nothing at all, or 


mean something totally different from that intended by 
the ingenious author. The attempt to justify this practice 
of altering words or coining new ones on the ground, that 
the rhythm of the particular sentence where they occur, 
happens to be improved and therefore requires such change, 
is an argument which to my mind simply proves the un- 
skilfulness of the writer in the use of his materials. A great 
writer may pardonably enough take a license once now and 
then with his language, but if every one who writes a book 
is to consider himself at liberty to snip pieces out of words 
or to add syllables to them according to his or her notions 
of rhythm, every new publication will soon have to be ac- 
companied with its glossary, just as it is now with its index 
or table of contents. 

V. It would be easy to go further on this subject and 
discuss the kindred question as to the admissibility of all 
books as authorities, whether all three-volume novels, ser- 
mons, tracts, and newspapers are of right to claim admit- 
tance, or can in fact be cited for any useful purpose what- 
ever. But the solution of the difficulty which has com- 
mended itself most to my mind, renders this unnecessary. 
All words belonging to the classes I have been describing 
in this article, I should propose to treat as probationers on 
trial; they should be carefully noted for the benefit of a 
second Edition of our work or of a future lexicographer, 
and even (if it was wished) printed in alphabetical order 
at the end of the Dictionary, as Forcellinus has done with 
his Antibarbarus, but not admitted into the columns of the 
Main Dictionary at present. And further it seems to me 
that words imperfectly naturalized, and which any particular 
author may have imported in their foreign garb, should be 
dealt with on the same principle had I lived in King James 
the First's reign and been commissioned to compile a dic- 
tionary for his Majesty's guidance, I should certainly have 
placed c dosis' and 'iclioma' (familiar as they are now to 
us in their English dress) in my list of ambiguities, and 
left it to my successor to give them promotion; and I see 
no reason, why expressions like VOVQ, ol nol.loi, ne plus 


ultra, or such as 'smor/audo", 'crescendo', 'pizzicato', 
'scherzo' &c., should not receive a similar treatment in the 
days of Queen Victoria. 

As I have no intention of converting these communica- 
tions into essays on Lexicography, I feel I had better leave 
the further discussion of the point I have raised to the col- 
lective wisdom of those from whom I am to receive an 
answer. I would just add that although I have indicated 
my own opinions on the matter clearly enough in what 
precedes, I am perfectly prepared to relinquish or modify 
them, if the general sense of the Society should be adverse 
to my views. I say this, because I should wish any dis- 
cussion which may arise upon the reading of this paper, 
to be conducted without reference to any private inclina- 
tions which I may be supposed to have in relation to the 
matter in question. 

The questions raised by Mr. Coleridge's Paper were dis- 
cussed and decided by the Meeting of the Society, before 
whom the Paper was read, on Nov. 8. The Members 
present thought that the main question was decided by the 
previous determinations of the Society and its Dictionary- 
Rules-Committee, that, except in very special cases, all 
words should be admitted into the proposed Dictionary; 
and though they allowed that a discretion was reserved to 
the Editor to exclude some words, they desired that it 
should be exercised sparingly. I. All the members present 
voted for the inclusion of Mr. Coleridge's instance devUshii^ 
and its class. II. As to the forms ' be -{- noun -{- ccV (be- 
stockiny-cd &c.), ten voted for the inclusion of the whole 
class , three for the exclusion of the less common words of 
the class, --some members not voting at all. III. Of the 
'literary fungi' mentioned by Mr. Coleridge, examples (since 
added in the Paper) were asked for; but it was decided 
that word-puns, such as /i<>j>utU>, vhepiatle, should be ex- 
cluded. IV. On this class of words (visual and cim-e, &c.) 
it was said that the business of the Dictionary-maker was 
to register the two equivalent forms, that others coming 


after might see which prevailed, or whether both continued 
to exist, becoming desynonymized or not. If an Editor 
did not like them, he might add some note of his dissent, 
but should not exclude them. Professor Key instanced Dr. 
Bentley in his Phalaris saying 'Why have you Oxford men 
introduced this new word 'signify' 1 when you already have 
a word which means the same thing'. Prof. Key also stated that 
at the first Meeting of this Society, in 1842, the members 
were about equally divided on the question, whether pliilo- 
loger (cf. astrologer, philosopher, astronomer, geographer &c.) 
or philologist was the right form. There was no doubt 
therefore that both forms should be registered in the Dic- 
tionary. As to disembarrass, debarrass; disembark, debark, 
a French visitor said that the words were not equivalent 
in French, that Ho remove an embarras' , and 'to clear 
things from a table', say; to disembark people only, and 
to debark people and goods &c., were different things, and 
that a Dictionary should notice whether the French distinc- 
tions had been kept, in the transfer to English use. V. The 
Antibarbarus plan was not approved, except as an interest- 
ing extract of words in the body of the Dictionary. And 
as to the Italian musical terms, they were to be inserted; 
but it was suggested that they should be treated as other 
terms of science and art; that when you import racing and 
steamboats into France &c., you import groom , stop-her &c. 
with them, and these words should be in a French Dic- 
tionary; that scherzo was a term for which we have no equi- 
valent in English, that crescendo has a metaphorical sense; 
and that as we must have in the Dictionary a sine-qua-non, 
a quorum, a nisi-prius argument &c., so certainly we ought 
to have scherzo &c. 




I venture to submit to the Members of the Philological 
Society a few observations on the present subject, from a 
belief that it has not hitherto received among us the at- 
tention which it deserves, and that consequently it is not, 
in general, clearly understood. 

Most people , indeed , are aware that verse has some con- 
nexion with time and numbers; but very few have any pre- 
cise ideas of the nature of this connexion, and still fewer 
are accustomed to apply such as they have to any practical 
purpose. The commonest notion probably, when number^ 
are spoken of in relation to verse, is, that the thing in- 
tended is the number of syllables of which it ought to con- 
sist; whether six, eight, or ten, to each line. 

Yet it is not, I conceive, that there is any thing really 
very profound, or difficult in this subject, but simply that 
it is neglected. One meets little notice of it either in books, 
or in conversation. It has no place in the instructions of 
our schools ; our critics are silent about it ; even our poetic 
authors themselves, except so far as guided instinctively 
by their ears, appear to make no account of it. In short, 
it is a branch of the poetic art, with which hardly any one 
seems to have formed any intimate acquaintance. 

RHYTHM, as I have here to speak of it, is the due ob- 
servance of time in the recitation of metre. It is therefore 
quite a practical thing, and evidently essential to the object 
for which metre is composed. It may be difficult to ex- 
plain why it is , that in all recurring sounds and movements, 
we naturally delight in the maintenance of some law of 
time: but such is the fact. It is thus that we sing, and 
dance, and play, and ring, and row. In all these recrea- 
tions, a rhythm, or law of time, governs our performances, 
and the least violation of it mars our enjoyment. 

Before proceeding to explain in what manner the principle 
of rhythm is applied to the recitation of metre, it will be 


expedient to make a few preliminary observations on the 
structure of this latter. 

The materials of verse , of course , are syllables , that is, 
articulate vocal sounds. Yet not every succession of such 
sounds will be susceptible of rhythm. If the sounds be all 
alike, and recur perpetually at uniform intervals, like the 
tolling of a bell, no rhythm will be indicated. To this end, 
the syllables must be varied by some distinctions; and they 
must exhibit some certain arrangement in regard to such dis- 
tinctions , which shall recur over and over again in continual 
succession. When this is done, the successive analogous 
groups of syllables, or, as they are commonly called, the 
feet of the metre, easily admit of being uttered in equal 
successive intervals of time-, which in fact, by their con- 
stitution, they go near to determine. Now it behoves the 
reciter of metre, in order to its producing its proper effect, 
actually to subject these metrical feet to a rule of strict 
isoTehrony, just as a performer of music does those bars to 
which they are strictly analogous. And whether in metre 
or music, it is the observance of time in the manner here 
described, which constitutes rhythm. It is however to be ob- 
served, that this law of rhythm must ever be held subject 
to one of a higher nature: that of the subjection of the 
sound to the sense. By this latter there will often be in- 
terspersed breaks and pauses , accelerations and retardations, 
by which the ordinary course of the rhythm will be sus- 
pended, or modified. 

The observance of the rhythm may take place mentally, 
that is without being assisted by any outward motions; and 
in recitation by a single person , such is the ordinary prac- 
tice. But where scholars are to be trained, or numerous 
reciters or performers have to take their parts together, as 
in dramatic or choral pieces , in such cases it is found use- 
ful, in order to ensure a regular observance of time, to 
indicate the rhythmical periods by certain motions of the 
hand or foot. Such is our own practice in music ; and such 
we know, from abundant evidence, to have been that of 
the ancient Greeks and Romans, not in musical perfor- 


mances only, but in metrical recitations very generally, and 
especially in the drama. They commonly guided the time, 
by an alternate raising and lowering of the foot: the former 
movement, which of course was -trithout. aovnd^ they called 
the fly 1 -* 1 /*, and the latter, which was n-'dk xomul, the then* 1 . 
Hence the latter was called by the Latins win*, and at these 
places the verse was sml /ortn, to be struck. Very properly, 
therefore, we find it stated by llakkheios, that "rhythm con- 
sists of arsis and thesis, with time" 2 . 

As the scope of the present paper is didactic rather than 
controversial, I shall not here enter into any discussion of 
certain questions which the mention of these terms may 
suggest. It is well known to scholars, that the terms w.s7* 
and thesis were sometimes applied by the ancient gram- 
marians, not only to the mechanical motions above spoken 
of, but likewise to the elevation or depression of the tones, 
or accents, of speech. As this circumstance has created 
some confusion, even among the learned, it seemed proper 
not to pass it altogether unnoticed. It will however be 
sufficient simply to have mentioned it. 

It has been already stated, that the observance of rhythm 
in the recitation of metre, presupposes the existence of 
some sort of distinction between the syllables of which the 
metre is composed. Now the syllabic distinctions with which 
we find the observance of metrical time to have been ac- 
tually connected, in the languages with which we are ac- 
quainted, are chiefly two: namely, those of tone or accent, 
and of quantity, or time. In the languages of modern Europe, 
our own included, the structure of metre, and consequently 
its rhythm, are founded on the first of these distinctions; 
whereas in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome they 
were founded on the latter. 

The Tone, or Accent, of a syllable is the musical pitch* 
or elevation of coice, with which it is uttered: and it de- 

et /\, (juas Graeci clicunt, id cst, xublatio et 

significant pedis motum : ost oniin arsis sublatio pedis, tin? xonu; thesis 
positio pedis, cum *ono." Marius 
* 'Pi-flu 6? avvfarrixev ^/7f rvoocoif 


serves remark in passing, that this exists solely in the voice, 
and not in the articulation. Hence it is found almost ex- 
clusively in the vowels; hence, too, there is no sensible 
variety of tone in whispering. Now this variation of tone 
is the principal means by which we indicate the distinct- 
ness , and relative importance , of the several words of which 
our discourse is composed. Of course it is the life and 
soul of speech, and forms the great difference between the 
living speaker and the dead book. 

The tones of speech are commonly distinguished as of 
two classes, namely the sharp, or emphatic (ovg), and the 
heavy or unemphatic (flctQVg). Every single word, except 
a few insignificant ones, called enclitics, is distinguished by 
a tone more or less sharp , or emphatic. In a word of only 
one syllable, of coarse that syllable bears this tone: but if 
a word contains several syllables, then this tone is borne 
by some one selected, according to the usage of the lan- 
guage, from among them, and the rest are heavy or bary- 
tone. It follows from what has been said, that the tone 
borne by this selected syllable, will be about the same 
which would have been proper to the word , if it had been 
a monosyllable: and we may also remark, that this tone 
will generally, though by no means always, be the highest 
in the word in regard to musical pitch. 

It is further to be observed, that as the intention and 
use of the acute tone is to confer distinction, it is quite in 
accordance with this intention, that along with its superior 
elevation, it should carry also some increase of loudness, 
stress, or force of utterance. And such in fact is our prac- 
tice, and probably was and is that of all nations. Many, 
however, appear strangely to misconceive this matter, as 
if an increase of stress or loudness were the only thing in 
which the acute accent essentially consists. But this is most 
assuredly an error, as any one who will take proper pains 
to consult his ears, may convince himself. It is, in fact, 
to suppose, that we all talk as children read in charity 
schools, or as certain clergymen affect to read the liturgy: 
that is, all on one note. The fact is, that the tones of 


human speech range unceasingly up and down the diatonic 
scale, often exercising the whole compass of the speaker's 
voice; while intervals of several notes continually even oc- 
cur between successive syllables of a single word. 

Such then is the distinction of tone, or accent, between 
syllables: some have the sharp or high tone, others the 
heavy or low: and in modern languages, it is this distinction 
on which is founded the structure and rhythm of verse. 

The other syllabic distinction which we noticed as having 
been made subservient to this purpose, is that of quantity 
or time: and this is what we observe in the ancient lan- 
guages of Greece and Rome. Without entering here into 
any discussion of the respective merits of the two systems, 
we cannot but recognize it as an interesting and surprizing 
fact, that a method of versification was adopted by those 
refined. nations so essentially different from our own; nor 
can we think it less surprizing, that this ancient mode of 
verse, even to our unaccustomed ears, is found capable of 
yielding delight, not inferior, to say the least, to that 
which is afforded us by the choicest compositions in our 
mother tongue. 

Whatever confusion may have arisen respecting the nature 
of quantity and its relation to accent, nothing can really 
be simpler. That different syllables comprize different quan- 
tities of articulate sound, is obvious: nor is it less so, 
since all the portions of this sound succeed each other in 
time, that the syllable which contains most articulate ut- 
terance, will occupy the longest time in pronunciation. 
Compare, for instance, the words amity and ambuscade. It 
is evident to inspection, that in the latter of these words, 
each of the syllables presents more articulate sound, that 
is, more letters to be pronounced, than the corresponding 
syllable of the former word. Hence, in an equable and 
natural utterance, these syllables will respectively occupy 
more time than the others in pronunciation: and thus it 
appears, that the prosodial distinction of long and short 
syllabic times has its foundation in the very structure of 
language, and that to no language can it be foreign. 


The diversities of natural quantity in syllables take a con- 
siderable range. Compare, for example, the first syllables 
respectively of the words coincidence and corkscrew. In the 
first case, counting, as we do, from vowel to vowel, there 
is simply the short vowel o; in the second, in addition to 
this , we find no less than five consonants. Now the rhyth- 
micians reckoned a short vowel as unity, and each con- 
sonant at one half. By this rule then, the ratio of these 
two prosodial syllables o and orkscr to oneanother will be 
that of 1 to 3%. So great is the difference of natural quan- 
tity in these two English syllables. How greatly must they 
have erred, who have said, that in our language no such 
distinction between syllables as that of quantity exists, but 
that of accent only! 

In actual speech , however, and especially when subjected 
to metre and rhythm, syllables are not allowed to luxuriate 
in all that diversity of time which might correspond with 
their natural quantities. We know that the ordinary rule 
of classical pronunciation simplified this matter, by reducing 
all syllabic times to the relations of one and two. The short 
syllable was unity, the long one was its double: they were 
as a quaver to a crotchet. This rule appears to be on the 
whole the simplest and best that can be followed. For 
though it might be thought a still simpler one to reduce 
all syllabic times to equality, it is evident that such a Pro- 
crustean method of proceeding would not only do extreme 
violence to the natural quantity of syllables, but would de- 
prive our speech, and our verse, of a principal source of 
graceful variety, and go far to destroy their musical character. 

It is abundantly manifest from the evidence afforded by 
classical literature , that the ears of the ancient nations were 
so delicately sensitive to syllabic time, that the foregoing 
rule was accurately observed by them, not only in metre, 
but in their ordinary speech. Of our own practice in this 
respect it is difficult to speak. To say that it affects to 
some extent the same rule with the ancients, would, I be- 
lieve, be true: that its observance of this rule is so slack 
and slovenly as to be altogether uncertain, may probably 


be a consequence of the monosyllabic character of our lan- 
guage, of the influence of accent, and the exigencies of a 
rhythm of which quantity is not the basis. 

From this brief digression on accent and quantity let us 
now return to our proper subject, proceeding, in the first 
place, to consider the application of Rhythm to the verse 
of our own country. 

We are not accustomed, in the simple recitation of 
English metre, to resort to any mechanical beating of time; 
yet by a good reciter the time will nevertheless be kept 
as if it were beaten. 

Our metres consist, almost exclusively, of one or other 
of two kinds of metrical tissue. The first or dissyllabic 
tissue consists fundamentally in an alternating succession of 
unaccented and accented syllables , taking the name of iambic 
or trokhaic verse, according as the one or the other takes 
the lead. In order to read it rhythmically, it will be ne- 
cessary to make the accented syllables, or such as stand 
in their place, follow each other at equal intervals of time, 
as coinciding with the real or supposed movements of arsis 
and thesis. For example: 

Of chance or change, let not man complain 

: i * i : 

an iambic; 

Ruin seize thee, ruthless king, 
a trokhaic. 

In regard to their rhythm, metres of this kind may be 
taken either by feet, or by dipodies. In the first case, there 
will be an arsis on every unaccented syllable, and a thesis 
on every accented one. But it will be more convenient, as 
well as more agreeable to ancient usage , to take the rhythm 
bi/ dipodies, in which case each complete rhythmical move- 
ment embraces two feet: the arsis and thesis both falling 
on the accented syllables. So treated, the iambic line above 
quoted contains two dipodies and a half; and consequently 
is called, in classical phrase, an iambic trimeter hracliy- 
r;italect: as marked above. 

The second metrical tissue used in our language is trisyl- 



labic, and is formed by an alternation of two unaccented 
syllables and one accented; and according as the one or 
the other of these commences the line, it is named ana- 
paestic, or dactylic. In the former the rhythm was generally 
taken among the ancients by dipody, in the latter, when 
pure, by foot. As an anapaestic take, 

At the close of the day when the hamlet is still; 

as a dactylic, 

Hard is iny fate, said the heartbroken stranger. 

It has been much attempted of late years, to introduce 
into the English and German an imitation of the ancient 
dactylic hexameter, the epic verse of Homer and Virgil; 
and probably, as found in those authors, the noblest form 
of metre that was ever composed. Most, I think, will agree, 
that those attempts have not, in either language, been very 
successful. The causes of this failure are doubtless more 
than one, and among them is an almost entire neglect of 
quantity. But the principal I apprehend to be this: that 
in these modern hexameters, the accents being disposed, as 
is our usage, on the first syllable of almost every foot, the 
ancient accentual melody is totally subverted, and its free 
and beautiful variety replaced by a stiff and monotonous 
uniformity. Hence it is that in reading these English hexa- 
meters, we wonder what is become of that ancient grace 
which used to delight us, and we come sorrowfully to the 
conclusion, that there is something in our language to which 
this fine measure cannot be accommodated. I believe, how- 
ever, that by allowing more freedom and variety in the 
position of the accents, and bestowing more attention on 
the selection of proper quantities, the laudable attempt to 
revive this metre, might be more fortunate. Whether the 
following version of a Greek epigram will confirm this re- 
mark, I must leave others to judge. 

Thou diedst not, Prowteh; to a fairer country retiring, 

Thou dwell'st in the islands of the blest , in festive abundance : 

Where along Elysian pastures thou in ecstasy rovest, 

Midst tender flowerets, nor fearest ills any longer. 

There no wintry storm, no noontide ardour assails thee, 


No thirst, no hunger, no sickness; nay, never henceforth, 
Canst thou stoop man's life to desire. For thou, happy Prowteh, 
Liv'st blest and blameless, mid beams of nearer Olympus. 

Tt may now perhaps be asked, whether in regard to 
English verse , any formal doctrine or practice of rhythm is 
required; and whether the native sense of the ear will not 
be found sufficient to secure all such observance of time 
as is desirable? I answer, in the first place, generally: 
that, as a matter of experience, an accurate observance of 
time is not to be attained in metrical recitation, any more 
than in music, without some method and training. I think 
I may say with truth, that the number of persons among 
us who read metre with such a sense of time as to bring 
out its full effect, is comparatively very few. 

We may also notice the use of rhythm in several par- 
ticular cases. One of these is where it leads us to correct 
the defects or excesses of natural quantity. For example in 
the line, 

An honest man's the noblest work of God; 

the rhythm requires us to fill an arsis of three times with 
the word honest; and as the first syllable of this word is a 
short one, it will compel us to allow a double time to the 
second syllable , whose quantity will bear it. Such instances 
are of frequent occurrence, and deserve attention. For 
though the distinctions of syllabic time ivithin the feet are 
not so important in modern verse as they were in that 
of the ancients, yet the observance of the due time of the 
entire feet is as necessary to us as to them, as without it 
there is no rhythm. 

The rhythm will also suggest to us in many instances 
the propriety of giving to certain syllables an extraordinary 
prolongation. Such cases occur chiefly in lyrical poetry, 
for example in the wellknown lines of Burns: 
We'll tak a cup of kindness yet 
For auld lang syne; 

in each of the syllables auld and lang, rhythm requires the 
time of an entire foot. We have a similar instance in 
Shakespeare : 


Come unto these yellow sands, 
And then join hands. 

Similar prolongations are often required by the rhythm 
in the termination of catalectic lines, as: 

'Twas when the seas were roaring, 

where the syllable roar receives the time of a whole foot. 
In other cases rhythm shews us the propriety of leaving 
certain blank pauses. We have a familiar example of this 
in the ancient elegiac pentameter, where a pause equal to 
half a foot is required at the end of the first penthemimer. 

Res est solliciti plena timoris amor. 

I : i : i : I : i : i 

The same might be seen in an English imitation of this 
metre, as: 

Wasting a ruthful tale all on a merciless ear. 

i : i : i : | : I : i 

In our ordinary ten-syllabled iambic, a pause is required 
at the end of each line, because it is a brachycatalect tri- 

happiness, our being's end and aim, 

Good, pleasure, ease, content, whate'er thy name. 
In the complete trimeter, often called Alexandrine, this is 
not the case. The use of this final pause may also be seen 
in such a metre as the following: 

Ye boundless realms of joy, 

Exalt your Maker's fame; 
His praise your songs employ 
Above the starry frame: 
Your voices raise, ye Cherubim, 
And Seraphim to sing his praise. 

Here the four short lines are brachycatalect iambic dimeters, 
requiring in reading a pause at the end of each, by which 
they are made isokhronous with the two complete dimeters 
which complete the stanza. 

So again in our common ballad measure, an empty beat 
is necessary at the end of the second and fourth lines of 

each stanza. 

God prosper long our noble king. 

Our lives and safeties all; 
A woeful hunting once there did 

In Chevy Chase befal. 


In concluding these remarks on English rhythm, I have 
only to add, that if the subject concerns the readers of our 
poetry, not less does it the composers. It is their duty 
to pay such attention to syllabic quantity, that rhythmical 
reading of their verses shall be easy and natural, instead 
of being, as sometimes we now find it, barely practicable. 

Let us now turn to the Rhythm of the Ancients. 

In conformity with the principle on which their metres 
were constructed, this, as has been already stated, turned 
on the regular recurrence of syllables distinguished by the 
long quantity. By these, whether accompanied or not by 
an actual beating of time, the rhythmical periods were de- 
termined and made sensible. We know from the testimony 
of Quinctilian and other ancient grammarians , that the beat- 
ing of rhythm flowed on uniformly, without change of time, 
from the beginning to the end of the metre 1 ; thus causing 
the several successive feet and syzygies to be pronounced 
in isokhronous intervals. But simple as this principle is in 
itself, and easy as it is in its application to some sorts of 
metre, such as the daktylic and anapaestic, there are other 
sorts in which the problem is not only attended with some 
difficulty, but even in the end may not be found to admit 
an absolutely certain solution. In other words, we meet 
with specimens of metre for which two or more modes of 
rhythm may be proposed , with seemingly nearly equal claims 
to preference. 

It is, however, certain, that the difficulties which some 
have felt and acknowledged in this matter, have been more 
imaginary than real, and have arisen from a fundamental 
misconception of the proper method to be pursued. It has 
been assumed, that in the application of rhythm to metre 
it was in all cases necessary to observe inflexibly the com- 
mon law of syllabic time. Thus, for example, Dr. Burney 
in his History of Music, writes as follows (vol. I. p. 771): 

"However ignorant we may be of the melody of ancient 

1 "Nam rhythmi, tit dixi, neque fin em habent certum, nee ullam in 
contextu varietatem, sed qua coeperunt sublatione ac positioue, ad finem 
usque decurrunt." Quinctilian Lib, IX. 


music, the rhythm or time of that melody, being entirely 
regulated by the metrical feet, must always be as well 
known to us as the prosody and construction of the verse: 
so that we have nothing to do but to apply to the long and 
short syllables any two notes one of which is double the 
length of the other, in order to know as exactly as if we 
heard, in what manner any particular kind of metre was 
set by the ancients in respect of time and cadence: that 
boasted rhythm which we are so often told was every thing 
in their music." Of course, if so stringent a law of deference 
to syllabic time was binding in setting verse to music, much 
more must it have been so in simple recitation. But the 
learned author appears to have been himself sensible of the 
impracticability of such a scheme, for he adds: "It is dif- 
ficult to conceive how such a music could be rigorously 
executed, without throwing both the hearers and performers 
into convulsions." 

Quoting afterwards the following beautiful passage from 
Sophocles, he says: "It may be proposed to the musical 
reader, as a problem worthy, for its difficulty at least, if 
not its importance, to exercise his sagacity, how it should 
be barred, in order to render it as little tormenting to the 
ear as possible." 

Assuredly to any one under the doctor's self-imposed 
fetters, the task would be distressing enough; but if these 
be cast aside, it will be found as easy as, I trust, the re- 
sult will be deemed satisfactory. 


l ^i? vitas iaa TO undlv (uGaq 
: i : " : I 

Tt$ yttQ, its 


: i : 


It is true that the rhythm here proposed transgresses, in 
several instances, the ordinary rule of syllabic time. But 
what then? I see in this fact, not an objection to our 


method, but rather a justification of it: for such a power 
or agency of rhythm is just what the ancients ascribe to it 
as its characteristic. Of testimonies to this effect, it will 
be sufficient to mention two or three , as specimens of many 
others which might be produced. 

Dionysios of Halicarnassus writes thus. "Ordinary speech 
never violates the times either of any noun or verb, nor 
transposes them, but preserves the syllables such as by their 
nature it receives them, both long and short. But the rhyth- 
mical and musical arts alter them both by diminution and 
increase, so as often to convert them into the opposites: 
for these do not regulate the times by the syllables, but 
the syllables by the times " l . Longinus also , in his Prole- 
gomena to Hephaistion, writes thus: "Metre differs from 
rhythm in that metre has its times fixed, both long and 
short; but rhythm, at its pleasure, extends the times, so 
as often even to make the short time long" a . The Latin 
writer, Marius Victorinus, speaks to the same effect: 
"Rhythm, as it wills, protracts the times, so that it often 
makes the short long, and the long short" 3 . 

I think that if the force of these quotations be duly con- 
sidered, it will be allowed that they prove, that when- 
ever the ancients subjected metrical compositions to rhythm, 
they did not scruple to modify the times of the syllables 
in such manner as they deemed the rhythm to require. 
And that they did in general hold rhythm to be necessary 
in the recitation of metre, we cannot doubt; for, as Maximus 

1 1 H ply yap nstri Mi-is oviSevos oins ovo^ittioq ovie (S^arof, /Sm- 
v3 [*?iaiidr]aiv' AA* ol'ag nctQet^rj(fe TJJ (fvaei 7f 

Tf [.laXQttS Xttl 7f /3ott/6l', TOtC(V1C<S <fvltt(J(J6l. *H <ff 

r] Xttl (jiovaixfi /ufTapctMovau' ctvrcis, psiouoat xct\ avl-ovoni, ware 

t /Ltfict)i3iC(oaiv' ov yctQ IK?S 
iocs XQovovg, AA TO/? XQQVotq jag avJUa/9a'ff> 

* En lolvvv dtKcptofi QV&JUOV TO (itiQov , y TO fjitv 

^ft JOVf, XOOt'OVS, lUKXQOV Tf Xttl pQtt/VV J^ (5u,'>a6?, IOC 

ttxn TOVSXQOyovs, 7ioM.-/.t<; yvvv xal zo' fiint%i>v %ulvov nou 

3 "Rhythmus, ut volet, protrahit tempora, ita ut breve tempus ple- 
rumque longum official, longum contrahat." 


Victorinus says: "Rhythmua sine metro esse potest; sine rhythmo 
metrum non potest" 1 . 

Having then so far cleared our ground, let us proceed 
to illustrate the modes of rhythm proper to the several 
epiplokai, or tissues, of ancient metre. These tissues are 
four, distinguished by the number of times in their pre- 
vailing feet; as the trisemous, tetrasemous , hexasemous, and 

In the first epiplokeh, which comprizes the iambic and 
trochaic metres, if taken by single feet, the rhythm would 
count only three to a bar, having a thesis of two times on 
the long syllable, and an arsis of one on the short. And 
originally, when they wrote pure iambics, such seems to 
have been the practice, as Horace intimates. 

Syllaba longa, brevi subjecta, vocatur iambus, 
Pes citus : undo etiam trimetris accrescere jussit 
Nomen iambeis, cum senos redderet ictus, 
Primus ad extremuui similis sibi. 

But when spondees were admitted in the odd places, 

Tardior ut paulo, graviorque veniret ad aures, 

it became usual to measure the verse in dipodies, and the 
rhythm was only struck three times, counting six to the 
bar. That such was the case, is vouched by express tes- 
timonies of the ancients, who at the same time endeavour 
to explain the apparent anomaly of the extra time created 
by the spondees. To this effect we find a quotation from 
Asmonius in Priscian. "Why the first, third and fifth foot 
admit the licence of a change of feet, is to many obscure, 
but we will explain it. For since this verse is struck three 
times, it follows that wherever it is free from the stroke 
of the beating, it may admit some delay of time. But it 
begins on the first, third, and fifth foot; it is struck on the 
second, fourth, and sixth" 2 He seems to intimate that at 

1 Gaistord's Hephaestion , p. 265. 

3 Cur prima sedes et tertia et quinta, in iambo, admittant permuta- 
tionis pedum licentiam obscurum rnultis est, sed aperietur a nobis. Nam 
quoniam ter feritur hie versus, necesse est, ubicumque ab ictu percus- 
sionis vacat, morarn temporis non reformidet. In primo autem pede et 
tertio incipit et in quinto: feritur in secundo et quarto et sexto, 


the close of the counting of each bar, some slight delay was 
allowable in the rhythm. 

The manner in which the iambic trimeter was rhythmized 
by the ancients, seems here to be clearly set before us. The 
arsis fell on the long syllable of the odd feet, the thesis 
on that of the even ones. 

fiid^ (ufffk Aoyovg /ay Ji((7iid(jf)tti oxd'/og. 

And we see that one complete rhythmical movement of 
arsis and thesis fell in each of the measures. 

Both in this kind of metre and in others, it is probable 
that in catalectic terminations the rhythm created extensions 
of the syllables. For example in the iambic dimeter: 

it would give to the syllable TQBI the time of a whole foot. 

We meet with a curious instance of this kind, in what 

is called the lame (jrcuAoy) Hipponacteian , as that of Persius, 

Nee fonte labra prolui Caballino. 

: i : l : l : 

It is metrically a trimeter, but extends into four bars of 
rhythm, and resembles, in effect, such an English measure 
as this: 

We'll tak a cup of kindness yet, for auld long syne. 

The trochaic measure starts with the arsis on the first 
syllable, as in the Ithyphallic: 

Kaoytrcu yi\Q ydr]. 

In the tetrasemous epiplokeh the rhythm is so simple and 
obvious as to require little remark. In pure dactylics each 
foot formed a metre, and was struck: as, 

Formosam resonare doces Ainaryllida sylvas. 

l : i : i : i : < : i : 

We learn however from Aristotle, that in the epic verse 
the actual beating of rhythm was not commonly employed. 
The anap<estic verse was generally beaten in dipodies, as 
we learn from Marius Victorinus and others; so in the 
Aristophanic tetrameter: 

Kul yj'fouirfun yvtofinv vv'^nn tii-no) loyqi ttntJioyijotiH, 

The two remaining epiplokai belong chiefly to the choral 
and lyric measures. These were generally intended to be 


sung, or accompanied by harmony; and it is probable that 
even the simple recitation of them partook more or less of 
the character of chanting. Hence we need not wonder that 
in these tissues, the rhythm exercised more ascendancy over 
common syllabic time than in those which we have hitherto 
been considering. In fact they were composed with this 
view, and adapted to this purpose. 

The third, or hexasemous, epiplokeh consists of feet which, 
as wholes, correspond in time with the iambic dipody, but 
the internal arrangement of the syllables is different, as 
the alternation is between a couple of long syllables and a 
couple of short ones. The measures which we find here, 
are the choriambic, antispastic, and two Ionics. 

From the continual interspersion of iambic and trochaic 
syzygies in these measures, there can be little doubt that 
their rhythm was beaten in the same manner as in the 
trisemous tissue; that is, that it made the arsis and thesis 
equal, and counted six in the bar. This view is in part 
confirmed by the testimony of Diomedes, who speaking of 
the choriambic tetrameter, says expressly: Feritur per di- 
podiam quater. We are led indeed by these views to a 
rhythm somewhat peculiar, which yet we must needs adopt. 
The arsis and thesis will fall close together on each couple 
of long syllables, the first of which will count three, and 
be made equal in time to the three syllables which follow; 
that is, to a whole foot. Take a specimen from Horace: 

Tu ne qusesieris, scire nefas. quem mihi. quern tibi, 
: I : I : I : l_ 

Finem Dii dederint Leuconoe. 

or from Sappho: 

Jevig vvv /3(7i XdyiTes, xd^ixo^toiie Molaai. 

In the remaining or pentasemous tissue, which we may 
call Paionic, three short syllables alternate with one long 
one; frequently, however, two of these short syllables 
coalesce into a second long one, thus forming a Crelic or 
Baccheian foot. Each foot formed a metre, and without 
doubt comprized a complete rhythmical movement. The 
thesis assuredly coincided with the long syllable, giving it 


three times; the arsis fell, I presume, on the first of the 
three short ones. 

11 nitki u i).n Ktxnonog avioaves Atjr/.n. 
I : I : N I : I : 

I have now pointed out the modes of rhythm which are 
adapted to each of the simple metrical tissues, and from 
these the mode of dealing with any particular measure of 
mixed tissue may readily be inferred. I will, however, 
offer one or two illustrations. 

The first shall be that beautiful and wellknown system 
named the Sapphic. This is commonly represented as con- 
sisting of three lines , technically termed epichoriambic, with 
a short portion superadded. They are formed however es- 
sentially of dactyls and trochays; and as originally written 
by the poetess, would seem to have been intended for three 
lines only, the two former trimeters, and the last a tetrameter. 


oattg tvuviias roi 

, xal nknntov adu (nwviixjKi; vnctxovet. 
: I : I : 1 : I 

With this rhythm, the effect of the metre is certainly con- 
siderably different from that of our ordinary mode of read- 
ing, but, as it seems to me, it is preferable. 

As another example, let us take the Alcaic or Horatian 
system, consisting of two epionics, an iambic, and a loga- 
oidic dactylic. 

Aequam memento relus in arduis 

I I : I : I 

Servare mentein, non secus in bonis 
: I : I : i 

Ab insolenti temperatam 

: \ : I 

Lsetitia, moriture Deli. 
: I : i 

And lastly let me offer a strophe from the first Pythian 
of Pindar. 

Xgvoia tfroguty!;. AnoMtavos xctl 
": I : I : I 

1 : i 

T? nxovei /utv Saoig (tylnins ao/n 
: I : I : * " i 


Kul iov 

t (T ctva 

i : 

' auu>oio(of}{i> yctln^ctig. 
I : i : 

In concluding this elementary and imperfect notice of an 
extensive subject, I venture to express my belief, that the 
views which have here been offered in relation to rhythm, 
do not deserve to be regarded as hypothetical fancies, but 
that they are based in nature and truth, and supported by 
explicit and decisive testimonies from ancient authors. I 
am conscious, however, that I owe an apology to the mem- 
bers of this learned Society, for obtruding on their notice 
the reflexions of an isolated country student, living remote 
from Academic halls and libraries, and consequently unable 
to make those researches which such a subject requires, or 
to judge how far any thing which he has suggested, may 
have the least claim to originality. 

My only defence is, that I have in view an object of 
practical utility. Whatever may be the opinions or dis- 
coveries of advanced scholars, at home or abroad, the fact 
is, I believe, indisputable, that among ourselves, at least, 
no attempt is commonly made to put in practice the prin- 
ciples of rhythm, in reading either the poetry of our own 
language , or that of the ancients. No sort of instruction 
or training, in regard to this matter, is anywhere, as far 
as I am aware, introduced into education, either in our 
schools and colleges, or by private teachers. All is left to 
the untutored ear. Yet surely it cannot be doubted, that 
by the bestowal of a little cultivation on this branch of the 
poetic art, the reading and recitation of metre, whether 
ancient or modern, might be invested with new grace, and 
made a source of increased pleasure. Why, in this ad- 
vanced and advancing age, should we be content to remain 
behind the ancients in this elegant accomplishment? What 
can be more worthy of humanity, than to cultivate in its 
fullest perfection the gift of speech? 

Should further details of the application of rhythm to 
ancient metres be desired , they may be found in my edition 
of Hephsestion. 



The Anglosaxon has in its verb substantive two distinct 
forms of the present, one a present in the more proper 
signification of the term, the other a present of continuance, 
frequently taking the sense of a future. This latter is pre- 
served in the subjunctive mood in English, and in many of 
the dialects even in the indicative (comp. Anglos, beo(m), 
bist, bidp\. beod, with 7 be). At present I am however 
more specially concerned with the other form. In this the 
Anglosaxon has in the singular eom, eart, is, to which the 
English am, art, is, correspond as closely as could be de- 

In the plural the similarity ceases all on a sudden. The 
Anglosaxon has sindon, or (more rarely) sind, for all the 
three persons, while the English has are. 

The Anglosaxon in this particular is in accordance with 
all the continental Teutons, (comp. Oldsaxon: sindun "we, 
you, they are"; Goth, sind "they are" = Ohg. sint, Nhg. 
sind). No trace of a form like the English is to be found 
in any low or high German dialect, not even in the Frisian, 
which has send too for "w r e, you, they are". 

On the other hand the peninsular Teutons, or in other 
words the Scandinavians, have the same formation as the 
English : 


1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 

OLDN. eruin eruft eru em ert er 

SWED. aro aren aro ar 

DAN. ere er 

This circumstance leads in itself to the conclusion that the 
English plural are must be due to Scandinavian influence, 
a view which is fully confirmed by a more accurate inves- 
tigation into the history of that form, and how it gradually 
gained ground in the English language. 
It makes its first appearance in the Northumbrian dialect 


under the form earun. But it lasts a good while before it 
appears in southern English. Layamon, whose Anglosaxon 
is pretty much disorganized, nevertheless does not yet ad- 
mit the stranger. His plural present of the verb substantive 
is either bid (beod, beoii), or sunden (sunded). 

In the Ormulum whose author is, as his name testifies, 
of Norse descent we still find sinden, and only for the 
third person plural does am several times occur. 

At last in Piers Ploughman and in Wy cliff e the old Anglo- 
Saxon form disappears, both using arn or else ben (betti) 
throughout the plural. 

Under these circumstances there cannot be the slightest 
doubt of the Norse origin of this English form, and we 
thereby gain another and I think very weighty testimony 
as to the Scandinavian influence on English, a subject to 
which Mr. H. Coleridge has already called the attention of 
the Society (Transactions, 1859, pp. 18-31). 


The object of the present paper is to suggest a subject 
of inquiry to those Members of the Philological Society 
who are assisting in preparing the Society's English Dic- 
tionary , and especially those who are engaged in examining 
the English Literature of about the 16 th century. 

The question is when was who first used as a relative 

It is familiarly known to all readers of Chaucer that the 
relative which he commonly uses for the nominative and 
accusative of all genders and both numbers, is that. For 
instance: in the 1 st person, 

But I that am exiled and bareyne 
Of alle grace, &c. Knight's Tale. 

In the 2 nd person, 

stronge God, that in the reynes cold 

Of Trace honoured and lord art i-hold. Ibid. 


Of its use in the 3 rd person, every page will furnish an 

On the other hand who in the nom. is not used as a 

simple relative by Chaucer, so far as I have observed; but 

it appears only as an interrogative, direct or dependent. 

. g., opening the Canterbury Tales at hazard, I find: 
This Alisoun answerde, " Who is ther 
That knokketh so? I warrant it a theef. Miller's Tale. 
Who ever herde of such a thing er now? Sompnoure's Tale. 

And in a dependent question: 

Hire frendes axen what hire aylen myghte, 
And who was dede. Legencle of Good Women. 

Also who is used in the sense of the indefinite one or any 

one, Fr. on, Grk. rig enclitic; as in the Troylus and Cryseyde: 
For wele thow wost, the name yet of hire 
Among the peple, as who seith, halowid is, 

i. e., as one may say. 

In the Wife of Bath's Prologue we find it in the sense 
of he who. 

Who that buyldeth his hous al of salwes, 

And priketh his blynde hors over the falwes, 

And suffrith his wyf to go seken halwes, 

Is worthy to be honged on the galwes. 

But here the icho is followed and strengthened by the re- 
lative that, as in the writers of the fourteenth century we 
continually read which that, whom that, &c. ; unless indeed 
it is affirmed that who here is destitute of all relative force, 
and is simply the antecedent in the sense of any one, or 
like he in Chaucer's common form of expression he that 1 . 
At any rate who is not yet the simple relative, as in the 
English of the present day. 

But this restriction is not observed in the oblique cases. 
In the Man of Lawes Tale we have: 

Mary I niene, doughter of seint Anne, 
Bifore whos child aungels syng Osanne; 

1 Besides which that, whose that, whom that, what that, I may note 
in passing the expressions when that, while that, where that, though 
that, if that, because that, xiihen that or since that (both of time and 
of consequence), after that, or that or ere that, &c., phrases possibly 
worth notice in the Dictionary. 


and again: 

Sche nath no wight to whom to make hir moon. 
In the former of these sentences whose is certainly a re- 
lative; in the latter ivhom is equally a relative, but it is 
preceded by a preposition. I believe no instance occurs in 
Chaucer of who used as the simple subject of a verb, or 
ivhom as the object of a verb, apart from interrogation direct 
or indirect. In such cases he almost invariably uses that, 
though sometimes we find which that where we should now 
use whom, as in the Wife of Bath's Tale: 

In olde dayes of the kyng Arthour, 

Of which that Britouns speken gret honour. 

As Maimdevile uses the which: 

Into the tyme that Seynt Elyne the whiche the Emperor Constance 

wedded to his Wyf, <fec. p. 12. 

But as to who and whom without a preposition, their use 
in Chaucer is just as restricted as that of quis and quid in 
Latin, interrogative forms employed only in the nominative 
or in the nominative and accusative , while cujus, cui, quern, 
&c., are both interrogative and relative. 

Let us now see whether the earlier usage of the language 
resembles Chaucer's. 

First, in Anglo-Saxon liwd in all its cases is only inter- 
rogative. For the relative, se, seo, pcet, was used, with 
or without a pe following. Only in the compound siva hwa 
swa (= whoso or whosoever) can a relatival force be dis- 
cerned. These remarks apply, I believe, to every age and 
dialect of the Anglo-Saxon language. 

Coming down to the Semi-Saxon writers, Lajamon's Brut 
gives us the following results. Who occurs four times as 
a direct interrogative , six times as an indirect interrogative, 
namely in the following passages: 

POU nost wo his hire fader .-* 

ne wo his hire moder. Vol. i. p. 98. 2<i MS. 

Ne pas strond we ne cnoweQV 

pe we isoht nabbed". 

pis Ion ne pas leoden.-' 

ne who, her lauerd is. Vol. i p. 197. 1 st MS. 


Nakede heo weorenr* 
and naming ne rohte. 
wha heore leom saeje? 

alle pe on heom weoren. Vol. i. p. 267. 1st MS. 
He sseide pat he wolde . J 
wende to his ferde. 
and inid his e^ene iseon.' 
wee per wolde wel don. Vol. ii. p. 391. 1 st MS. 
(or, wo par wolde wel don. Ibid. 2 nd MS.) 
And a pan laste ne mihte inon wite * 
icha offerne smite. Vol. iii. p. 66. 1 st MS. 

Whose occurs once as an indirect interrogative. 
Wale pat an worlde. J 
nses nan witie. 
pat auere wuste here.- 1 
tches sune he weore. Vol. ii. p. 293. 1 st MS. 

The accusative whom occurs once as an indirect interrogative. 

at pan lasted 

nuste nan kempe. 
wha he sculde slaen on * 

and wha he sculde sparien. Vol. iii. p. 95. 1 st MS. 
(or, warn he solde smite i 

ne wan he solde sparie. Ibid. 2" d MS.) 

The dative whom is found five times as an indirect inter- 
rogative, as for instance in the last line of the passage last 
quoted, and five times as a relative, but only after a pre- 
position, and only in the later text 1 . 

In the Ormulum, who appears once as a direct interro- 
gative, and once (1. 9445) as an indirect interrogative. In 

1 My obligations to Sir F. Madden's Glossary as the basis of this 
analysis will be at once apparent ; only it may be remarked that in that 
Glossary two references are given twice (perhaps intentionally), and I 
have noticed two omissions. As to the passages twice quoted, I venture 
to think that Ii wd (vol. i. p. 308, 2 nd MS.) ought not to be cited as an 
example of the accusative, nor por/t wan (vol. i. p. 326, 2 nd MS.) as an 
example of the dative; unless it can be shown that be or bi ceased in 
Semi-Saxon to govern a dat, or pwr/t to govern an accus. a change of 
which I can find no trace. The omitted examples are, of the noni. : 

wha streonede pe to bearne. Vol. ii. p. 232. 
and of the accus. : 

wha he sculde sheii 011. Vol. iii. p. 95. 


68 ON C WHO' AS A 

the latter case Dr. White seems to regard it as the relative ; 
the passage however stands thus: 

Forrpi wass writenn \viterrli$ 

& se^d purrh Goddspellwrihhte , 
Who, wass patt time Kaserrking 

I Roniess kTneriche; 

where the dependence of the second two lines on the writenn 
and se\\d of the first as an objective and interrogative clause 
seems tolerably manifest. Rendered verbum verbo into Latin 
it would run thus: 

Igitur est scriptum profecto 

Et dictum per Evangelistas, 
Quis fuerit eo tempore Imperator 

In Romae imperio. 

Of whose the Ormulum contains no example; but whom oc- 
curs as a relative eight times with a preposition, and four 
times without one. One of the latter instances is: 

Herode ,king bitacnepp uss 

pe lape gast off helle ; 
& he ma$3 wel bitacnenn himm, 

Whamm he stod inn to foll^henn; 

i.e. "and he may well signify him (Satan), whom he per- 
severed in following." Here the relative force is plain 
enough. But throughout Chaucer's writings I believe such 
a use of whom does not occur; so that, though Ormin lived 
fully a century and a half before the time of Chaucer, yet 
his language seems to be further advanced (or corrupted) 
than Chaucer's in regard to the change of meaning that the 
pronoun ivho has undergone. 

One instance (and only one) like the last quoted, I have 
found in Maundevile's Travels, p. 15: 

"At Gostantynoble lyethe Seynte Anne oure Ladyes Modre, whom 
Seynte Elyne dede brynge fro Jerusalem." 

In the English version of Bishop Grosseteste's Carmen de 
Creatione Mundi , or Castle of Love , as edited by Halliwell, 
who occurs four times as an interrogative, never as a re- 
lative; 'whose, twice as a relative; whom, four times as an 
interrogative, and ten times as a relative, but always after 
a preposition. So that here as elsewhere the oblique cases 
of this pronoun are seen creeping into the relative signifi- 

ESQ. 69 

cation, while the nominative case does not as yet follow 
their example. 

The same general result has followed from a rather ex- 
tensive search among the early English writers both of prose 
and poetry; but it is hardly necessary, and might be tedious, 
to give the results in detail. At the same time there are 
very many passages where 10/10 might at first sight be taken 
for a relative, such as the passage quoted above from the 
Ormuluin (1. 9445), and that cited in Mr. Coleridge's Glos- 
sarial Index from Robert of Gloucester, p. 40, which runs 

thus : 

Among hem pat bileuede o Hue stryf me myjte se 
Wuche mest maistres were and hoo schulde lord be. 

Yet a moment's consideration makes it evident that this 
hoo would need to be rendered by quis (not qui) in Latin, 
and by rig (not og) in Greek. There was a question which 
you might then have seen vigorously debated, or two kindred 
questions, one of which was, "Who shall be lord?" In 
like manner 1. 1194 of the Owl and Nightingale, 

Ich wot htco schal beon an-honge, 

is plainly equivalent to, "I know the answer to the question 
who shall &c." In Latin, scio quits; not, novi eum qui. 
In the third instance cited by Mr. Coleridge, 

3ef he bi-weneth bi hican he lai, 

Al wai the lure gan awai, 0. & N. 1. 1508, 

the whom is also an indirect interrogative ; though it is quite 
possible that the relative whom after a preposition may be 
found in the 0. & N., as it is in the later text of Lajamon's 
Brut and in the Ormulum. 

There are however two instances which I have noticed 
in which who is used, under considerable restriction, as a 
relative. They are the following. First, 

Who is trewe of his tonge, 

And telleth noon oother, 

And dooth the werkes therwith, 

And wilneth no man ille, 

He is a God by the gospel 

A-grounde and o-lofte, 

And y-lik to oure lord 

By seint Lukes wordes. Piers PI. Vis, p. 20. (1.635.) 


The second is from the Townley Mysteries: 

And who wylle not, thay shalle be slone. ] p. 71. 

But in both of these cases the who is equivalent to whoso, 
and its grammatical antecedent comes after it 3 ; precisely 
as in modern German, wer, which in the Accidence of every 
German Grammar is set down only as an interrogative , has 
also a limited use as a relative when the accessory sentence 
precedes the principal. E. g., 

Wer besitzt, der lerne verlieren; 

Wer im Gluck 1st, der lerne den Schmerz. (Schiller.) 

And now to glance at the writers of later date ; and first 
of all the English Bible (Authorized Version). Here again 
the oblique cases of who are used as relatives , and apparently 
without restriction, but the nominative is more usually an 
interrogative, either direct, as, " Who then is Paul? and 
who is Apollos?" 3 or indirect, as, "the chief captain de- 

1 Compare Psalm XV in the Wycliffite Versions ; about 1370 and 1388 : 

Lord, who shall duelle in thi 
tabernacle; or who shal eft resten 
in thin holy hil? 

That goth in withoute wem ; and 

Lord, who schal dwelle in thi 
tabernacle; ether who schal reste 
in thin hooli hill? 

He that entrith with out wem; 

werkith ry^ttwisnesse. j and worchith ri$tfulnesse. 

That speketh treuthe ia his herte ; 
that dide not trecherie in his tunge. 

. . . That swereth to his ne^hebore, 
and desceyueth not; 

that his monee ^af not to vsure. 
He that doth these thingus, shal 
not be moued in to without ende. 

Which* spekith treuthe in his 
herte; whiche dide not gile in his 

Which* swerith to his nei$bore, 
and disseyueth not; 

which* }af not his money to 
vsure. He that doith these thingis, 

schal not be moued with outen ende. 
a He that. I. t> the which. I. 
In Psalm 147 too, the same uses of who, that, and which, prevail. 

2 Compare II. Paralipomenon XIII. 9 in the Wycliffite versions: 
whosoever commith and sacrith I who euer cometh and halewith 

his hond in bool, in oxen, and his hond in a bole, in oxis, and 
in seuen wethers, anoon he is inaad in seuene wetheris, anoon he is 
the preste of hem that ben not niaad preest of hem that ben not 
goddis. ! goddis. 

3 What therfore is Apollo, what I What therfor is Apollo, and what 
forsoth Poul? Poul? 


manded who he was, and what he had done'" 1 , or again, 
"Zacchaeus sought to see Jesus, w/io he was" 2 , studebat 
videre quis esset Jesus. (Beza.) In Cruden indeed no 
example of who is cited in which it is not interrogative. 
There are however numerous instances of the relative, as, 
"God who is rich in mercy", (Eph. 2. 4); "and the thing 
was known to Mordecai, who told it unto Esther the queen", 
(Esth. 2. 22) 3 . But that or which is far more common. 

Of about the same period was Ben Jonson, who in his 
English Grammar speaks of "one relative, which", and a 
few pages further on lays down that "that is used for a 
relative"; while who is named only in these terms in the 
chapter on Pronouns ( ch. XV.) , " Three interrogatives, 
whereof one requiring both genitive and accusative, and 
taken for a substantive: who? whose? whom? The other two 
infinite, and adjectively used, what, whether." 

Yet in the Percy Society's reprint of the A. D. 1555 
edition of Stephen Hawes's Pastime of Pleasure (the first 
edition was by Wynkyn de Worde in 1 509 Bonn's Lowndes), 
we h'nd Fortune saying, p. 123, 

Wherfore my power doth ryght well excell 

Above the, Mars, in thine house enclosed; 

For to rule man thou hast power never a dele, 

Save after the somwhat he is disposed : 

Thy consolacion hath him so apposed 

Who under the taketh his nativite, 

Yet God hath gyven him power to rule the. 

(Hawes has also 'knightes.. which saw Minerve' (p. 125), 
and that as a relative.) And in the narrative of The Siedge 

1 Thanne the tribune . . axide, 
who it was, and what he had don. 

Thanne the tribune .. axide, who 
he was, & what he hadde doon. 

3 And he sou^te to see Jhesu, And he sou^te to se Jhesn, who 

who he was. I he was. 

3 In the Wycliffite Versions this runs, 1. The whiche thing was not 
vnknowen to Mardoche, and anoon he tolde to quen Ester... 2. Which* 
thing was not hid from Mardochee, and anoon he b telde c to the queen 

The which. I. b Mardoche. I. S. c telde this. I. toold this 
tresoun. I. S. 


of Breda, written by Gerrat Barry, an Irish captain in the 
Spanish service, and published at Louvain in 1627, the 
who is used as familiarly for a relative as by any writer of 
the 19 th century. "He who being sworne, would not con- 
fess, should pay &c." "Maurice did assault our men, who 
were busie about these workes." "Our Cornet, who came 
to behould." "Artois she commended to the Count of 
hoogstrat, who was chiefe gouernour therof, to be defended." 
"The Provinces horse were cdmitted to Albertus Arenbergue 

who was for that purpose lately called from the com- 

mandrie of the horse." 

But possibly this was only an Irishism in 1627! I am 
inclined to think that it was so, though I am not prepared 
to enter into a full discussion of that question , further than 
to observe that Irishisms in the way of pronunciation 
writher, trinches, renoome, frindly are numerous in this 

It may however be affirmed that in English writers of 
later date the relative wears much more the aspect of a 
stranger than in The Siedge of Breda. 

Jeremy Taylor speaks of "an old man weary with age 
and travel, who was a hundred years of age"; but much 
more common with him are such expressions as, "people 
there are that weep with want", -"the wild fellow in Pe- 
tronius that escaped upon a broken table from the furies 
of a shipwreck", "he that stands in a churchyard in the 
time of a great plague." 

So Sir Thomas Browne says : " Herostratus lives that burnt 
the temple of Diana: he is almost lost that built it", "I 
honour any man that contemns it [i. e. Death], nor can I 
highly love any that is afraid of it", "men that look no 
further than their outsides, think health an appurtenance 
unto life , and quarrel with their constitutions for being sick ; 
but I that have examined the parts of man, &c." But Browne 
also, though far less frequently, will write, "God who can 
destroy our souls", "pious spirits who passed their days 
in raptures of futurity." 

To the usage of these writers the modern Dutch furnishes 


a tolerably exact analogue , the relative pronoun being much 
more commonly die than wie in the nominative, and rather 
dien than wien in the accusative, while the oblique cases of 
wie are regularly used as the genitive and dative of the 
relative. But in the grammars, wie figures rather as an 
interrogative than as a relative. Very similar is the case 
of the Danish and Swedish languages, though in both of 
these Jwo (or ho) = who , is now obsolete. 

I will not pursue the subject further, though it may be 
worth noting that to this moment the ancient usage as to 
the pronoun who survives, indeed all but fully maintains 
its ground, among the uneducated classes, and especially 
in the agricultural population, of Devonshire. In Mrs. Gwat- 
kin's "Devonshire Dialogue" I believe the pronoun who 
does not occur at all in any of its cases; though this must 
be accidental so far as the interrogative is concerned. You 
may hear, "Who be you?" (with the vowel sound in the 
first and last of these monosyllables pronounced precisely 
like the eu in the French feu, jeu, peu)\ or "her toll me 
to ax whose tey-kittle that es"; but "the man who has got 
that farm", will certainly be "the man that's a got that 
varm"; and "the man whose horse ran away with him", 
will be modified into "the man that had his hoss rin away 
with 'n." But whom is entirely obsolete. Such , as to the 
relatives, is our Devonian dialect, wheresoever Lindley Mur- 
ray has not yet swept away these vestiges of antiquity. 

It will be evident that I do not profess to have answered 
the question I have thrown out, what English writer first 
used who in all its cases as a relative just as we use it 
now. My object is rather to call attention to it. 

And there are other kindred questions about our pronouns 
which are perhaps worthy of consideration. 

When was which received fully as a relative pronoun, 
not used with a noun ' , as in Maundevile's " of whiche 

1 The following extracts will help to answer this. F. J. F. 
Esther, chap. IV, v. 11, in the Wyclifn'te versions: 

therfor how mai Y entre to the 
kyng, which am not clepid to hym 

I thanne what maner shal moun 
entre to the king, that now thretti 
dajis am not clepid to him? 

now bi thritti daies? 



Londes", nor with the preceding, as "in the which", "thorghe 
the which e Fruyte"; nor with that following, as continually 
in Chaucer, and as Maundevile writes: "and [the Monstre] 
besoughte the Heremyte that he wolde preye God for him, 
the whiche that cam from Hevene for to saven alle Man- 
kynde"? When do such expressions first appear as, "I 
am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the 
land of Egypt", "I have hallowed this house which thou 
hast built", "Our Father, which art in heaven"? 

And again who first introduced the distinction that now 
obtains between who and which, of applying the former to 
persons, and using the latter after names of things or in- 
ferior animals, and abstract or collective nouns? Not Jeremy 
Taylor, who speaks of "sins who"; nor Sir Thomas Browne, 
who discourses on "vainglories who". 

Lastly when is what first used as an interrogative adjective l 

in, IV, 17: 

And so Mardoche wente, and 
dide alle thinges that Ester hadde 
comaundid to hym. 

and VI 

The man whom the king coueitith 
to honouren , owith to be clad with 
kingus clothis, and to be put upon 
an hors that is of the kingus sadil. 

Therefor Mardochee $ede,and dide 
alle thingis whiche* Hester hadde 
comaundid to hym. 

a that. I. 
7, 8: 

The man whom the kyng couetith 
to onoure , owith to be clothid with 
the kyngis clothis, and to be set 
on the hors which ' is of the kyngis 

a the which. I. 
and IX, 1: 

Thanne of the twelthe moneth, 
whom Adar to be clepid now beforn 
wee seiden, the threttenthe day. 

Therfor in the thrittenthe dai of 
the tweluethe monthe, which** we 
seiden now bifore to be clepid Adar. 

b the which. I. 
and XIV, 3: 

And she precede the Lord God 
of Irael, seiende, My Lord, that 
art king alone, help me solitarie. 

And bisou^te the Lord God of 
Israel, and seide, My Lord, which c 
aloone art oure kyng, helpe me a 
womman left aloone. 
c that. I. 

1 Esther, chap. V, verse 6, in the Wycliffite Versions: 


= qualis or quantus? This used to be which not what, 
either with a noun or without. 

Lord, wheche frensship! whose 1 taketh }eme. Castle of Love, p. 42. 
And what was strictly a pronoun and always interrogative. 

And the king seide to her, after 
that he hadde drunke win plen- 
teuously; What askist thou, that 
be }iue to thee, and for what thing 
prejist thou? 

And the king seide to hir, aftir 
that he hadde drunk wiyn plen- 
teuousli, What d axist thou, that 
it be $ouun to thee, and for what 
thing axist thou? 

d What thing. I. S. 
and see 'what uianer' in ch. IV, v. 11, in last note, p. 73; also, 

Psalm XXIX, v. 10: 

What profit in my blod; whil I I What profit is in my blood; 
go doun in to corrupcioun? while Y go doun in to corrupcioun? 

1 Leg. whoso. 

P.S. Note to 1. 13, p. 65, ivho used in the sense of the 
indefinite one or any. 

The exact connexion of this who with who interrogative, and of iff 
with r(s, and again of (si) guts with quis?, can be conjectured by any 
body. 1 entertain no doubt that the interrogative sense is the original 
one; but as the question is not pressed, but left doubtful, the pronoun 
thus acquires an indefinite signification. R. F. W. 



So far as I am aware, no satisfactory explanation has 
yet been given, of the last syllable of this word. All our 
Lexicographers appear to be quite at fault. Some of them 
(for instance, Minsheu, and Philips) do not mention the 
word at all; others (like Bailey, and Martin) though in- 
serting the word, suggest no etymology; whilst Johnson, 
and after him, Todd, merely vouchsafe the very obvious, 
and scanty information , " Knowledge [from Know]." 


Ash, like Johnson, simply states "Knowledge (s. from 
know)"-, but he supplies, in addition, these instructive en- 

"Knowlech (s. obsolete) Knowledge. Chaucer" 
"Knowlech (v. t. obsolete) to Acknowledge. Chaucer"; 

and I believe that it is this earlier form of the word, in 
which we shall find the clue to the origin and import of 
the peculiar syllable in question. 

Webster's note is as follows : " Knowledge, n. [Chaucer, 
knowleching, from knowleche, to acknowledge. Qu. the sense 
of lech] " ; thus raising the question , without attempting to 
solve it. But knoideching is not the only form in Chaucer; 
the form really answering to the modern word was, with 
him, knowleche. Thus, in the opening of the 'Persones 
Tale', "Owre swete Lord God of heven, that no man wil 
perische, but wol that we comen alle to the knowleche of 
him &c." 1 

The only suggestion on the subject, which I have hithesto 
met with, is one thrown out by Richardson. I think, how- 
ever, it will hardly be deemed convincing. Under "Know", 
he observes "Knowledge, cnaw-an and lecgan, to lay, to 
put or place. See Acknowledge"; and under "Acknow", 
"To Acknow is, to know; to Acknowledge is the A. S. Cnawan, 
"to know, and Lecgan, to lay. The old verb is knowleche, 
"knowledge, (q. v.) and is constantly so written in Wiclif, 
"and also in Tindale and his cotemporaries. It was then 
"written (as in the examples from Joye) knowledge, with- 
"out the c; and separate, with the A. See A for on. 
"You know but will not knowledge; i. e. will not lay down 

1 Harl. MS. No. 7334; and also the edition of the 'Canterbury Tales', 
[Percy Society] based by Mr. Wright upon that MS., which he thinks 
must have been written within a few* years after A. D. 1400, the date 
of Chaucer's death; and which he considers to be by far the best of the 
MSS. examined by him, both as to antiquity and correctness. In Tyrr- 
whitt's edition, (1775), the passage is thus printed "that we comen all 
to the knoicleching of him." But the word is knowleche in Harl. MS. 
No. 7333, as well as 7334; and knoweleche in Harl. MS. 1758. 
* Sir F. Madden says 50 or 60. F. J. F. 


"before us; own, confess, that you know, and hence To 
"own, to confess, to admit." 

I must confess that 1 am unable to follow this reasoning. 
Setting aside the difficulty arising out of the absence of any 
such compound verb in A. S. (a point which will be noticed 
again presently) , the formation of such a verb (to know-lay) 
appears to be very perplexing, and almost inconceivable. 
And in truth, the conjecture seems to me to proceed alto- 
gether on a wrong assumption. I apprehend that the verb 
"to knowleche" is a derivative from the noun "knowleche"; 
and not the reverse. It is impossible to deduce the mean- 
ing of the noun "knowledge" = cognition, perception, from 
the verb "to knowledge" = to confess, to admit. On the 
other hand, it is clear that in the natural order of things, 
the knowledge must come first, and the avowal afterwards. 
It may be added, that the sharp ch is not the form into 
which the y of lecgan would probably get transmuted; for 
this guttural (according to general analogy) would either be 
changed into the flat palatal, as in ledger, or be vocalized, 
as in lay. 

It is beyond a doubt that the older forms of both the 
Noun and the Verb contained the sharp palatal (knowleche), 
and that the flat palatal (knoivledge) is a later pronunciation. 
There are several quotations in Richardson, which show 
this. In one instance, the noun is used for "acquaintance", 
Luke ii. 44 "They sought him among their kinsfolk and 
acquaintance"; in Wiclif, "amonge his cosyns and his 
knowleche" Again, as to the verb, in Wiclif, "So ech 
that denyeth the sone hath not the fadir, but he that know- 
lechith the sone hath the fadir also." And the same form 
of the verb is found likewise in Piers Ploughman; as well 
as in the "Dialogue between Soul and Body". 

The change of pronunciation , from knowleche to knowledge, 
by the flattening of the final sharp palatal, is precisely 
similar to the change which has taken place in other words 
ending with the same sound. Thus, to instance a few, 
Cartouch : Cartridge 

Hotchpotch : Hodgepodge 


Spinach Spi image 

Ostrich Ostridge 

Smutch Smudge 

Grutch Grudge 

Fletch Fledge 

Partriche Partridge 

[Parritch, L. Sc.] Porridge. 

There is no doubt that in these instances, cli is the earlier, 
dg the later form. It is the same with many proper names, 
such as Greenwich, Woolwich, Harwich, pronounced Grin- 
nidge, Woollidge, Harridge; and Swanwich, in Dorset, (called 
in the Saxon Chronicle, Swanawic, and in Domesday Book, 
Swanwic) which is commonly spelt Swanage, the orthography 
following the pronunciation, as it does also in Brummagem 
Bromwichham, the true name of Birmingham. 

The series of words, ancient and modern, which come 
under our present consideration, may accordingly be ex- 
hibited as follows: 




Mod. Engl 

= 1. To Know v. 

= 2. Knowledge n. 

3. To Acknowledge . . v. 

Old Engl. 
. f To Knowen . . i 

' I To Knowe . . . ) 
2. Knowleche . . . 
o f To Knowlechen i 

' I To Knowleche J 

4. Knowleching . . n. =4. Acknowledgement . n. 

The syllable to be explained, therefore, is -lech; and this 
is manifestly a suffix, marking the Abstract Noun deduced 
from the related Verb. This Suffix, as regards its import, 
is precisely identical with the Suffix -ing in knoivleching, and 
the Suffix -ment in acknowledgement; and indeed, with all 
the Suffixes (rather a numerous class) which indicate the 
derivation of Abstract Nouns from corresponding Verbs. 

This being the import of the Suffix, where are we to look 
for its origin? 

I believe that some light may be thrown upon this point 
by an archaic word of a similar form, which occurs in 


Domesday Book, but which has long been completely ob- 
solete. This word is 


In Domesday Book (see the edition printed by the Record 
Commission in 1833, vol. i. p. 262), there appears under 
the head of Cestrescire (Cheshire) , the following passage : 

"Qui Rerelach faciebat; vel Latrocinium . vel violentiam femina* in 
doino inferabat; unus-quis-que horum XL solidos emendabatur." 

On this passage, Sir Henry Ellis, in his 'General Intro- 
duction to Domesday Book', 1833, vol. i. p. 281, makes 
the following comment: 

"Revelach occurs in the account of Chester only. 'Qui 
Revelach faciebat: XL solid emdabatur'. Kelham in his 
Domesday Book illustrated, p. 315, explains Revelach to have 
been any traitorous act or insurrection; but its real signi- 
fication was that of robbery or rapine. See the Laws of 
Ina, cap. 10. In Canute's Laws [P. ii. 60. Wilk. p. 143] we 
read' Si quis rapinam (reaflac) commiserit, reddat et com- 
penset, et sit sestimatione capitis dignus apud Regem, vel 
apud euin qui immunitatem illius possidet." 

Bearing in mind that the quotation from Domesday Book 
must be referred to the year A. D. 1086, a date prior to 
the commencement of any phase of the language which can 
properly be termed Old English; the form of the word 
Revelach nevertheless deserves especial attention. It may 
have been merely an attempt to represent in a Latinised 
orthography the A. S. reaflac ' ; at the same time , we cannot 
say with certainty what particular sound was intended to 
be expressed by the final ch, nor are we thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the extent to which A.S. had become modi- 
tied at the date referred to, 20 years after the Norman 
Conquest, and more than 40 years after the accession of 
Edward the Confessor. 

1 The form Revelach affords strong evidence that the A. S. pronun- 
ciation of the word was Reatlac; the A.S. f being, in certain situations, 
most probably pronounced like r. But what was the value of ck in 
Domesday Book? Did it always represent k? 


At all events, it appears to me that this word Revelach 
bears the same relation to the obsolete verb Reve or Reave 
= Rob (which now exists only in the secondary form Be- 
reave), that Knowleche does to Knowe. The distinction be- 
tween 'stealing', or secret theft, and 'reaving', or robbery 
with open violence, is well marked by Chaucer, in the 
Reeve's Tale: 

"And hardily they dursten ley here nekke 
The meller schuld nat slel hem half a pekke 
Of corn by sleighte, ne by force hem rece." 

Based upon this verb (Reve) , Revelach is the Abstract Noun, 
expressive of the act of robbery, the offence of rapine. 

This enables us to carry our investigation one step further. 
Reaflac was the A.S. form of Revelach; and was derived 
from the A. S. verb Reaflan = to reave , to rob. There was 
a related concrete noun , Reaf plunder , spoil ; the dif- 
ference between Reaf and Reaflac being the same as the 
difference between 'plunder' and 'plundering', 'spoil' and 

No doubt, Reaf may sometimes have been used in an 
Abstract, and Reaflac in a Concrete, sense; for this kind 
of interchange between Abstract and Concrete Nouns is ex- 
tremely common; but I apprehend, nevertheless, that the 
distinction between Reaf and Reaflac is in strictness what 
has just been stated. 

As the word suggests so many important considerations, 
it may be well to examine it more closely. It occurs, as 
Sir H. Ellis says, in the Laws of Ina, and in the Laws of 

Laws of Ina, c. 10. "Be Reaflace X. Gif hwa binnan 
j&am gemserum ures rices reaf-lac and nied-nseme [or, nyd- 
nseme] do . agife he J&one reaf-lac . and geselle LX scill. to 
wite." "Of Reaf-lac 10. If any one within the limits of 
our realm commit 'reaf-lac' and 'nyd-naeme', let him give 
up the 'reaf-lac', and pay LX shillings as 'wite'." (See 
"Ancient Laws and Institutes of England", edited by Mr. 
Thorpe, and published by the Record Commission in 1840, 
8vo. Also, Wilkins's "Leges Anglo-Saxonicse", in which 


the Latin version is given as follows: "Si quis intra li- 
mites regni nostri pr?edetur, et cliripiat, reddat rapinam 
iliam, et solvat sexaginia solidos poenae loco.") 

Mr. Thorpe makes the following note upon this Law (vol. i. 
p. 10!)): "In the later documents 'reaflae' is used in a sense 
equivalent to the 'disseisin' of our ancient law-books : 'and 
heo to />am genedde />33t hy brucan />ara landa onreaflace: 
and urged her to that degree that they should hold the 
hinds in disseisin.' Text. Rqft'. c. 80. It is clearly the ra- 
l>i,ta of the Latin annalists. 'Addidit idem deceptor malum 
malo et doliun dolo, Deoque ac Sancto Petro abstulit cum 

nt/iina Burh et Undelas et Kateringes judicaverunt etiam 

ut Leofsius episcopo totum damnum suum suppleret, et 
mundam suam redderet; de rapina vero regi forisfacturam 
emendaret, dato pretio genealogiae suae' Hist. Eliensis, c. x. 
p. 469. In their origin, the terms in the text are synony- 
mous; and unless we refer reaflac to the spoil, and nyd- 
n<rme to the mode of execution, there will be a difficulty 
in shewing that they are not so here, since the reaflac alone 
is spoken of as the thing to be restored. By JElfred, in 
his translation of Bede, nydnwrne is used in the sense of a 
violent taking away." 

The grounds for supposing that reaflac is, in its origin, 
synonymous with nydna'me compulsory taking [nyd = need] 
are not stated; but it is clear that in the first clause of the 
Law, reaflac is used in an Abstract sense [= robbery], 
whilst in the second clause it may be regarded as having 
a Concrete meaning [= plunder]. "If any one commit rob- 
bery [reaiiac], let him give back the plunder [reaflac]." 

Laws of Cnut. Secular, c. 64 "Reaflac. De Rapina. 
Gif hwa reaf-lac gewyfce, agife and forgylde, and beo his 
weres scyldig wid j&one cyninge [ofpQ witf pone j5e his 
socne age]." "Reaf-lac. If any one commit 'reaf-lac', let 
him give it up, and compensate, and be liable in his 'wer' 
to the king." (Thorpe, vol. i. pp. 410, 411.) The Latin 
version given by Wilkins (in whose edition this law is c. 60) 
has been quoted above, from Sir Henry Ellis. 
Wilkins, in his Glossary, has these entries: 


" Rieflacum Roberiam signat, quam vide 

"Roberta Quod autem Normannis et nobis Roberta, Saxonibus 

fnit rcaflac (unde Latino-barbarorum Rieflarum) sic enim vocem vertit 
Jornalensis in sua L.L. Inae cap. 10, et L.L. Canuti par. 2. cap. 60, e 
Saxonico in Latinum translatione: Lambardns an tern Rapinam." 

He does not, however, notice the form of the word (Rcve- 
lacli) as it is found in Domesday Book. 

There was another variety of the Abstract Noun, viz. 
Reafung, which adopted the common sufiix -ung = -ing; as 
in A.S. Gnawing O.K. knowing (n.) I do not find, how- 
ever, any direct evidence of the existence in A. S. of a form 
(such as cnawlac) equivalent to Knowleche, side by side with 
cnawing, and one naming. This last word, Bosworth inter- 
prets "knowledge"; though he explains Oncnawan as mean- 
ing "to know, recognise, acknowledge." Oncnawan is no 
doubt the immediate parent of the 0. E. acknow; but it is 
often very difficult to distinguish, in actual usage, between 
the various shades of meaning in words like these, which 
refer to operations of the mind. 

Of course, the mere absence of such a word as cnawlac 
from the remaining records, affords no decisive proof that 
it did not exist in A. S. ; and looking at the early occurrence 
of knowleche in O.E., at the extreme rarity of this peculiar 
suffix, at the analogous instance of Revelach, which we can 
trace direct to A.S. Reaflac, it seems most probable that 
some such word as cnawlac in A.S. was the precursor of 
O.E. knowleclie. If not, the latter word must have originated 
between the close of the A. S. period, and the time of 


Having thus tracked the E. suffix -ledge back to the A.S. 
suffix -lac, by the aid of the intermediate forms -leche and 
lack, we shall be prepared to recognise the same suffix in 
another peculiar word Wedlock; which, like knowledge, has 
greatly perplexed our Lexicographers. Johnson, followed 
by Todd, gives us the following explanation: 

"Wedlock, u. s. [wed and l<ic, fSaxon, marriage and gift.] Marriage; 

Ash takes the same view: 

"Wedlock (s. from the Sax. wed, a marriage, and lac, a gift.) The 
marriage state, matrimony.'' 

On the other hand, Bailey thought that he saw a different 

"Wedlock [wedloc of weddian, Sax. to marry &c. loc, a, lock, q. 
the lock or fastening of marriage] Matrimonial tie." 

Between these two conjectures, Webster found himself 
unable to choose: 

"Wedlock, n. [Qu. ired and lock, or Sax. lac, a gift.] Marriage; 

liirhanlson passes the question by, in silence; but the 
quotations he furnishes exhibit two forms of the word in 
O.E., viz. Wedlaike, in Robert of Bruune; Wedlok^ in 
Piers Plouhman, and Chaucer. 

It seems to me that the explanation adopted by Johnson 
and Ash cannot possibly be correct. In the first place, it 
does not appear that wed (n.) was used in A.S. to signify 
marriage; but if it was, then the compound word l wed -\- lac' 
would not mean marriage, but a ^marriage-gift'. Bailey's 
suggestion is little better, if at all; for not only is the com- 
position of the verb weddian with the noun lock^ in any 
such sense, contrary to all rule or analogy 1 , but even if 
iced (n.) be substituted for weddian (v.), the case is not 
much improved; as there is no historical ground for sup- 
posing- that 'marriage-lock' = 'matrimonial tie' (as he thinks 
n't to interpret it) is, or ever was, the true signification of 
the term, and as we proceed with our inquiry, it will be 
sufficiently plain that this unsupported (and doubtless hap- 
hazard) conjecture is of no real value. 

Wcdlac was an A.S. word; but its actual meaning is by 

1 It is hardly necessary to remark (though Bailey seems quite to have 
overlooked it) that a word formed of the rerb 'wed' and the noun 'lock' 
would really mean 'one who weds locks'; as 'pickpocket 1 means 'one 
who picks pockets', 'cutthroat', 'one who cuts throats', and so forth; 
a compound word of this class being in fact a phrase, consisting of the 
Y(M-l) \\ith its dependent noun in the objective or accusative case. 'Wed 
(r.) -f lock (n.)', meaning 'the lock of mar therefore an im- 

possible word. 



no means clear. The only authority for it appears to be 
./Elfric's Glossary (Somner); from which I take the follow- 
ing extracts: 

p. 58 Pignus, wed vel altenod feoh 
Arra, gylden wed, vel feoh 
Arrabona, vel arrabo, wed vel wedlac. 
p. 74 Arrabo j wedlac. 

The distinction between pignus = a pledge, and arra or 
arrabo earnest-money, does not appear to be closely ob- 
served, though it is certainly indicated, in these interpre- 
tations; and no doubt, the two ideas are easily confounded, 
as earnest-money paid on the ratification of a bargain is a 
kind of pledge for its ultimate fulfilment. But it is to be 
remarked that the only word which is placed by ^Elfric 
directly against wedlac, either at p. 58 or p. 74, is Arrabo. 

The following entry in Bosworth 'seems therefore to be 
scarcely exact: 

"Wedlac [lac, a gift] a pledge; pignus -Elf. gl. Soin. p. 58." 

Lye is more correct: 

"Wed-lac Arrhabo, pignus. R. 14, 87. JElfr. gl. p. 58." 

On the other hand, Skinner (Etymologicon L. A.) states 
as follows: 

" Wed, pariini deflexo sensu ab A. S. Wed, Pignus, Arrha, Weddian, 
Beweddian, Pacisci, Spondere, Pignorare, et, secundario sensu, Despon- 
sare, Sponsalia contrahere, . . . Occnrrit et apud JElfricura Wedlac, 
quod Dona Sponsalitia exponitur, a dicto Wed and Lac, Munus; nobis 
autem Wedlock, quod hujus vocis Wedlac procul dubio Propago est, 
variato aliquantum sensu, Matrinioniurn signat. Fr. Jim. ab v Edvn de- 
flectit." 1 

Whichever of these three meanings really belonged to 
Wedlac (pignus a pledge; arrha or arrhabo = earnest- 
money ; or dona sponsalitia = marriage-gifts or dowry) , or 
whether in the course of time it acquired all three; in any 
of these cases, it would apparently be a concrete noun, re- 
ferring to the things pledged, paid, or given. 

But Wedlock is an Abstract Noun, expressive of the state 
of matrimony; derived, apparently, from the verb To Wed, 

1 Junius, however, gives no account of Wedlock, 


like Knowledge from the verb To Know. The connecting 
link between Wedlac arrhabo, pignus ; and Wedlock = mar- 
riage, remains to be supplied. 

This leads us to the consideration of another A. S. word 
with the same termination Wiflac; which is thus explained 
in the Dictionaries: 

Somner " Wiflac Nuptiae. A wedding or marriage A hrid = ale." 
Lye "Wiflac Matrimonium, nuptiae. LL. pol. Canut. 44." 
Bosworth "Wiflac A female gift, marriage, wedlock; matrimonium, 
nuptiae, L. pol. Cuut. 44." 

I have quoted these entries, in order to remark the curious 
interpretation inserted by Bosworth "a female gift"; which 
I suppose was introduced merely to indicate the presumed 
connection of the last syllable of wiflac with lac = a gift; 
and not for the purpose of intimating that wiflac has ever 
been met with, in any A.S. writings, in the sense of "a 
female gift". 

I have also quoted them in order to notice the very dif- 
ferent meaning assigned to the word by Thorpe. The Law 
of Canute referred to by Lye (c. 44 in Wilkins, and c. 48 
in Thorpe) is as follows: 

"Gifhwa openlice lengcten-bryce gewyrce.purh feoht-lac . oppe purh 
wif-lac. oppe purh reaf-lac. oppe purh aenige healice misdaeda. sy $ twy- 
bete. swa ou heah freolse. be pam pe seo daed sy. and gif man aetsace. 
ladige hine mid pryfealdre lade." 

Latin version, as given by Wilkins: 

"Si quis publice Quadragesimam dissolvat per dimicationem, vel 
per malriinonium, vel per rapinam, vel per aliquod nefandum facinus, 
duplo hoc compensetur, ut etiain in magno festo pro ratione ejus quod 
factum est. Et si quis neget, triplici purgationo se purget." 

English translation, as rendered by Thorpe (vol.i. p. 403) : 

"If any one openly commit lent-breach, through fighting, or through 
fornication, or through robbery, or through any heinous misdeeds; let 
the 'but' be twofold, as on a high festival, as the deed may be; and if 
any one deny it, let him clear himself with a threefold 'ladV 

Whichever of these two renderings be the correct inter- 
pretation of wiflac, it is equally an Abstract Noun; as are 
also the two other accompanying words with the same 
characteristic termination: thus 


feohtlac = fighting 
wiflac = wiving 
reaflac reaving, or robbing 

I apprehend that wiflac bears the same relation to A.S. 
wifian "uxorem ducere, to wive, to take a wife" (Som- 
ner), that reaflac does to rcafian; which, as already ob- 
served, is the same relation that Knowledge bears to Know; 
i. e. the relation of the Abstract Noun to the corresponding 
Verb. As in the instances of Reafung and Gnawing, there 
is also the alternative form of the Abstract Noun Wifung 
= "Connubium, nuptiae: wedlocke, marriage, a wiving" 
(Somner) ; and we may further compare the concrete nouns, 
wif and reaf, as well as wed and feoht. Hence, we may 
place together 

wif : witian : wiflac : wifung 
wed : weddian : wedlac : weddung 
reaf : reatian : reaflac : reafung 
feoht : feohtan : feohtlac : 

I would therefore venture to infer that wedlac , in its true 
and original sense, meant the act of pledging or the state 
of being pledged, and not the thing in pledge; although, 
as frequently happens with Abstract Nouns, it may have 
been subsequently employed with a Concrete signification. 
This view appears to be supported by the statement in 
jElfric's Glossary (p. 58):- 

"Arrabo, wed vel wedlac." 

Although we may not be able to adduce any passage in 
any remaining A.S. writings, in which Wedlac means mar- 
riage, yet we must concur with Skinner, that the modern 
Wedlock is its undoubted descendant; and for the present 
we must apparently rest content with the admission, that 
we cannot affirm, at what time the word acquired this mean- 
ing (which is probably itself an extension of an intermediate 
sense, referring to betrothal), further than to say that if 
this did not occur during the A.S. period, it must have 
taken place at a very early stage of 0. E. 

The result (and it is a curious one) seems to be, that 
we have lost the original word wiflac altogether, and that 

BY DANBY P. 1RY, KS( t >. 87 

(in the sense of 'matrimony') we have substituted for it 
the word wcdlac^ using this latter word with a signification 
which it did not originally bear, and at the same time de- 
priving it entirely of its primary meaning 1 . 

Before closing these remarks, it is right to advert to an- 
other word of the same class 2 , A. S. liblac or lyblac, 
from which we might no doubt derive some assistance, if 
we knew more about it. It is a curious and interesting 
word, which we have wholly lost; or rather, which has ne- 
cessarily passed away, together with the practices, the 
opinions, and the feelings to which it referred. We meet 
with it in the Laws of Edmund, and of Ethelstan: 

Edmund (Thorpe, vol. i. p. 247) 

"6. ffa pe man-sweriatf and lyblac wyrcafr. hi a fram aelcum Godes 
daele aworpene . buton hy to rihtre daed-bote gecyrran." 

"6. Those who swear falsely and work 'lyblac', let them be for 
ever cast out from all communion with God, unless they turn to right 

Ethelstan (Thorpe, vol. i. p. 203)- 

"VI. Ond we cwaedon be pa>m wicce-crspftum. and be liblacuui. and 
be morff-daedum. <fec." 

"6. And wo have ordgined respecting witch-crafts, and 'lyblacs', 
and ' morth-daeds ' ; if any one should be thereby killed, and he" [i.e. 
the offender] "could not deny it, that he be liable in his life <fec." 

Here, liblacum is in the plural; but still it seems to be 
an Abstract Noun [ Sorceries, or poisonings, or whatever 
it may have meant], and therefore to imply the existence 
of a Verb (such as libban, or libbian}, which, however, 
does not appear to have been met with. 
Mr. Thorpe's note on Ethelstan' s law is as follows: 
" Whatever may have been the precise import of this 

1 We have also discarded the good old Saxon verb to wive; substitut- 
ing for it the Norman verb to marry, which regards the matrimonial re- 
lation from the opposite point of view, in the one, the husband (//mri), 
in the other, the wife, forming the dominant idea. In the words re- 
lating to the marriage ceremony, however, the popular instinct has re- 
tained the Saxon terms, bride, bridegroom, bridesmaid, bridal, referring 
to the maiden about to become a wife, and in whom the interest of the 
occasion chiefly centres. 

1 Fearlac occurs in the Ancren Riwle 232. 


term [liblac] in its usual acceptation, whether lascinatio or 
incantatio, as given in the book, it is clearly derived from 
the same root with the Old German 'luppi', venenum; 
'luppig', venenatus; 'luppari', veneficus; 'lubper', male- 
iicus, hence, lybbe-lyb, lyblac." (See also his observations 
on Liblac, in his Glossary; and further, the article 'Luppen\ 
in Wachter.) 

Without citing the various articles in Spelman, Somner, 
and Lye, under the words Lib, or Lyb; Liblac, or Lyblac; 
Liblwcan, or Lyblcecan; Lybsin; Libesne , or Lybesne-, and 
Lifesne, or Lyfesne ; as well as Unlibbe, and Unlibbe-wyrlda ; 
the following quotation from Somner will indicate the doubt 
hanging over the meaning of the word: "Liblac Oblatio 
vivorum, quibusdam: aliis autem, ars venefica, fascinatio." 


The subjoined list exhibits the words which have been 
examined : 











1. wifian 



2. weddian 



rwedlaike i 
Iwedlok J 



3. reafian 



revelach l 

4. feohtan 




5. cnawan 







And a review of the whole matter seems fairly to lead us 
to these two conclusions: 

First, that the -ledge in knowledge and the -lock in wed- 
lock are divergent varieties of the same original suffix, viz. 
A.S. -lac. 

And second, that this suffix has precisely the same force, 
and answers precisely the same purpose, as -ing, and -ment, 

1 Inserted in this colnmn, subject to the remarks made above, as to 
its occurrence in Domesday Book. 


and many others, which serve to mark the relation of an 
Abstract Noun to its corresponding Verb. 

Without attempting, at present, to trace this suffix to its 
origin, it may be useful to observe that in all the cases 
under examination, there are two parties mutually concerned; 
iri/lc, whether = matrimonium, or fornicatio ; wedlac, whether 
= pledging, or wedlock; rcaflac, involving the plunderer 
and the plundered; feohtlac, requiring two combatants; and 
lihldf, comprehending both the sorcerer and his victim. 
Knoit'lec/ie may, at first sight, seem to be an exception; but 
I believe it is only an apparent exception, and not a real 
one. 'Acknowledgement' certainly contemplates two parties; 
and so do 'teaching' and 'learning'. 

The suffix itself is, perhaps, rather Scandinavian than 
Teutonic; cf. Tcel. or = liberal, drleikr = liberality ; Swed. 
bar dear, karlek love. 



The insects popularly known as Caterpillars are commonly 
represented in English by the three names Caterpillcrs, 
Cankers, and Palmer-worms. I propose briefly to illustrate 
each of these terms. 

The word cater-piUcr contains two elements, respecting 
the precise signification of which various theories have been 
propounded. The majority of these agree in assigning to 
the element piller the meaning 'despoiler' from the French 
piller 'plunder', derived from the Latin pilari. The first 
portion of the word has been identified with (1) the quadruped 
Cat; (2) the word cafes; (3) a Dutch word Kertoi, 'circum- 
toiidtTe"; and (4) with the French chair from caro, flesh. 

Of the various derivations propounded in Dictionaries the 
earliest I have -seen appears to be also the most plausible. 


It is contained in Minsheu's "Guide into Tongues". He 
writes: "Caterpiller, a little worme with many feete. G. 
chatte-pcleuse, q. catus pilosus, ob similitudinem." This word 
chatte-peleuse is given by both Topsell and Mouffet as the 
French representative of Caterpiller. In support of the theory 
that cater is connected with cat, I may mention the fact 
that the Swiss call the insect Teufels-katz or 'Devils-cat', 
and the Lombard Italians term it Gotta and Gattola, c Cat' 
and 'Kitten'. That the form cater is legitimate and possible 
in English is satisfactorily shown by a comparison with the 
word catter-wauling > in which the connection with the animal 
is unquestioned. Thus Beaumont and Fletcher in the Wild- 
goose Chase (A. IV, S. 3): 

Out kitlings! 
What catter-wauling's here? 

The Germans also have the two forms, die Katze and der 
Kater. The Norman Carpleuse seems to be a compression 
of cater-peleuse. 

In our older writers I find the word usually written with 
a doubled t, as in the Italian Gotta. In the Latin catus the 
a is unquestionably long. I mention this because in Dr. 
Smith's Latin Dictionary, possibly by an oversight, it is 
marked short. Had the editor examined the passage in the 
Anthology to which a reference is given, he would have 
found Catu8 commencing the hexameter. 

Junius, in his Etym. Angl. , records two very singular 
varieties of the word. I have never seen them in any other 
writer, nor have I found them in any of our archaic or 
provincial vocabularies ; and I cannot refrain from regarding 
them as mere inventions or blunders of the old Lexicographer. 
He writes: "Cartle; circumtondere , incidere per ambitum. 
B. Kerten , Kertelen Fortasse ad hoc verbum non male re- 
feras Angl. Cartepiller, Cartlepiller, curculio, quod herbas 
ac fruges arrodendo circumtondeat." 

The connection between the insect and the cat must, I 
think, be sought in the fact that certain common species 
of Caterpillers when disturbed have the habit of rolling them- 
selves up after the fashion of Cats when disposing them- 


selves to sleep. Mouffet speaks of the "Cat-fashioned Beetle", 
moaning the larva of the 'Bloody-nose' which somewhat 
resembles a caterpiller, and rolls itself up. 

From the habit of rolling itself up one species infesting 
vines has received in Latin the names volvox, convokohts, 
ami i'ohT(i. Volvox is accurately defined by Minsheu: "quod 
fiirillime et saepissime seipsum involvat vitium foliis eaque 
exedat." Its vine-eating propensities are thus described by 
Cooper in his Thesaurus (1584): "Vohox, a little worme 
with many legges eating the leaves of vines or other trees." 
urolcolus, a little hayrie worme with many feete that 
eateth vines." "Volucra, a vermine that eateth tender vines," 
and hence Topsell (Serp. p. 666) speaks of them as " Vine- 
fretters, which are a kind of Catterpillers or little hairy 
wormes with many feet, that eat vines when they begin to 
shoot." The fretter in this word is from the Sax. freterc, 
'an eater, a glutton', a root retained in fret, fret-fid, fret- 
work, and in frass, the rejectamenta found at the entrance 
of the burrows of wood-boring insects. In German the in- 
sect is called Weingart-wurm, Reb-wurm; in Italian Volvolo. 

AVith regard to the second element piller I must frankly 
admit that there is much plausibility in the received inter- 
pretation which connects it with the French piller. The 
earliest advocate of this view, as far as I am aware, is 
Mouffet, who, in his Theater of Insects (L. ii. c. I) re- 
marks : " It is no fond conceit to maintain that Catterpillers 
had their name in Latine from devouring; for they eat up 
leaves, boughs, flowers, fruit;" and the latest is Mr. Wedge- 
wood, who writes: "The second half of the English word 
doubtless alludes to the destructive habits of the insect 
lulling the trees upon which it is bred" (Diet. v. Cater- 
piller). Their destructive power is finely indicated in Joel 
(c. 1,4): "That which is left of the palmer-worm, hathe 
the grasshopper eaten; and the residue of the grasshopper 
hathe the canker-worm eaten; and the residue of the canker- 
\yonn hathe the caterpiller eaten" (Geneva. 1561); and so 
Shukspere (II. Hen. iv. A. 2. Sc. 2): "And Caterpillers eat 
my leaves away." 


Still the idea of hairyncss is so strikingly characteristic 
of many of the commonest species of the insect, and is so 
frequently expressed in its popular and archaic names that 
I cannot hesitate to adopt the derivation from pilosus. 

In the first place there is no evidence of the existence 
of a French word for the insect containing the form piller, 
unless we assume that peleuse represents pilling. The proba- 
bility of this assumption is reduced to a minimum when we 
consider the old Italian name, quoted by Mr. Wedgewood, 
Bruco peloso. Bruco is the modern representative of the 
Latin Bruchus, Gr. P(>ov%og or PQOVXOQ, which is employed 
by Theophrastus , for "a kind of Locust without wings" 
(Lidd. and Scott.) , i. e. a locust in the larva state ; and the 
Italians appear to have taken this representative of a soft- 
bodied insect, and to have added the qualification hairy, to 
express a caterpiller. As an illustration of the vague use 
of these specific terms, we find in an old A. Sax. Vocabulary 
(vol. Yoc. p. 77): "Bruchus, ceafor" , i.e. beetle; and in 
the modern classification of Insects, the word represents a 
genus of Beetles. 

In England, and especially in the Northern and Western 
counties , this peculiarity of hairyness has originated several 
descriptive names. In the west country a caterpiller is now 
called an oobit, oubit, or oubut; and that they were, and 
still are, so named in the North appears from the follow- 
ing passages: Topsell (Serp. p. 665) remarks "Of the 
English they are commonly called caterpillers, of what kind 
soever they be of. But the English Northern men call the 
hairy caterpillers otibuts; and the Southern men usually term 
them Palmer-worms" And Kingsley, in one of his Essays, 
speaks of "the oak-egger and Fox-moth Caterpillers which 
children call Devils-gold-rings, and Scotsmen Hairy-Oubits" 
In Derbyshire they are called Obeds. Now this oubit can 
be resolved into two elements, oo, ou, or o, and bit, but, 
or bed. The first has lost a final I and an initial w. In 
the North u-ool is commonly called oicl, and Kennett informs 
us that the wool-smugglers in his time were termed owlers; 
and doubtless this is the origin of a northern provincial word 


for hairy, oozling. But theorizing is unnecessary; for in an 
old Dictionary quoted by Mr. Wright, we find the actual 
word in its uncorrupted state wool-bed, 'a hairy cater- 
piller'. The second element bit, but, bed, is the common 
name for an insect bedc, bode, or bucle, which is of such 
frequent occurrence in the A. Sax. vocabularies, in Old 
English, and in the modern Provincial dialects. When the 
Scotchman prefixed 'Hairy' to the oubit, he simply showed 
that for him the word had ceased to be a descriptive and 
significant term. 1 may add that one of tin- Sanskrit names 
for a caterpillar fairly translates the word Wool-bed. It is 
('iika-kita, literally a 'bristle-worm', or 'hairy-worm'. An- 
other Sanskrit name Vriachika, from the root rriwha, to 
cut, means both a 'hairy caterpiller' and 'a thorny or 
bristling shrub'. 

In Warwickshire they are called Woolly-bears and Woolly- 
boy*. Topsell says: "By reason of their roughness and 
ruggednoss some call them Bear-worms" (Serp. p. ti(>7), and 
Mouffet (L. ii. c. 3), echoing his words, writes: "By reason 
of their hair they are called Bear-tcorm^ So the Germans 
name them Bar-rawpen and Haarige-raupen. 

In a recent paper on the 'Wood-louse' I have mentioned, 
on the authority of AVright and Halliwell, the names trd- 
bode and wolbode as synonyms of that animal. I am inclined 
to believe that they have mistaken the meaning of the words, 
and that the terms in question are identical with the wool- 
/><'</ mentioned above. In a Nominate of the 15 th century, 
included in Mr. Wright's Vol. of Vocabularies, I find "mul- 
tipes, a welbode," with an editorial gloss, 'a wood-louse'. 
Now it is quite true that -multipex usually represents that 
creature in mediaeval Latin, but the constant definition of a 
Caterpiller in writers of that age is "a worme with many 
feete", and 'multipes' is a fair Latin form of such a de- 
finition. In "The Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle", 
contained in the Book of St. Albans and ascribed, apparently 
incorrectly, to Dame Juliana Homers, I find the following 
directions for making an artificial bait for the 'barbyll'. 
fair I'resslie Hiese, and lay it on a borde and kytto 


it in small square pecys of the length of your hoke. Take 
thenne a candyl and brenne it on the ende at the poynt of 
your hoke tyll it be yelow. And thenne bynde it on your 
hoke with fletchers sylke, and make it rough like a welbede" 
Now the woodlouse is a smooth animal, and I have no 
doubt that this wel-bcde bait represents what in the technical 
phraseology of modern fishermen would be termed a palmer, 
i. e. an imitation of a hairy caterpiller. 

I have thus endeavoured to show (1) that the quadruped 
cat is connected with the name of this insect; (2) that the 
idea of hairyncss is extensively recognized as a distinguish- 
ing characteristic; and (3) that the old French chatte-peleuse 
undoubtedly represented the creature in the 16 th century. 

On this last point certain writers appear to have enter- 
tained some misgiving. For instance Skinner writes as fol- 
lows: "Caterpiller, eruca. Minsheu deducit a Fr. chatte- 
peleuse. Hoc autem secundum Cotgravium non erucam sed 
curculionem significat." The word curculio need not have 
troubled Skinner. It means a 'corn-weevil' and in the un- 
developed state is a soft maggot or worm. Junius, for 
example, explains 'cartepiller' by 'curculio'. Skinner ap- 
pears to have had but a faint idea of the vague and per- 
plexing manner in which the ancient names of Insects, 
Plants, Birds, &c. were applied in later times. There was 
little room for doubt or confusion in the case of large 
animals such as the Ostrich or the Elephant, although one 
has been called a 'sparrow' and the other an 'ox', but, in 
the case of the smaller animals, the writers who employed 
the names possessed frequently little or no specific know- 
ledge of the objects themselves. Todd in his edition of 
Johnson has carried this unconsciousness of the meaning of 
chatte-peleuse still further. He says (v. caterpill.): "This 
word Skinner and Minsheu are inclined to derive from 
chatte-peleuse, a weasel! I it seems easily deducible from 
cates, food, and piller, F., to rob, the animal that eats up 
the fruits of the earth." He does not state when the word 
cates was employed to signify the 'fruits of the earth'; but 
he is supported in his theory by Junius, who, under the 


heading cater or cates, observes that "it is manifest why 
volvox or convolvolus is called Caterpiller in English, be- 
cause it destroys the food of man and beast as it springs 
from the earth." 

PALMER-WORM. The fanciful name /'/////^--//WM, applied 
strictly to hairy caterpillers , requires little explanation. It 
appears to date far back, and has been thus correctly in- 
terpreted byTopsell: "There is another sort of these cater- 
pillars \\liicli have no certain place of abode, nor yet can- 
not tell where to find their food, but like unto superstitious 
pilgrims do wander and stray hither and thither and (like 
mice) consume and eat up that which is none of their own; 
and these have purchased a very apt name among us Eng- 
lishmen, to be called Palme r-icornis, by reason of their 
wandering and roguish life, for they never stay in one 
place, but are ever wandering."' (Serp.) Mouftet (L. ii. c. 3) 
states that they were also called Walkers. " We call those 
Walkers, who have no certain houses or food. Wherefore 
they do something superstitiously wander like Pilgrims, and, 
like to mice, they always feed on others' meat. Wherefore 
the English call them Palmer-worms, namely for their 
wandering life, for they dwell no-where." Topsell in the 
passage quoted above is guilty of a slight inaccuracy when 
he says that they "wander and stray hither and thither, 
like unto most superstitious }>i/ ; /rt'ms;^ for a pilgrim and a 
palmer were perfectly distinct characters. The distinction 
between them is thus drawn in Staveley's Romish Horseleach 
([>. !)!)): "The difference between a Pilgrim and a Palmer 
was this. The Pilgrim had some home or dwelling place, 
but the Palmer had none. The Pilgrim travelled to some 
certain designed place or places, but the Palmer to all. 
The Pilgrim went at his own charges, but the Palmer pro- 
fessed wilful poverty and went upon alms."' From this we 
may appreciate the ready humour, or the sad irony, of the 
audacious layman who first applied the name to these home- 
less and destructive wanderers. 

In the West-country they are still called llali-l\ilmi / >. 
But it is very doubtful whether Half is another form nt' 


Holy or of Hairy. I am inclined to believe that it was 
originally hairy, as in the case of the Scotchman's Hairy- 
Oubit, but that the association with Palmer tended to create 
the form Hali. 

CANKER. The Latin word cancer appears in English under 
three forms: (1) canker, through the French cancre; (2) 
chancre, through the French chancre; and (3) cancer, from 
the Latin direct. Originally meaning a 'crab', its secondary 
medical signitication was that of an ulcerated sore eating 
into the flesh. From this idea of an internal ulcer it was 
subsequently applied to insect larvae of every kind that eat 
into the heart of plants and trees. The word however 
gradually acquired a more extensive meaning, and instead 
of indicating simply internal feeders, it was loosely employed 
to designate caterpillers of every kind. Thus Topsell heads 
one of his chapters: "Of Catterpillers or Palmer-worms, 
called of some Cankers"-, and Sir Thomas Brown, in his 
Garden of Cyrus ( 111) writes: "In the Aurelian Metamor- 
phosis the head of the Canker becomes the tail of the 
Butterfly." Shakspere frequently mentions it in its true 
character as an internal destroyer of buds and blossoms, 
and especially of the blossoms of the rose. Thus Titania 
in the Mid. Night's D. bids her attendant fairies disperse 
themselves, "some to kill Cankers in the musk-rose buds;" 
and again he specifies it, without naming it, in the well- 
known passage (Tw. Night, II. 4): 

She never told her love, 
But let concealment, like a worm i'lhe bud, 
Feed on her damask cheek. 

I may observe that the epithet 'damask' in this passage is 
carefully employed, for the peculiar species of rose called 
the 'damask', is frequently mentioned by the writers of 
that age. Thus Fletcher (Faith. Sheph. IV. 1): 

Those curled locks where I have often hung 
Ribbands and damask roses. 

and so Shakspere (Coriol. II. 1): 

Commit the war of while and damask in 
Their nicely gatided cheeks. 

alluding probably to the wars of the Roses. 


Shakspere never employs the word canker as a synonym 
of Caterpiller. With his usual accuracy in depicting natural 
objects with which he was familiar, he describes the cater- 
piller as a devourer of leaves and other external parts of 
plants, but the Canker invariably as an internal feeder. 

The word however is found in Shakspere with a signi- 
fication which is still retained in many of our local dialects. 
I'Yom the fact that rose-buds are frequently infested and 
destroyed by a small internal feeder, the name Canker was 
employed simply as a synonym of the wild rose, or Dog- 
Thus in Much Ado abt. Nothing (I. 3): "I had rather 
be a canker in a hedge, then a rose in his grace;" and in 
i. Hen. IV. (1.3): 

To put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose, 
And plant this thorn, this Canker, Bolinbroke. 

and again in the Sonnets (54): 

The canker blooms have full as deep a dye 
As the perfumed tincture of the roses, 
Hang on such thorns and play as wantonly. 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Loyal Subject (IV. 3) there is 
a peculiar meaning attached to the word. It seems to be 
used for the shrivelled, blighted, bud. 

The Rose-buds of the beauties turn to cankers, 
Eaten with inward thoughts. 

In Northamptonshire the verb cank means u to be infested 
with cankers". 

The A.S. treow-wyrm, which Bosworth loosely defines as 
"a palmer-worm, a canker, a caterpiller", was probably 
the Timber-worm, the larva of a woodboring beetle, called 
in Germ. Holzwurtn and Schrotcr, in Dutch Hout-worm, in 
Kiiidish Wood-fretter, and in French Artison and Perce-bois. 
is used in O.E. for wood. Treat, of Fysshynge (p. 13): 
"And it shall be made of tree, sauynge the bolte underneth, 
which shall be of yren." 

COLE-WOK M. Another term originally specific in its mean- 
ing has been loosely applied to signify Caterpillers generally, 
vi/. colt'-u-orm. Thus in a Num. 15. cent: "eruca, a cole- 
\voniie"; and Elyot: "Eruca, a worme called the canker., 


which is commonly upon cole-woortes" This is the A.S. 
cawel-wyrm, from cawel, a cole-wort, probably borrowed 
from the Latin caulis. 

By Cole-worm was originally meant the smooth green 
larva of the common white Butterfly, familiarly called the 
Cabbage-Fly; but being an universal pest in Gardens, it 
gradually acquired a wider signification. 

The latter part of the word cole-wurt is sometimes em- 
ployed alone to designate the insect. Thus in the Pict. Voc. 
15 c. (Vol. Voc.) we find "eruga, Anglice, a wart-worm" \ 
and in Halliw. "wurt, the canker-worm". In the Treatyse 
of Fysshynge wyth an angle (p. 29, Ed. Pickering) we read: 
"In August take wortwormes and magotes unto Myghelmas." 

I iind a singular name employed for a Caterpiller in the 
west of England, viz. Malshragge. On comparing two other 
synonyms recorded by Wright, Malli-sliag and Mole-shag, evi- 
dently connected with Mal-shragge, we ascertain that r is 
an intrusive element in the word. I believe that the name 
is a genuine A.S. relic, though somewhat disguised in its 
modern dress. In Alfric's Saxon Voc. we find "Eruca, 
mcel-sceafa" ', and in a Sem. Sax. Voc. 11 th c. "eruea, mcesle- 
sceafe". The derivation of this word appears doubtful; but 
I think that the insect intended is the true canker-worm, 
the internal feeder that makes its presence known by sundry 
spots or blotches on the plant affected. If this be so, it 
may be formed from the A.S. mcel, 'a spot or blotch', and 
sceafan, 'to cut, shave', and so mean the 'blotch-maker'. 
The Saxon mcel is the source of our word mole, a spot. 
Hence the form Mole-shag, mentioned above. Wright ex- 
plains this word by "a cat", and Halliw. by " a caterpiller". 
I presume that the printer mistook Mr. Wright's contraction 
for the quadruped. We find the earlier form of mole in 
several provincial words. Thus mell means a stain, a spot 
in linen , and in an old Nominale the word mal-drop occurs, 
meaning a ruby. This word, I may mention, explains the 
fact that Shakspere on one or two occasions has associated 
the words mole, spot, freckle, with rubies. Thus in the 
Mid. N. Dr. (II. 1): 


The cowslips tall her pensioners be: 
In their gold coats spots you see; 
These be rubies, fairy favours; 
In those freckles live their savours. 

;ni(l from another passage, in which he associates mole and 
<//v>y> \vith the cowslip spots which he terms nt/ties, we may 
fairly infer that the word mal-drop was no unfamiliar term 
in his vocabulary. In Cymb. (II. 2): 

On her left breast 

A mole cinque-spotted, like the crimson drops 

Fthe bottom of a cowslip. 

Another singular synonym for Caterpiller is found in 
Devonshire, viz. Muskel, another form of which, Mascal, 
also occurs in the west of England. This word may pos- 
sibly be connected with the Swedish mask, a worm or 
caterpillar; but another explanation is suggested by a MS. 
gloss, quoted by Halliwell, "Mascale et Malt-scale, a palmer- 
worm". This scale is an O.Eng. term for a sore or ulcer, 
i. e. a canker. Thus Cooper (Thesaurus): "Meliceris, a sore 
or scaule in the head out of which ariseth matter like honey." 
Scall is given in Hall, with the meaning "a scale or scab". 
In a Nominate (15 th cent.) we find "glabra, a scalle" , and 
a^ain in another Nomin. "suaraa, a scalle '\ Hence the 
phrase "a scald head". The Muskel is apparently a maggot 
infesting malt. In Lincolnshire they talk of "Bond-eaten 
malt", in which Bond represents bode or bude, and in A.- 
Sax. we find a Corn-iryrm. In Old English writers Malt- 
irorm and Malt-bug occur in the sense of a drunkard. Thus 
Shakspere (I. Hen. IV. II. 1): 

"None of those rnad, inustachio, purple-hued malt-worms" 
and Malt-bug occurs in the same sense in Harrison's Eng- 
land (p. 202). 

Two A. Sax. names for caterpillar seem to have disap- 
peared from the modern language. One is grime, which 
Bosworth interprets: "one grim or masked, a chrysalis, a 
ratcrpiller, an elf, a hag, a witch." This he compares 
with r/rtm. fury, rage, and with f/rima, a ghost, phantom. 
This fancied resemblance to a spectral mask is a conceit 
of considerable antiquity, and suggested the application of 



the term larva to insects in the caterpiller state, although 
this term seems originally to have been employed to de- 
signate the pupa or chrysalis. A slight glance at the figures 
of tropical pupae given in some of the older writers of 
Natural History is sufficient to explain and justify the use 
of the word larva. 

The other Saxon name Emcl, 'a canker-worm', is of 
doubtful origin. 

The name of another quadruped is sometimes employed 
to represent the Caterpiller. The French CJienille is probably 
derived from caincula, a little dog. In Milanese Italian the 
silkworm is known by the names Can and Caynon; and in 
Kent certain insects infesting the Hops, are called by the 
natives Hop-dogs. There is reason however to suspect that 
this last is only an apparent illustration. I shall have oc- 
casion to refer to the word again. Mr. Wright remarks in 
his Dictionary : "The children of Worcestershire used, when 
they saw a large caterpiller crawling on the ground, to say : 

A Millad, a Mollad, 
A ten o'clock schollad." 

These words are, I presume, corruptions of millar and 
mollar, names bestowed originally on a certain white moth, 
and subsequently applied indiscriminately to all. In Hamp- 
shire a black and scarlet moth was once introduced to me 
as a milly-molly. I have met with no other instance than 
that recorded by Wright of the extension of the term to 

A few peculiar and specific names are registered by Mouft'et 
in the following passage from the Theater of Insects (L. II. 
c. 3): "These have fewer hairs, viz. Crane-bill-eater Cater- 
piller, St. James-wort Caterpiller, Saylyard, Urchin, Bramble 
Caterpiller, and that little Horn beast, which the German 
call Horn-worm*?? Of these the Crane-billy St. James-wort, 
and Bramble are simply taken from the plants on which 
the insects feed. Saylyard refers to the antennae., being the 
term by which the Latin word is usually rendered by old 
writers on Entomology. In a Sem. Sax. Voc. (11 th cent.) 
"Antenna, ^eil-yard". But Mouffet himself frequently em- 


ploys another word, vix. fore.-yard , e. g. "his fore-yard*, 
feet, and forked tail arc yellow''; and an old Vocab. (15 th c.) 
thus renders it: "Antenna, fore\erd'\ These writers of 
course connect the word with ante. Purchas in his Theat. 
of Political Flying Insects (c. 11) has a strange statement 
respecting them. "The horns are called by Aristotle an- 
tennae, because they hold them forth before them." A 
mediaeval scholar's acquaintance with the works of Aristotle 
was usually confined to the Latin version. 

The remaining name, Urchin, is thus explained by Mouffet: 
"The second is perfectly like an Urchin [i. e. a hedge-hog] 
it hath pricks very sharp and thick of a grayish color." 

Another Caterpiller, included by Topsell among his Ser- 
pents, is thus described: "There is yet another Caterpiller 
of yellow blackish colour called Porcellus. We may in Eng- 
lish call it PigH-woui- in respect of the fashion of the head" 
(Serp. p. 666). This is the larva of a Sphynx, now known 
by the name of the Elephant, the elongated snout of the 
catcrpiller possessing a fancied resemblance to the trunk 
of that animal. I may mention as illustrative of the name 
Pigs-snout an old French synonym given by Minsheu, viz. 
lurhec. M'msheu suggests two very wild derivations for the 
word; but it seems to be compounded of bee, a beak or 
snout, and h-nre, dishevelled hair: the head of a lion; but 
in modern French especially the head of a -mid-boar. 

/Mack-Jack is another provincial name for a certain species 
of caterpiller. 

Two of the Sanskrit names for this insect are connected 
with the habit of spinning a cocoon. Kosha-kara, 'the case- 
maker or shell-maker", and Koshavdsin, c the dweller in a 
case or shell'. 

1 a in informed by Professor Marks that the Hebrew Bible 
mentions tour species of the caterpiller tribe, vix. < // 
Ye/ek, Harln', and Gazam. According to Rabbi David Kinchi, 
a great authority in these questions, Gazam attacks the 
corn; llarl.n' (often translated Locust) is the most numerous 
of the species; )YA/- devours the grass; and ( 'haseel devours 
everything. Ga:am is the general term used for a cater- 


piller. The Hebrew noun is derived from Garzootn, which 
means to "cut off". In Arabic the noun is similarly de- 

The Septuagint renders the word Gazam by xa/m/?. This 
appears to be connected with xaitnTw, bend, and to be 
applied with reference to the habit either of curling up the 
body like a sleeping cat, or of curving it in loops when 
crawling. The caterpillers characterized by this latter pe- 
culiarity form a distinct group in scientific classification, 
called Gcometrce. These Geometers are supposed to measure 
the ground as they proceed. In conventional English they 
are known as Loopers from the 'loops' into which their 
bodies are contorted. 

The Latin eruca means both the cole-wort and the cole- 
worm , the insect and its food; but whether the name of 
the vegetable is derived from that of the insect, or the re- 
verse, is not clear. 

In Sussex and Suffolk nests of caterpillers (Germ. Rau- 
pen-nest) are called Puckets, probably a diminutive of poke, 
a bag, and identical with Pocket. 


I have grouped Slugs and Snails together, because in most 
languages the two animals are designated by a single term. 
It is true that in this instance the loose observation of the 
iminstructed eye has anticipated the classification of modern 
Science. In works on Conchology, for these creatures are 
not Insects, we find both registered as Molluscous Gastero- 
pods or 'belly-walkers'; one with an external and visible 
shell; the other with an internal shell concealed from ob- 
servation until detected and exposed by the prying search 
of the Naturalist. Still every denizen of the Town who 
glories in the floral beauties of his suburban garden must 
be painfully familiar with the external characteristics of these 
voracious pests. The two terms, Slug and Snail, are now 
generally recognized and adopted, although we shall find 
the distinction in our own language to be one of modern 


The old Hellenic and Italian nations appear to stand al- 
most alone in possessing separate names for these two Mol- 
lusks. We will therefore allow them precedence on this 
occasion. The Snail, which Hesiod poetically calls 
xo$ (Op. et D. 56!)) is commonly known in Greek as 
from the root %<>/- a shell. In the words xoy%tj, xoy%os, 
xny%v).j] , and xcd%y, and in the Sanskrit cankha, it has 
received a strengthening letter. The neuter xoyliov appears 
to mean the shell, not the animal. The word occurs in the 
Pseudo-Homeric Batrachomyomachia (v. 165). I mention this 
passage, because the line, as it appears in Baumeister' s 
edition ( 1 852) , seems to require correction. The Batrachian 
Prince Puff-cheek addresses a spirited oration to the Frogs, 
calling upon them to arm themselves. They proceed to 
array themselves in suitable equipments boots of mallow 
leaves, corslets of red beet, shields of cabbage leaves, and 
lances of spear-grass, and then follows the extraordinary 
statement that their helmets were snails horns. 

J\(d ja xtnti xoyknav ).t7int)v txctlvnre xanrjvn. 

Baumeister apparently never troubled himself to consider 
whether snails horns could by any possibility form a helmet, 
but in the true spirit of an orthodox critic he accepts the 
fact on the faith of fifteen MSS. and Editions. It is true 
that the h'fteen MSS. and Editions in question give xai xsQa 
xoy'/.H'tr lemtov , presenting suspicious metrical difficulties ; 
but it was easy on the sole authority of Dr. Baumeister to 
insert 7 a , and so heal the peccant metre. But one despised 
MS. gives another reading which had only common sense 
to atone for its isolation among more distinguished names. 

xctt xfjn !>,'); '/.oyknov ktmiov xnnm* aity txaivniov. 
'and helmets of delicate snail-shells invested their heads'. 
One of the earliest editions (1488) supports this reading. 

Another Greek name for the Snail appears in the follow- 
ing forms: ntd/Aoc, uearjlos, oeoifojTTjg, and aetithnt:. The 
origin of these words is obscure. 

In Latin the animal is called cochlea. If the ordinary 
orthography of the word is correct, the Italians seem to 
have borrowed the term from their Hellenic neighbours. 


That cochlea represents the Snail and not the Slug, is evi- 
dent from the derivation of the word , and from the follow- 
ing passage in Pliny. He speaks of "cochleae aquatiles 
terrestresque, exserentcs se domicilio, binaque ceu cornua pro- 
tendentes contrahentesque " (L. IX. 51); and in another pas- 
sage he distinguishes them from Slugs. "Bestiolarum quo- 
que genera innascuntur, napis culices, raphano erucae et 
vermiculi, item lactucis et oleri, utrisque hoc amplius limaces 
et cochleae" (L. XIX. 57). They were well known in all 
their varieties to the epicures of Rome who fed them as 
delicacies for the table. Pliny writes : " Cochlearum vivaria 
instituit Fulvius Hirpinus in Tarquinensi , paullo ante civile 
bellum, quod cum Pompeio magno gestum est, distinctis 
quidem generibus earum, separatim ut essent albae, quae 
in Reatino agro nascuntur ; separatim Illyricae , quibus magni- 
tude praecipua; Africanae, quibus foecunditas ; Solitanae, 
quibus nobilitas" (IX. 82). The finest of our English species, 
the Helix pomatia, found near Dorking, is said to have 
been introduced into this country by an Italian gentleman, 
as a delicacy for his invalid wife. But notwithstanding this 
familiarity with the animal, many of the Latin writers seem 
to have shared the inaccuracy of other nations in confound- 
ing slugs and snails under a common name. Thus Pomp. 
Festus: 'Limaces, cochleae, a limo appellatae '. The philolo- 
gist was probably right in connecting Umax with limo-, but 
wrong in defining limaces as cochleae, slugs as snails. Again 
Columella speaks of 'Implicitus conchae limax', 'the slug 
infolded in a shell'. 

In both Greek and Latin the word limax (A///) is em- 
ployed for the slug. This word seems to be allied to our 
slime and lime (in bird-lime), and to the Latin litnus, as 
suggested by Festus. Yarro had made the same observation 
before. 'Limax, a limo, quod ibi vivit' (L. L. 7. 3. 93). 
The Grammarian is correct in his derivation, but should 
have witheld his reason. Slugs do not live in mud: they 
are slimy in appearance. In Hebrew the common name 
for slug and snail is Shoblool from the root balol, to moisten, 
to flow, and the creature is so called from its conveying 

!;V KKNKST ADAMS, KS(,)., I'll.D. 105 

the idea of moisture and sliminess. In the 56 th Psalm (v. !)) 
we road: "Let them melt away like a snail which melts 
as it goes/' In this passage 'snail' means 'slug'. An Irish 
name for the creature, Scilmidc. means, I am informed, 
"a mucous substance'. 

Other nations usually employ the same term for the two 
animals, or, if the writer wishes to be very exact, he pre- 
to the common name some qualifying and descriptive 
term. Hence arises frequent obscurity in old English writers. 
It is often difficult to attach a definite meaning to the term 
wail. For example, in Shakspere's time this was the only 
name in use for the two animals ; and when he writes of 
the boy 'creeping like snail unwillingly to school', it is 
impossible to say which animal is intended. The analogy 
of 'sluggard' might tempt us to decide in favour of xluy; 
but Plautus (Psentil. III. 1. 29) has 'vincere cochleam tardi- 
tudine', 'to beat a snail in sluggardie'. I will give a few 
extracts from later writers to show that for at least a cen- 
tury after Shakspere the same ambiguity infected our litera- 
ture. Bishop Hall in his 'Occasional Meditations' has the 
following passage 'on the sight of two snails': "There is 
much variety even in creatures of the same kind. See these 
two snails. 9 One hath a house, the other wants it; yet both 
are wails; and it is a question whether case is the better. 
That which hath a house hath more shelter; but that which 
wants it hath more freedom. The privelege of all that cover 
is but a burden; you see, if it hath but a stone to climb 
over, with what stress it draws up that beneficial load, and 
if the passage prove strait, finds no entrance; whereas the 
empty snail makes no difference of way."' Hall died 165(>. 
It is evident that the poverty of the language compels him 
to be diffuse in style, 'that which hath a house', 'that which 
wants it', 'the empty snaiT. tilny and wail would have 
prevented this. The following passage from Sir Thomas 
Brown's Vulgar Krrors (B. III. c. 13) is written by a keen 
obscru-r of nature. u Nor is there any substantial r< 
why in a toad tliere may not be found such hard and la- 
pideous concretions; for the like we daily observe in the 


heads of fishes, as Cods, Carps, and Perches; the like also 
in Snails, a soft and exosseous animal, whereof in the 
naked and greater sort, as though she would requite the 
loss of a shell on their back, Nature near the head hath 
placed a flat white stone, or rather testaceous concretion, 
which though Aldrovandus affirms that after dissection of 
many he found but in few, yet of the great grey snails I 
have not met with any that wanted it." Brown died in 
1682. Again in Markham's Farewell to Husbandry (1625) 
a special section is devoted to Snails as "the great de- 
stroyers of corne"; but from the context it is evident that 
slugs are intended. Junius thus explains Snail, "limax 
sive nuda, sive domiporta"; and Florio (1680): "Lumaca, 
Lumaya, any kind of snaile." I am unable to state at what 
precise period the word slug first appears in our literature; 
but it was probably between 1680 and 1726, for in that 
year Bailey published his dictionary, in which we find "Slug, 
a sort of snail without a shell"; and not long after in 
Churchill's Prophesy of Famine the following line occurs: 

Slugs, pinched with hunger, smeared the slimy wall. 

From this time this distinguishing name came into common 
use. But even to the present day in many of the counties 
of England the word snail is invariably employed in the 
popular dialect for slug. 

I may remark that we must not be misled by such pas- 
sages as the following in Shakspere (Com. of Err.) : "Dromio, 
thou drone, thou snail, thou slug, thou sot"; for slug, which 
frequently occurs in the writers of that age, is invariably 
used as a synonym of sluggard, never as the animal so 
called in modern times. 

The word snail is a compression of the A. S. sncegl, and 
this again is a diminutive of the word sncece, a snake, or 
creeping thing. The primitive is never found in A. S. in 
the sense of a Snail, but we discover traces of it in some 
of our provincial dialects. In Sussex the animal is usually 
called a snag. This appears again in the word snag-gret, a 
term frequently occurring in old English works on Hus- 
bandry, and thus defined by S. Hartlib in his Legacy of 

BY EKNKST ADAMS, KS< t >. 3 PH.D. 107 

Husbandry (Iti5f>): "Snag-greet, which is a kind of earth 
taken out of the rivers full of small shells. It helpeth the 
Itarrcn lands in divers purls of Surrey." Halliwell gives 
the word Snail-cod, and defines it as "sand full of little 
shells'', evidently a synonym of Snay-gret; and in Vilnius 
we find "Snagg, Umax". 

1 was once sweeping for beetles in a retired lane in Kent, 
and had stopped to examine the content of my net. Two 
young natives came up and assisted at the operation. One 
of them after a glance at the net remarked: "Only snakes", 
and on my requesting him to point out the snakes, he showed 
me two or three snails crawling on the side of the net. He 
informed me that there were three or four different kinds of 
snakes in those parts. This form of the word corresponds 
with the Germ. Schnecke, applied indifferently to a snail or slug. 

In the Townl. Mysteries (p. 68) the curious term snoke- 
horn occurs, with the meaning 'a sneaking fellow'. I be- 
lieve this to be another form of snake-horn, i. e. snail-horn. 
In confirmation of this conjecture I would mention that 
snail-horn is still used in the Midland Counties for a snail; 
and in Norfolk the same term is applied to a short stunted 
horn curved downwards. In further confirmation of my con- 
jecture I may appeal to the kindred word slug-horn which 
is thus explained by Forby: "a short and ill-formed horn 
of an animal of the ox kind, turned downwards and ap- 
pearing to have been stunted in its growth. Perhaps it may 
have been contemptuously named thus, from some fancied 
resemblance to that common reptile called the slug, the 
snail without a shell." Snoke-horn then seems to mean 
literally a mail, and then 'a fellow that crawls silently in'. 
The word sneak is of the same origin as snake , each mean- 
ing 'a noiseless creeper". 

This idea of creeping involved in snake is further illustrated 
by an A.S. synonym of #mvgl , viz. conl-criju'l, correspond- 
ing precisely with the German name Knl-*chncckc, the Dearth- 
creeper', and with two Sanskrit names for the earth-worm, 
Malri-latd and Iihif-lata\ from Maht and Ww , earth, and 
lattf, creeper. In Devonshire vipers are familiarly known as 


Long-cripples. This word probably means 'ling-creeper', fre- 
quenting ling or heath. Compare the Danisli lyng-orm, an adder. 
The other provincial and archaic names for the snail are 
connected chiefly with the shell, and not with the animal. 
Several are compounds of the word hod, hood, and dod, 
which Halliwell records as used in Suffolk for 'a shell'. 
Thus Bacon employs the term Dodman, equivalent to the 
Northamptonshire Packman, a metaphor recognized by Bishop 
Hall in his Satires (B. IV. S. 2): 

Bearing his pawn-laid hands upon his backe, 
As snails their shells , or pedlars do their packe. 

Hodman, or 'hoodman', is a name sometimes irreverently 
applied to the Deans of Christchurch , Oxford; and the 
Suffolk people and Lord Bacon designate a Snail, a Hod- 
mandod. Bacon in his Nat. Hist. (Cent. VIII. 732) writes: 
"Those that cast their shells are the lobster, the crab, the 
crawfish , the Hodmandod or Dodman, the Tortoise &c." In 
Northamptonshire it is also called a Hod-dod; in Norfolk 
a Doddy-man; in the West of England a Hodmedod; in 
Berkshire an Odmedod; and in Oxfordshire an Oddy and an 
Oddy-doddy. This last term is one of considerably anti- 
quity, for we find it employed as a fanciful name in the 
earliest of our Dramas, Ralph Royster Doyster. 

"Sometimes I hang on Hoddidoddy' s sleeve." (A. I. S. 1.) 

In Cambridgeshire the shell is called a Granny-dod. I can- 
not account for the granny. 

In Cambridgeshire the shells are familiarly known as 
Guggles, and I find them described elsewhere as Goggle- 
shells. The primitive of these diminutives is seen in the 
A. S. cocca, c a shell', whence the ordinary diminutive cockles, 
the well-known bivalve. The diminutive affix is sometimes 
lost. For example in Northampt. the striped species are 
termed Cocks, and in Devonshire cockles are distinguished 
by the same name. The Lincolnshire natives delight in the 
flat g seen in guggles, and hence they term the yellow va- 
rieties Guinea-Gogs, and the large common Snails Bull- 
gogs. The intrusive nasal seen in the Latin and Greek concha 
and xoyxrj , reappears in Hertfordshire, where these shells 


are familiarly known as conk*, and in the Eastern counties, 
where they are sometimes termed Conkers. 

A consideration of these names will serve to illustrate an 
epithet employed by Shakspere in Love's Lab. Lost (IV. !>): 

Love's feeling is more soft and sensible 
Then are the tender horns of cockled snails. 

I have already shown that our older writers are frequently 
compelled to employ a descriptive epithet with the word 
Snail. 'Cockled snail' is the snail with the shell as dis- 
tinguished from the slug. 

Several of the Sanskrit names for a Snail are connected 
with the shell. Thus ('unilnka, meaning 'a shell'. (\un- 
iixin, 'a, worm with a shell for a house', ('anibu- 
Krinii, and Kavacha-yukta Krinii, 'a worm with a 
shell'. Kaeacha-vasin Krind, Kosa-vasm Krinii, and K6- 
xaht/t(ii 'a shell-housed worm'. 

In Lincolnshire the variegated shells are called Fleuk*, a 
word connected, I presume, with the verb Fleck, to spot; 
and in Northamptonshire the banded varieties are termed 
I\H>ft\', a word I am unable to explain. Another synonym 
of which I can suggest no explanation, is found in the 
Prompt. Parv., viz. Loburyone. 

The idea conveyed in Hesiod's (ptQ&oi*o$ seems to have oc- 
curred naturally to writers of other nations. Cicero, De Div. 11. 
64, quotes an old poet who thus describes the Snail : Terrige- 
nam, herbigradam, domiportam, sanguine cassam. Shakspere 
in As you like it (IV. 1) says: "Ay, of a snail, for though 
he comes slowly, he carries hi* house on his head." In 
Swedish the creature is called llus-matk, 'house-worm'; in 
Danish en tnegl med hints , 'a snail with a house'. In Alfric's 
A.S. Voc. Testudo is rendered by gehuscd smvgl, and on 
the other hand the Slug is described in Old English as a 
'houseless snail'. In an old MS. quoted by Halliwell we 
read: w -Tak the rede snyle that cfepis houseless and sethe it 
in water and gedir the fatt that comes of tham" (MS. Line. 
Mod. f. 284). And similarly in Sanskrit the Slug is de- 
scrihrd as ('<iml'ik<t-1thi<i Krimi n'srv/m, c a worm doprivL'd 
of its shell". 1 am informed that there is no separate term 
in Sanskrit for a slug. In Germ, also the slug is named 


die nackte Schnecke, 'the naked snail', and in Danish en Sneyl 
uden liuus, 'a houseless snail'. The common Latin word 
for a Snail employed in the Saxon and Old Eng. Vocabularies 
is Testudo, while Limajs is retained for the Slug. Thus in 
an A.S. Voc. (Vol. Voc.) we read: "Limax, snegel. Testudo, 
sc pe ha>fd hus"; and again in a Sem. Sax. Voc. (II th cent.) 
Testudo is defined as the snail "pe hacep hus" '; but in the 
Pict. Voc. (15 th cent.) we find Limax and Testudo alike 
rendered c a snaylle'. 

The nearest approach to the Saxon snceal is found in the 
Northamptonshire dialect, in which the animal is called a 
sniggle. In Low Germ, it is a sniyye. In the Northern 
counties the word sniggle is found under a peculiar form 
snevily in which the guttural is represented by v. In il- 
lustration of this change we may compare the Derbyshire 
sneaviny for sneaking, the Southern slioery for slippery, and 
sloven with sloth. 

In modern French the following names occur: Liniace or 
Limas, Lima f on, Coliniacon, and in Provincial French Ca- 
limacon. Of these Limace (Lat. Umax), and Lima^on (Ital. 
limacon), seem to be limited in meaning to the slvg, while 
Colimaqon and Cali/nagon are applied to the snail. It has 
been suggested to me that co in this latter word represents 
cochlea; but a compound of that form is almost unique in 
the French language. In Spanish a snail is caracol, pro- 
bably connected with the verb caracolean, to wind round, to 
twist. The origin of caracol is seen in the Gael, car, twist, 
carach, winding, identical with A.S. cerran, to turn. Com- 
pare the Latin cochlear, 'a windlas'. 

The word dug, applied to the mollusk of that name, is 
represented among the Gothic languages, as far as I have 
observed, only by the Dutch slak and slek, and the Danish 
slay which is defined in Bay's Diet, as snegl uden huus. I 
do not imagine that our word was therefore introduced by 
Scandinavians. The form existed , as we have seen, in early 
times , and necessity or convenience seems to have suggested 
its special application. At the same time the intensive slug- 
gard seems to have come into more general use as the word 
for a lazy person. 


A numerous class of English words, many obsolete or 
provincial, is connected with this root, and a careful ex- 
amination of them has led me to the conclusion that the 
primitive meaning of the root was mud or mire. It then 
brandies into two collateral ideas. (1 st ) that of slippery, 
sliding, and hence smooth, treacherous, deceitful, sly. (2 nd ) 
that of adhesiveness, sticking fast, and hence slow, slug- 
gish, dull, stupid. Indeed sly, slow, and dug are identical 
terms. The sluggard is frequently called the slug, but an 
old English adage runs thus: 

"Lothe to bedde and lothe fro bedde, men schal know the */&-." 

A common name for the slug in English is the Dew-snail; 
in Swedish Dagy-matk, and in Danish Dug-orm. Although 
my authorities give these Swed. and Dan. words as equi- 
valents of Dew-*nail, 1 suspect they have confounded it with 
the Dew-worm which is a totally distinct animal. The source 
of the name Dew-snail may be readily understood from the 
following passage in the "Genera of Recent Mollusca" by 
If. and A. Adams: "Most of them (Slugs) are terrestrial, 
living in woods and gardens, coming forth ichen the Dew 
is on the (/round, and in the evenings, especially after 
showers" (vol. II. p. 217). 

The following are the Keltic terms used to designate (1) 
the Caterpiller, (2) the Snail, and (3) the Slug. 

(1) In the Irish version of the passage quoted above from 
Joel (c. 1. 4) the Palmer-worm is translated by phiast palmer; 
the ( 'anker-worm by pheist chancair; and the Caterpiller by 
dreollan-tcasbhuidh. I have been favoured by Professor Co- 
nellan of Queen's Coll. Cork with the following observations 
upon this passage: "Plant or peist is a worm, i. e. any ugly 
or disgusting looking reptile. The terms i^dnicr and chan- 
cair are merely added as the original words, and not as 
Irish translations. Dreolldn literally signifies a wren, but it 
may also mean a small insect, and f(><iMiti<lh is the genitive 
case of teasbach, great heat, i. e. an insect or worm pro- 
duced by the heat of the summer's sun to creep and feed 
on leavr 

Dr. Davies informs me that in Welsh there is no special 


name for caterpillar , but that canker-worm in Joel is trans- 
lated pryf-y-rhirdj i.e. 'worm of rust', and palmer-worm 
by the term lindys, of doubtful derivation. Caterpillers are 
classed under grasshopper, ceiliog-rhedyn 9 i. e. 'cock of the 

In Gaelic I find the following names for caterpiller: Bur- 
ras, cnuimlichail (cnuimh, a worm, a maggot), lus-chuach 
(? lus, plant, and cagainn, chew), durrag, meas-cJmumimh 
(? meas, fruit, and cnuitnh, worm). 

(*2) The Irish appear to possess a separate name for the 
Snail and the Slug. Seilmide or seilchide, a snail, means 
c a mucous substance'. Dr. Davies suggests that it is a 
compound of seil, soft, and mide, mud, meaning slime. The 
Gaelic is seilcheag or seilicheagj in which seil seems to re- 
present the same element in seil-mide. Is it connected with 
seile, silich, saliva, and sileach, spitting? A mucous froth 
resembling saliva is often secreted by snails when disturbed. 
In Welsh one word appears to represent slug and snail, 
mahcod or molwad, which Dr. Davies connects with mollis 
and mollusc-US. To distinguish a snail from a slug the Welsh 
employ the word cragen, a shell, with malwoden, making a 
compound term resembling Shakspere's 'cockled snail'. 

(3) The Irish Leisgean, a slug, is literally a slothful or 
sluggish reptile. In Gaelic a lazy person is called leisgean, 
a word apparently connected with the Welsh llesg , slow, 
inert, the Germ, schleichen, and the words slug, slack, slow &c. 



A second sister of the Semitic is the Berber language, 
which seems to be even more closely allied to it than the 
Galla. Here also the verb may be first treated of. All the 


tenses of the Berber are but modifications of a form which 
Newman has fitly called aorist, corresponding as to the prin- 
ciple of its formation with the Semitic imperfect. Compare 


sg. 1. sakar-ag "feci" a-qtulu 

2.111. \ A , ta-qtulu 

_ > ta-skar-at . . 

2.f. j ta-qtul-ina 

3. m. i-skar ja-qtulu 

3.f. t'a-sakar ta-qtulu 

pi. 1. na-sakar na-ktulu t'a-skar-an ta-qtul-una 

2.f. t'a-skar-an-t ta-qtul-na 

3. m. sakar-an ja-qtul-una 

3.f. sakar-an-t ja-qtul-na 

With the exception of the 1. pers. sing, and 3. pers. plur. 
the correspondence of the verbal prefixes and suffixes is ap- 
parent. By means of various pre- and suf-fixes, out of this 
aorist a variety of tenses is developed by the Berber to 
which we find nothing comparable in the Semitic languages. 
And this is a strong reason for not merging the Berber in 
the latter family. On the other hand we discover a very 
close resemblance in the circumstance that most Berber verbs 
have three radical consonants. Also of symbolical vowel- 
change, especially to form the passive voice, there are un- 
mistakeable traces, as 

delig ', j'ai couvert; dilag 1 , j'ai ete couvert 

Darrag, j'ai fait tort; Durrag 1 , j'ai ete lese (I have been done harm to). 

The second example is strikingly like the formation of Piel 
and Pual. Another feature in which the Berber resembles 
the Semitic more closely than the Galla, is the formation 
of derivative verbs by means of prefixes (never by suffixes, 
though sometimes by internal vowelchange as in the in- 
stances just quoted), as i-rwal, he fled, i-sa-rwal "fugavit"; 
just like the Aramean Shaphel. 

Passing over the isolate pronouns, I call attention to the 
formation of the plural. The mark of that number is, in 
the verb, an. In the noun, an is the common plural ter- 
mination of masculines, while in is employed with feminines, 
both corresponding to the Semitic UN, out of which in a 


similar way, though with the opposite signification, the 
Aramean plural signs (in for msc., an for fern.) are developed. 
Also the sign of the feminine , th, is easily recognized, 
partly already in the feminine pluralforms of the verbs in 
an-t, and then also in the adjectives, where in the plural 
it is in like manner added after the sign of that number, as 

'rfiri, malus 'diri-t\ mala 

ffirin, mail 'dirin-t, malae. 

As in grammar, so also in its vocabulary, the Berber ap- 
proaches much more nearly to the Semitic than to the Galla; 
as may be seen by comparing its numerals with the Semitic: 

comp. Hebrew. 

1. yivan echad 

2. sin f. asnat', sinat' shnajim 

15. kerad shalosh, Arainean t'lat 

4. kuz arba' 1 

5. suininus chamesh 

6. sedis shesh, Aram, shet 

7. set shba 

8. tern shrnoneh, Aram, t'amne 

9. tzau t'esha 
10. merawe 'asar 

100. iniyet. me-ah (me-at). 

With the exception of 1, 4, 10, there can be no doubt as 
to the affinity with the Semitic. 

To sum up then, the Berber is a sisterfainily more nearly 
related to the Semitic than to the Galla. 

Of other North African languages, except the Egyptian 
to be mentioned immediately, none as yet has any rational 
claim to be considered a relative of the Semitic. And 
I especially most distinctly deny an assertion, which of late 
has been very confidently made, that the Houssa exhibits cer- 
tain Semitic features. The only point of resemblance which 
can possibly be brought forward, is the existence of two 
genders. This distinction however not only extends in Houssa 
to the pronoun of the first person, but is moreover effected 
by means entirely different from the Semitic. Neither in 
grammar, nor in verbal roots, nor in pronouns, is any re- 
semblance with the Semitic to be found. 

1 ' represents y. 



Before I enter into the question of the Semitic relation- 
ship of the Egyptian and its modern offspring, the Coptic, 
it is perhaps not useless to remark that (besides the direct 
proofs for it) this affinity may also be indirectly established 
by showing that the Egyptian is related to the Berber or 
Saho-Galla. For as the two latter are now already recognized 
as sisterfamilies of the Semitic, it is clear, that affinity to 
them involves affinity to the Semitic. 

Therefore I begin with a coincidence between Berber and 

The Coptic 1 article is in the singular msc. pi, fern, ti, 
pi. comm. ni. It is the same in Old Egyptian, which be- 
sides has several demonstrative pronouns exhibiting the same 
characteristic consonants as signs of the two genders and 
of the plural, e. g. phi, this one, fern, thi, pi. ni; Sahidic 
7>7, ti , n7. In the example ^ist quoted, the aspiration (ph, 
th) ought to be noted. If we now compare the following 
Berber forms: 

Msc. Fern. 

tcayyi, hie t ayyi 

winna, ille t'uinu 

wl(tak, ille t'idak 

tcayat, alius t' ay at 

an-wa, quis? an-ta, quae, 

we easily perceive in them the same two pronominal ele- 
ments as in the Egyptian, although they no longer occur 
by themselves , namely WA = o , T*A /} ; with only this 
difference, that in the Berber msc. the aspirate has been 
further brought down to a mere spirant. 

In the further comparison of the Egyptian with the Semitic 
and its sisters, first, the verbal inflexions play no part at 
all, because the Egyptian verbal inflection, being very im- 
perfect, is brought about by simply affixing to the verbal 
root, taken in the sense of an abstract noun, the very same 

1 The Coptic, where there is no additional remark, is invariably given 
in the Memphitic dialect. 



suffixes, that with other (properly so called) nouns have a 
possessive meaning. Thus they said si-k, thy son, and also 
iri-ek (thy doing =) thou doest. The remaining points of 
grammatical coincidence are, first, the feminine character 
t, th. Thus Old Egyptian s<?, son, se-t. daughter; sen, brother, 
sen-tj sister. Thus also in the adjective, which (at least in 
the Demotic writings, according to Brugsch) regularly takes 
a t in the feminine, e. g. aa "aine", fern. aa-t. In Coptic 
this formation is more rare. A remnant of it we have in 
the numeral two, snau, fern, snou-ti. Also the plural charac- 
teristic u is common in Old-Egyptian with the nouns, e. g. 
neter-u, gods; it is more rarely employed in Coptic, as 
ro, door, pi. ro-ou. Since this u is identical with the Se- 
mitic vn, and since we find the latter degenerating in the 
Semitic itself, not only into w, but also into m, en (compare 
also the two forms u, an of the Saho-Galla), it is quite 
natural to find even in Egyptian the latter form en in the 
plural of the suffixed pronouns; comp. Old Egyptian 

2. p. sing. fern. -I 3. p. sing. fena. -s 

2. p. pi. comm. -t-en 3. p. pi. comm. -s-en 

There can be no doubt that n in these forms is as much 
the characteristic of the plural, as in the Hebrew (-&, tui, 
fern., h, hd, criV/Jg), pi. -k-en, -h-en. 

In the pronoun, the Egyptian observes the same difference 
between the possessive affixes and the isolated pronouns as 
the Semitic. The isolated pronouns of the first and second 
person are: 

2. sing. 2. plur. 

1. sing. 1. plur. msc. fern. msc. fern. 

OLDEGYPTIAN. . an-ok (not found) en-to-k en-to en-to-ten 

KOPTIC an-ok anon en-tho-k en-tho en-tho-ten 

[ARABIC an-a n-ach-nu an-ta an-ti an-tum an-tunna 

[HEBREW fan-6k-i an-ach-nu atta att(I) atteni atteii 

\an-i an-u 

The similarity is sufficiently clear. The base of the pro- 
noun of the first person is OK, AK, that of the second 
TA, TO, to both of which a determinative particle AN is 
prefixed, and in some cases (in the second person singular 
msc. and in the plural of that person) the Egyptians have 



added at the end the common suffixes of that person; and 
in the same way the I of the first person sing, in Hebrew, 
and the nu of the first plural in Hebrew and Arabic are 
the pronominal suffixes (compare the table immediately fol- 
lowing), while the urn of the 2. msc. pi. is a real plural 
formation (un(a) in the nouns) , of which both the, Arabic 
2. pi. fern, and the 2. pi. m. f. in Hebrew are slight modifi- 
cations. On the power of the prefix AN and the formation 
of these pronouns in general I have spoken more at length 
in the Transactions of this Society, 1859, p. 47, 48. 

The suffixed possessive pronouns of the first two persons 
(including those of the Berber that furnish an interesting 
intermediate link) are: 

l.p.s. 2.s.iii. 2.s.f. 

(OLD EGYPTIAN a, i n k t ten 

\KOPTIC .... a, i n k (ti, i) ten 

BERBER .... yu nagh k m l kun kun-t a 

f ARABIC . . . . i na ka ki kum kunna 

\HEBREW . . . . i nu ka ki kein ken 

In the third person the similarity of the Egyptian with 
the Berber is greater than with the Semitic. Compare the 
isolated forms: 

3. sg. m. 3. sg. f. 3. pi. m. 3. pi. f. 

OLD EG. . . . en-to-f en-to-s en-te-sen 

KOPTIC .... en-tho-f en-tho-s en-tho-ou 

BERBER. . . . na-tta na-tta-t' nu-tni nu-t'an-ti 3 

Here we observe the same prefix EN, AN, as in the second 
person (in Berber inverted to na, nu), and at the end the 
suffixed pronouns are added, which leaves TO, TTA, as 
the base of the pronoun (compare 1. c. p. 54). The suf- 
fixes are: 

3.s.m. 3.s.f. 
OLD EG. ... f s sen 

KOPTIC .... f s (on) 

BERBER .... s s san san-t z 

the similarity of which is quite apparent. Reserving for a 
separate paper a more detailed account and comparative 

1 But as accusative suffix kkam. 

2 The t, ti at the end sign of the feminine. 


anatomy of the pronouns of the Semitic and all its sister- 
families, I pass on to the coincidences in the dictionary of 
the Semitic and Egyptian. Foremost are the Koptic numerals, 

2. snau 7. shash-f 

6. so-ou 8. shmm, 

which nearly resemble the Hebrew ones given above. In 
the numeral 6, the resemblance is faint enough to admit 
the possibility of an error, but 7 in its hieroglyphic form 
SF% (pronounce: Gecpe%) is even nearer to the Semitic inn? 
than the Koptic. Other lexical coincidences will be treated 
of hereafter. 



If the Semitic languages are really related to the three 
African families of speech considered in the three preceding 
sections and it is scarcely possible to attribute all the nu- 
merous coincidences in grammar, and even dictionary, to 
mere chance , new light is thrown on that peculiarity so 
eminently characteristic of Semitic speech, the trilateral 
roots consisting of three consonants only , in which the dif- 
ferent vowels are introduced, not as essential to the fun- 
damental meaning, but merely to indicate grammatical mo- 
difications of it. 

It is well known that Gesenius and others by comparison 
of the Semitic roots with one another have arrived at the 
conclusion that frequently several of them may be arranged 
into groups, in which two consonants are the exponents of 
a ground-conception common to all, whilst the third one 
superadded respectively, gives only a slight modification of 
the fundamental meaning. Thus Hebr. PhRR, PhRQ, PhRZ 
&c. have all in common the signification of breaking, burst- 
ing, which consequently must already reside in the two 
elements PR. As the example chosen indicates, (and this 
is borne out by more minute inquiry,) the third element is 
very variable, and in all probability all consonants may 
serve as such. Also its place in the root is undetermined; 


for, though this modifying consonant generally appears at 
the end, yet exceptions are not wanting. On comparing, 
for instance, Hebr. NLWh with PhVCh, both of which 
mean "to breathe", we see the third element in the tirst 
case at the beginning (N), in the second in the middle. 
Yet I think I am scarcely mistaken in saying, that those 
consonants which are used as modifying elements in the be- 
ginning or middle, are always very weak, namely either 
soft gutturals (N V , n, also I should say y, scarcely n), or 
y, v, n. 

The existence of such groups of roots has been justly re- 
garded by previous scholars as a proof that the law of the 
three consonants was not always in existence. They have 
further pointed out the fact, that many nouns of apparently 
very high antiquity are monosyllables, and present only 
two radical consonants (as ^N, father, ox, mother, ID, son, 
&c.), and though in some of them, when they are in- 
flected, a third consonant apparently makes itself seen (as 
\srt, VM/M-J, my mother, apparently pointing to a root DON, 
NMM), it was assumed, that this is only an accomodation 
to the otherwise acknowledged law of the three consonants. 
But after all these remarks we arrive at last only at a 
hypothetical original Semitic, in which there were, amongst 
others, also roots of two consonants, without being able 
to prove that in them the vowels were more essential than 
they are in the triliteral roots. We are led a little further 
by the pronominal roots , which on close analysis are found 
to consist in Semitic too of only one consonantal element; 
but then the generalization from the example of the pro- 
nominal roots is unsafe, as they generally have morpho- 
logical laws of their own; and on the other hand it is not 
demonstrated or demonstrable, that in the Semitic pronominal 
roots of one consonant, the vowel is more essential than in 
the triliteral verbal ones. On the contrary, if we compare 
Arabic anta, thou, msc., with anti 1 , thou, fern., or Hebrew 
mi, who, with md, what, it seems rather as if the vowel 

1 an is prefix, see p. 116. 


were not radical, but was the exponent of grammatical dif- 

So long as we analyse the Semitic roots on Semitic ground 
alone , we can only prove therefore that before the autocracy 
of the law of three consonants was established, there were 
also verbal roots of two consonants, and pronominal bases of 
one ; but that they contained a vowel as a radical element, 
is not shown. 

But by comparing them with their African sisterfamilies, the 
whole aspect of the question is changed at once. As we 
could scarcely assume that the Egyptian and Galla have 
lapsed from Semitic triconsonantism into vocalic roots, so 
much more natural in themselves , it is no longer a question 
whether the Semitic roots were once vocalic, this on the 
contrary is clear at once , but simply, how the Shemites 
have effected the transition from the vocalic into the tri- 
consonantal state. Though the coincidences in dictionary 
between the Africans and Shemites are, contrary to ex- 
pectation, very few in number, though our knowledge of 
the Old Egyptian vocabulary is very small , and though many 
of the lexical coincidences between Koptic and Semitic are 
not free from the suspicion of later communication, there 
yet remain cases of real relationship in which we can clearly 
trace the course of transformation of the originally vocalic 
root into a Semitic one. Thus for instance Old Eg. ima, 
the sea (Koptic yom). Here the Semitic raises the vowel i 
into the corresponding semivowel #, and doubles the second 
consonant. Thus we get Hebrew Y a MM-im (plural). Thus 
Old Egyptian ma-au, water (in Josephus iiov, Koptic mo-ou) 
= Hebr. M a Y-im (plural), in which has been added, first, a 
soft liquid consonant, and then the plural-w. But in the ' sta- 
tus constructus' also the latter one is treated like a radical, 
so that the desire for triconsonantism is satisfied (w.?,). I 
add some more examples which the reader may analyse 
himself : 

Old Egyptian ti, to give, make Arabic Jil 0*27) 
Hebr. NTN. 

Gk is = Hebr. y. 


Old Eg. sme, to hear, Hebr. ShMGh. 

Old Eg. au, to be (Koptic o/), Aramean //F//, Hebr. 

Other examples will be found in the copious list of Se- 
mitic and Koptic affinities given by Schwarze in his "Ancient 
Egypt" p. 979 sq. (but the somewhat chaotic matter there 
requires much cautious and sceptical criticism). So much 
however is clear, that the Shemites have, with great per- 
severance, transformed the old vocalic roots into the new 
triconsonantal form , and that in order to establish this prin- 
ciple, they have employed, not one single means, but a 
variety of expedients, and these simply phonetical, not 
grammatical, so that it is a perfectly hopeless undertaking 
to explain the triconsonantal roots as a tense formation 
(the preterite, according to Meier), or to assume compounds 
with prepositions, or whatever other grammatical proceeding 
any one may have been pleased to fancy. Not by a linguistical 
error have forms of originally different purport (tenses, or 
compounds) been taken by the Shemites as simple roots, 
but presemitical roots have been transformed by a strict 
and universal law. It is this strict adherence to the new 
principle that gives to the Semitic its peculiar and striking 
character of unalterable solidity, but also ungraceful hardness. 


Besides the particular inferences relative to Semitic gram- 
mar, we derive from the facts established in the four pre- 
ceding sections still more interesting conclusions as to an- 
cient history. Egyptian civilization is now admitted to be 
very old, though it is not quite easy to fix an exact date 
for it. It is well known that the history of Egypt com- 
prehends two periods, the old and the new empire, which 

1 By this comparison the conjecture is strengthened that the ( *,) 
which being prefixed to the Hebrew imperfect, gives to that form the 
sense of a historic aorist, may be the verb substantive, especially if 
we remember that the Egyptian AU, spoken of in the text, is prefixed 
to the root, in order to make a form which is future in Old Egyptian, 
but present and perfect in Demotic and Koptic. 


are separated by an intermediate time in which lower Egypt 
at least was held by the foreign kings of the Asiatic Hyksos. 
The expulsion of these strangers took place (according to 
Bimsen) at about 1038B.Chr. The intermediate time of the 
Hyksos was at the least (according to Josephus) 511 years. 
Thus we are carried back to about 2150B. Ch. for the end 
of the old empire. The whole duration of the time filled 
by the 12 dynasties of the old empire would be, according 
to Eratosthenes's computation, 1072 years, which would 
bring us to beyond 3000 B.C. as the beginning of the first 
dynasty. Already of the fourth, and apparently even of 
the second and third dynasties, we have cotemporaneous 
monuments extant, which, accepting Eratosthenes's com- 
putation, would be as old as, or somewhat older than, 
3000 B.C. But even rejecting the learned Alexandrian philo- 
sopher's authority, whose computation we are not in a po- 
sition to verify, we have a perfect right to assert in a 
general manner, that in the third millennium, at a period 
centuries older than 2100 B.C., there was in Egypt a civilized 
community conversant with the art of writing, well skilled 
in architecture and sculpture. How long it took to develope 
this state of things, it would be impossible to say with 
certainty: at least Bunsen's conjectures on this head appear 
to me somewhat hazardous. The Egyptian language is es- 
sentially the same in the oldest monuments as in those of 
Psammetich's time, and the oldest Hebrew writings present 
to us not only a fully developed Semitic language, but one 
which, there is reason to suppose, had already undergone 
a certain grammatical decay, as the comparison with the 
Arabic shows, in which there are for instance three case 
terminations still living, that have left only traces in He- 
brew. This perfect distinctness and individuality of Hebrew 
at so early a time as the 12 th or 13 th century B.C., and of 
Egyptian at the still earlier period of (let us say the very 
least) the iirst half of the third millennium B. C., forces us 
to assume a very high antiquity for the time of their original 
oneness. Fixing this then at 4000 B.C., we shall scarcely 
have made too extravagant a statement, but rather one 


much too moderate. However, as we are not able to tell 
how quick or how slow in those old times the growth 
of language was , we will not say more than we can actually 
maintain against even the most inveterate sceptic, namely 
that the time of the unity of the Semitic and Egyptian and 
of course also Berber and Galla must be placed at a period 
indefinitely, but certainly very far, removed from the time 
of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, which itself belongs cer- 
tainly to the earlier half of the third millennium, at the 
very least. 

There is another interesting circumstance connected with 
the discovery of the African sisterfamilies of the Semitic, 
namely, its bearing on the question of difference of race. 
We have heard advocated of late, in a very able manner, 
the doctrine, that not only are varieties of the same species 
gradually developed, but that even the whole difference of 
species is the result of a gradual estrangement from a com- 
mon parental stock. On the other hand, it must not be 
forgotten, that in direct opposition to Darwin's views, other 
physiologists maintain the invariability of the races of man- 
kind, and some in my country with such emphasis, that they 
would even separate the several human races as different species. 
This party (and not without reason) holds up triumphantly 
the fact that on the Egyptian monuments the Egyptian, 
Negro, and Semitic types are represented with exactly the 
same features, as those now characteristic of these tribes. 

If however my inferences are correct, we have now four 
sisterfamilies of language, spoken by people exhibiting 
widely different physiological characteristics. Nearest to 
the Shemite in the form of the skull and in colour, is the 
Berber; farther removed, the Egyptian. The Gallas are 
generally called negroes, but if the portrait of one of the 
tribe given in Prichard's 'Physiological Researches' be cor- 
rect, they can scarcely be called so; on the contrary, (in 
spite of the somewhat dark, not black, complexion,) the 
form of the skull, the high, open forehead, the straight 
(not woolly) hair, not only distinguish them altogether from 
the negroes, but give them even a greater likeness to the 


Caucasian type than the Egyptians can boast of. So, be- 
ginning with the Shemite of full Caucasian type, the descend- 
ing scale towards the Negro would be this: Shemite Berber 
Galla Egyptian. It is remarkable that the grammatical 
similarity with the Semitic decreases in the same ratio. 
The Berber shares with the Semitic (partly at least) the 
system of triconsonantal roots and verbal inflexion, the Galla 
only the verbal inflexion. The Egyptian has in common 
with all of them, only the system of pronominal bases and 
formations of the plural and feminine characteristics, but 
no longer of the verbal inflexions. The natural conclusion 
from this state of things seems to be, that in spite of the 
contradictory evidence of the Egyptian monuments , we must 
assume that in proportion as the growing linguistical estrange- 
ment has increased, so also has the physiological estrange- 
ment. And hereby the variability of the character of race 
would be established. 

It is however possible according to a hint thrown out 
by Benfey in his new journal "Orient and Occident" that 
one old primeval nation may have overpowered another or 
others, and forced its language upon them; and that when 
the foreign rule afterwards ceased, the foreign language 
may have remained, and may have been developed in a 
manner different from that in which it advanced amongst 
the nation to which it properly belonged. We should then 
have here a parallel case or cases to what happened in 
Spain and Italy. In Spain the Iberians were forced to un- 
learn their language and to learn Latin ; but they developed 
this foreign tongue in a manner different from the mode 
adopted in Italy. If this theory be assumed , it will further 
be necessary to inquire whether the Asiatic nations conquered 
the Africans , or vice versa. The latter opinion seems (strange 
to say) to be the one more acceptable to Benfey. But, if 
such an alternative is necesssary at all, I think that the 
Asiatic ancestors of the Shemites are far more likely to have 
accomplished the conquest of the Africans, than to have been 
conquered by them. 



We can proceed now to the question whether the same 
relation which has been established in the preceding sections 
between the Semitic, Egyptian, Berber, and Galla, does 
not exist also in other quarters of the globe between dif- 
ferent families of speech. 

The surest instance of the kind is found in North America, 
where, as Buschmann has shown in a paper inserted in the 
Transactions of the Berlin Academy of 1857, the Athapascan 
family stands in a sisterly relation to the Kenai - family, 
though he is scarcely right in uniting both under the com- 
mon appellation of " der Athapaskische Sprachstamm", con- 
sidering the obvious and wide difference observable in their 
pronouns. Leaving however this matter the reconsideration 
of which after Buschmamfs extremely painstaking essay 
would be utter folly , we shall turn at once to eastern Asia 
where there are it seems two remarkable instances of this 
kind of linguistic relationship. Namely: 

1) Between the Chinese and the Botiya languages, as Max 
Miiller calls them, which latter family consists of two branches, 
the Northern (Transhimalayan), of which the Tibetan is a 
member, and the Southeastern (Lohitic), to which belongs 
the Burmese. Qn comparing the numerals 2, 3 of the Bo- 
tiya languages with each other, which are as follows: 

TIBETAN Kenavere Burmese Kockari-Bodo Garo 

2. nyi ni nhit nai gi~ n i 

3. sum sum thong tham gi-tham, 

it appears that their groundforms are: (2) Nl, (3) SAM 
or Th AM. Now the Chinese words for 2 and 3 are in the 
southern dialect 2. ni, 3. sam, and as this coincidence could 
scarcely be the result of accident, and as on the other hand 
the Chinese is entirely different in the bulk of its vocabulary 
as well as in its grammar from these languages, as also we 
have no reasonable ground for supposing a loan on either 
side, there is cause to suspect a sisterly relationship be- 
tween the Botiya and Chinese. Perhaps others who have 
a more thorough knowledge of the dictionary of the two, 


may be able to confirm this conjecture by other glossarial 
coincidences. f 

It is remarkable that also a third family of eastern Asia, 
the Thai languages, the chief of which is the so called Sia- 
mese, coincides very closely with the Chinese, especially 
with that of the southern provinces of China, in its nu- 
merals from 3 10. Compare: 

345 G 7 89 10 

COMMON CHINESE . sail sse 'u lu tsi pa kieu shi 

SOUTHERN CHINESE sam si ung lok chhat pat kau sap 

SIAMESE sam si ha hok (ruk) chet pet kau sip 

However it is very singular that in languages so closely re- 
sembling each other in 8 of their numerals, just the number 
2 should be different 2 . This circumstance, together with the 
fact that the Siamese numerals are almost identical with 
the southern Chinese, induces a reasonable doubt whether 
after all the Siamese people may not have borrowed these 
words from their more highly cultivated and very powerful 
neighbours ; as e. gr. the Brahui , a Dravidian language, has 
kept only the three first numerals of its own particular 
family, but taken the higher ones from the Aryan Hindus. 
Should this suspicion be found groundless, then the Sia- 
mese would be a sisterfamily of the Chinese, with even 
more powerful claims to that title than the Botiya-family. 

2) The Munda family in the Vindhya mountains, which 
was first clearly distinguished by Prof. Mitller from the three 
other families of speech that are found in India on this 
side of the Ganges (Aryan, Dravidian, Botiya), shows in 
its numerals a striking similarity with the Annamitic on the 
southern borders of China. Compare: 

1 It ought to be observed for those less conversant with linguistic 
science that the numerals are especially weighty witnesses for the rela- 
tionship of languages, because on the one hand they are but seldom 
taken from foreigners, and on the other, are, through their abstract nature, 
not open to the suspicion of owing their similarity to onomatopoeia. 

2 As to one, the difference is less remarkable, because cognate lan- 
guages very often differ from one another in this numeral; compare: 
Skr. eka, Zend, aevo, Gr. 'EN-, Lat. oinos, SI. jedmi. 


1 234 

MUNDA midh barria pia ponia 

ANNAM ........ mot hai ba boa 

. tl'equ . bar peh puan 

Annamiticl ,,, , 

(Chonn . . moe bar pen pon 

dialects I * . 

iCamooJja moe pir bai buan 

The relationship is clear at a glance, but we know very 
little as yet of the grammar of the Munda. However the 
utter dissimilarity of the pronouns of the Munda and Annam, 
which is ascertained , indicates a rather considerable dis- 
tance, and so it is safest not to confound them with each 
other in one family, but let them stand in the relation of 
sisterfamilies , until further evidence is produced that may 
bring them more closely together. Be the exact relation 
between the two what it may, so much we learn at all 
events, that the savages of the Vindhya, now so widely 
separated from the Annamitic people , were once a common 
nation with them; which probably was broken into two by 
the irruption from the north of the Botiya and Thai tribes. 

If any other family has a right to claim a connection with 
our own, it is the Malay family. It is true that Bopp's 
theory according to which the Malay languages would be 
Aryan languages that have entirely lost their ancient gram- 
mar, is altogether untenable. For in this case we should 
not only expect some traces at least of the former existence 
of grammatical forms analogous to our own in the Malay 
languages, but also a rather close resemblance in the dic- 
tionary; whereas there is scarcely a single verbal root in 
common. The most striking apparent coincidences adduced 
by Bopp losing all their force, when we reflect that many 
of the words of that kind are merely Sanskritical, and that 
all of them belong to those Malay languages which are 
spoken in or near the Indian archipelago. These two cir- 
cumstances combined leave to me no doubt that all such 
words are only early loans from Sanskrit, as we know how 
powerfully the Siuula islands were influenced by Bralmiiniral 
civilization, and in the case of the few Sanskritical words 
that make their appearance on the Polynesian islands properly 


so called, we may well assume that the influence of the 
Hindus by commerce extended even so far east. Also the 
similarity of the Malay personal pronouns with ours is very 
faint, much more so certainly than the similarity observable 
between Indogerman and Finnish; and besides this class of 
words offers many points of coincidence even where there 
is no historical connection at all 1 . It is however different 
with the numerals, which are essentially the same in all 
the Malay languages , including even the Madagassian which 
is exempt from all suspicion of Aryan influence. Besides 
one could scarcely comprehend, on the supposition of 
Aryan influence, why the numerals from 4 upwards exhibit 
no similarity with ours at all , whilst two and three do ; and 
do so only after, by comparison of the different Malay lan- 
guages with one another, we have gone back to their pre- 
historical groundform. Compare: 

2. Newzealandic, Malay diia; Bugis duva; Tahitian rua, 

Hawa'ian lua, Tonga ua, Tagalic dalua. 
The last form is evidently reduplicated, and therefore shows 
by its initial d that this d is the original sound altered in 
some of the languages to I, r, and ultimately dropt in the 
Tonga. Thus we get as the Malay groundform for two: 

3. Tahitian toru, Javanese, Madeg. telu, Tonga tolu, Ta- 

galic tatlo. 

The last form is again reduplicated, and has thereby preserved 
in the middle the original group TZ/, the two consonants 
of which have been separated by a vowel in the other lan- 
guages of the family, in accordance with a phonetical law 
which forbids the using of two consonants at the beginning 
of a word. Therefore we get as the Malay groundform 
TLU, or if the r of the Tahitian should be the more original 
sound, TRU. 

It is clear how very much these two groundforms (2. 
DUA, 3. TRU) resemble the Indogerman bases, 2. DVA, 
3. TRI (Sanskr. dvdu, trayas, Gr. dvo , TQSIS, &c.). It is 

1 See my essay: "On the forms and origin of the pronouns of the 
first and second person". Transactions 1859, p. 34, and on the Malay 
more especially p. 42. 


however questionable whether we have a right to assume 
a sisterly relation between the Indogermans and Malayans 
on the strength of this coincidence. I shall therefore leave 
the matter doubtful , and only observe that the physiological 
dissimilarity would not necessarily overthrow such a hypo- 
thesis, as it scarcely so great as, and certainly not greater 
than, that of the Shemites and Egyptians. 

Another group of languages might be, and partly has been, 
claimed as a sisterfamily of ours, namely the Finnish. But 
except the numerous early loans which are what we must 
expect among neighbouring nations, both grammar and dic- 
tionary are altogether different. l It is true that the Finnish 
nations, like the Indogermans, employ M as the radical of 
the pronoun of the first person, T for the second, and even 
(partially) K for the interrogative, but the first two pro- 
nouns are no admissible witnesses at all, as observed be- 
fore, and the interrogative k is too weak a peg to hang 
the weight of such a hypothesis upon. In grammar there 
is no coincidence beyond some similarity of the personal 
endings of the verb, which is only the consequence of the 
pronominal similarity observed already. The dictionary is 
different; only the Finns near the Baltic (Finns proper, 
Lapponians, Esthonians, &c.) have borrowed many words 
from the Teutons, which however are generally wanting in 
Hungarian, though this latter language too has largely drawn 
from German and Slavonian. Some Slavonian loans appear 
to be very old. Thus the word for hundred (Finnish sata, 
Hungarian szaz) is evidently from the Slavonian suto (Rus- 
sian sto) , or rather from the Slavonian prehistorical ground- 
form SATA(N) which the comparative philology of the In- 
dogerman languages both authorizes and forces us to assume. 
This coincidence in hundred is to me no proof of original 
family relationship, but must be considered an early loan 2 

1 I say this notwithstanding, though with all respect to, Mr. Wedg- 
wood's list of compared words in his Paper, Phil. Soc.'s Trans. 1854. 

* The Finnish proper has even taken its word for thousand from a 
Teutonic or Slavonic source (Finn, tvhalta, 81. tysashta, Goth. pimmdi). 


so long as the more original numbers 1 10 defy all at- 
tempts of identifying them with Indogerman roots. 

What has been said of the Finnish languages, applies 
equally to the other so called Finno - Tartaric languages, 
Mongolian, Turkish, Mandshu, Samoyedic, the relationship 
of which four groups with one another and with the Finnish 
is besides not yet quite established, far less their family 
connection as a whole with the Indogerman. 

I should have forborne to speak at all of the fanciful as- 
sumptions concerning a relationship between Indogermans 
and Shemites, were it not that these endeavours to conquer 
the impossible are still very rife, and generally very self- 
confident. As it is not to be hoped that these attempts will 
in our generation be abandoned for ever, and as they are 
likely by their fancifulness to throw linguistical science, 
which is a science as firmly founded as any, into discredit 
with the general scientific public , I shall offer some humble 
remarks on the comparisons between Aryan and Semitic 
speech, with a faint hope of throwing a little cold water on 
the courage of the identifiers. 

And first it will be generally admitted that the grammatical 
system of Indogerman and Semitic speech is altogether dif- 

Secondly: the few similarities observable in the pronoun 
of the first, and more of the second person, are not half so 
striking as the coincidences of the same in the Finnish and 
Indogerman. But we saw that even the latter could not 
warrant a belief in historical, but only in psychological unity. 

Thirdly: There are a few words besides, that are really 
similar in Indogerman and Semitic, such as ppS (LQQ) "to lictf\ 
-hn (ThOR) "turtle-dove", but they are manifestly onomatopoeias. 

Fourthly: Of non-onomatopoeian forms, it has been the 
fashion frequently to compare the Aryan and Semitic nu- 
merals. Thus both Ewald (in his Hebrew grammar) and 
Lepsius (in a separate essay) are perfectly satisfied of their 
identity. I beg to differ. I cannot see even the slightest 
outward similarity, except in the numerals 6 and 7. Six is in 
Hebrew utrt (ShiSK), and the apparent similarity of this word 


with Skr. shash has been always held up by the partizans of 
an original relationship with great rejoicing and triumph. Un- 
fortunately however the Aramean r\rt(S/teT), Arabic SiTT-un, 
leave no doubt whatsoever that originally the final consonant 
was rather T than S. Thus we get as the Semitic ground- 
form ShT. On the other hand the comparison of Sanskr. 
shash with Zend ksva$, Greek *- (tabulae Heracleenses 
/"*), Latin sex, Welsh chwech, tfcc. leaves also no doubt 
that the Indogerinan groundform was K8VAKS. If any 
body after this still has a mind to compare the two 
words, we shall, as is meet and fit, admire such bold- 
nessfor courage is entitled to admiration under any cir- 
cumstances but can scarcely be expected to follow him 
on his perilous path. The . case is a little better with 
the numeral seven. The comparison of Hebr. iq'r, Arabic 
SaBGh-nn, with the forms of the Semitic sisterfamilies 
Egyptian SFSh, Berber sedis, points back perhaps to a 
groundform SBD, or else to o<f%, which exhibit a certain 
similarity with the Indogerman groundform S APT AN (Skr. 
Kttj>t(tn, Lat. septem, &c.). However even here the matter 
remains uncertain, and it would be uncritical to draw weighty 
conclusions from such insecure premises, especially as it is 
not explained, why the similarity is only traceable in so 
high a number, not in the inferior units. 

Fifthly: As to the manner in which other Semitic verbal 
roots are made to answer to ours, it is worthy of being 
remarked that nearly every one of the harmonizers has a 
scheme of his own, now by assuming in the Semitic roots 
reduplication at the beginning, now prefixes, now infixes, 
all of which plans, however excellent in themselves, are 
at utter variance with the fundamental laws of Semitic 
grammar. Most judiciously of all has Gesenius treated this 
subject, but even his (comparatively speaking) sober com- 
parisons are so startingly wild, that it will be sufficient to 
quote a very few examples in order to show how little foun- 
dation they have. Gesenius compares Hebrew mo (MFF), 
to die, with Latin mors, mort-w, Germ, mord, Gr. PQOTOS 
(for //,'i(Hi;), Pers. mcrden, to die. But alas! all these 


words have for their root simply MAR without a t (Skr. 
mr y Lat. mor-ior), and so the whole beautiful similarity 
turns out moonshine, even if the v of the Shemites could 
be represented by our R, which it cannot. Again SDD (NPhL\ 
c to fall', is, according to Gesenius, identical with our Teutonic 
word, but it may well be asked what have we done with 
the N? And further, Grimm's law teaches us that the F of 
our Teutonic word points back to an original Indogerman 
P, which has been duly preserved in Lithuanian pulu <I fall' 
(pul-ti 'to fall'). P^D (PhRQ) 'to break' is compared by 
Gesenius with frango, but, as he himself shows, the Hebrew 
word is one of a group of roots that all mean 'to break', 
'separate', or c rend' : TID, DID, DID, TID, YID, itfns, (PhRR, 
PhRS, P/iRM, PhRD, PhRZ, PhRSh), the ground-con- 
ception residing already in the two first radicals and being 
slightly modified by the third ' ; but the similarity of -ID (PhR) 
and Latin FRAG is not so overwhelming as to free one from 
all doubts on the subject of their connection. Besides if 
the theory developed on p. 120-1 be correct, that the tricon- 
sonantal roots of the Semitic were preceded by (mono-) 
syllabic ones, we ought first by the aid of the Semitic sis- 
terfamilies to trace them to this original (mono-) syllabic 
state, before we venture on a comparison with our own 
Indo-European family. Unfortunately this preliminary task is 
in most cases an impossible one. 

Sixthly: It is scarcely necessary to remark that the early 
loan words which have passed from Sanskrit and Persian into 
Hebrew, and on the other hand from Hebrew (or more properly 
Phenician) into Greek, are altogether irrelevant as to the 
question of original genealogical connection. 

To sum up, the assumed relationship of our family of 
languages with the Semitic or with the Finnish is indemon- 
strable , and even the connection with the Malayans is open 
to very grave doubts. 

1 Thereby I do not say that the third radical is a suffixed particle or 
has any independent meaning of its own. Compare rather p. 120, 121, 



I. lien. VI, Part 1. Out of great ordealed old iron, for out of a 

great deal of old iron. 
II. Tempest. Behest or pleasure, for best pleasure. 

III. The wild waves whist, play, fife; whist, the base of 


IV. Young scalions, or sarcels, from the rock, for scameh. 
V. Othello. Act I, Sc. 3. Default for defunct. 

VI. Alteration of Duncan's speech to Lady Macbeth. 

VII. Lear. Young bones = infants. Fair's, fairies, for air*. 

VIII. Othello. Act I, Sc. 1. At most = in the greatest degree. 

IX. Hen. IV, Part 1. Act V, Sc. 4. Embowelled = buried. 

X. Romeo and Juliet. Act II, Sc. 4. French slip for slop. 

XI. As you like it. Act I, Sc. 2. Part of Rosalind's speech given 
to Celia. 

In a very few years more , two centuries and a half will 
have passed away since the death of Shakespeare. For 
the last hundred and fifty years each successive generation 
has attempted to explain and emend the poet's works that 
have come down to us, rejecting some, disputing others, 
and in our own time actually denying that he wrote them 
at all , but considering them to be, like the works of Homer, 
the production of several hands. 

These questions would probably never have arisen but 
for the fire which on St. Peters day, June 29 th , 1613, de- 
stroyed the Globe Theatre and all that it contained. On 
this occasion it is believed the MSS. of Shakespeare were 
consumed. It is this one fact, the entire absence of all 
original MSS. or MS. copy of any kind whatever, which 
produces all the difficulties we have to contend with. The 
presence of such MSS. would clear up doubt, and either 
give authenticity or corrections to passages which appear 
inexplicable ; and which in their present state it is believed 
could not have been written by the poet himself. This idea 
!8 itself to conviction when we read the statement made 
by liis "lVello\yes", i.e. equals or partners, - u Who, us lie 
i happie imitator of Nature, was a most gentle expresser 


of it. His mind and hand went together: And what he 
thought, he vttered with that easinesse, that we have scarse 
receiued from him a blot in his papers." This can be well 
understood by those possessing a knowledge of the very 
beautiful MS. of Ben Jonson's 'Masque of Queens' (in the 
library of the British Museum) in his own hand writing 
which he presented to the Queen of King James the first, 
Anna of Denmarke, and in the representation of which her 
Majesty took a part; for if the MSS. of Shakespeare were 
at all like this most exquisite specimen, they well merited 
the encomium passed on his caligraphy as well as on the 
correctness of thought which required no alteration or amend- 
ment. The assertion is applicable to both. 

The text of Shakespeare which we have received, con- 
sists, as is well known, of seventeen Quartos printed in his 
life time, one Quarto in 1622, and the Folio of 1623. 

The way in which many Quarto plays with all their 
manifold blunders came to the press, we learn from Hey- 
wood, who, in the Preface to his 'Rape of Lucrece' (fourth 
impression) 1630, says: "Yet since some of my plays have 
(unknown to me, and without any of my direction) acci- 
dently come into the printer's hands, and therefore so cor- 
rupt and mangled (copied only by the ear,) that I have been 
as unable to know them as ashamed to challenge them, 
this therefore I was the willinger" &c. On the errors 
arising from copying only by the ear, we need not dwell; 
of those from want of the author's correcting the press, 
we may judge from the following : In a copy of the first 
edition of the Duke of Milan which was presented by Mas- 
singer to Sir F. Foljambe, "the generous patron to whom 
he afterwards dedicated the Maid of Honour. Previously 
to putting the copy into his hands, Massinger had gone 
carefully over it with his pen, and corrected not only the 
errors of the press, but even the spelling, where it did 
not agree with the system of orthography which he ap- 
pears to have adopted ... I [Gifford] have, of course, 
adopted all his corrections, and their value has often drawn 
from me a wish that they had not been confined to a single 


play." This corrected copy is consequently equal to the 
original MS. 1 have selected a few of them which in some 
instances no one would have been bold enough to suggest. 

Printed Copy "To fashion, and yet still you must confess." 
Corrected "To fashion one; yet still you must confess." 

Printed Copy "Observe and honour her, as if the seal 

Of woman's goodness." 
Corrected "Observe and honour her, as if the soul 

Of woman's goodness." 

Gifford remarks on this last one: "No sagacity in an- 
other could have furnished this most happy emendation, 
which now appears so necessary, and so obvious. 1 have 
been tempted % to smile in the course of this revision at the 
surprising gravity with which we sometimes labour to ex- 
plain the unintelligible blunders of a careless compositor." 
Printed Copy "And harshness deadly" for "And harshness deadly haired". 
Printed Copy "It may be they confer of winning lordships." 
Corrected "It may be they confer of joining lordships." 

"A limb of patience" for "A lump of patience". 
"What crack have we next" for "What gimcrach have we next". 
"0 you earthy gods" for "0 you earthly gods". 
Printed Copy "From any lip whose honour writ not lord.' 1 
Corrected "From any lip whose owner writ not lord." 
Printed Copy "In this cup, now observe me, with thy last." 
Corrected "In this cup, now observe me, which, thy Inst." 

There must be , therefore , and we know there are, errors 
in the text of Shakespeare that need correction. From the 
lapse of time too between him and us many of his words 
and phrases have become obsolete, and need explanation 
now. As my interpretation of the words in Lear "Whose 
face between her forks presageth snow" was printed by the 
Philological Society in 1857 (Trans, p. 154-6), I venture 
now to lay before them a few more suggestions for the ex- 
planation of words of our great poet, and for the emenda- 
tion of his text. The first passage I take is one never 
commented upon before, but which I believe to be corrupt. 

I. First Part ol Henry the Sixth, Act 1, Sc. 2. Juan of 



"I am prepar'd: here is my keene-edg'd sword, 
Deckt with five Flower-de Luces on each side, 
The which at Touraine in S. Katherine's Church-yard 
Out of a great deale of old Iron, I chose forth." 

I propose to read: 

"in S. Katherine's church 
Out of great ordealed old Iron, I chose forth" 1 . 

The mysterious sanctity of the heaven-sent wonder-working- 
sword was superstitiously increased by its neighbours, the 
holy instruments of the fiery ordeal, the means of the di- 
rect appeal to the Deity to attest the fact of truth, or 
falsehood, of innocence, or guilt; and which would tend 
to prove the veracity of Joan of Arc's divine Mission, which 
she claimed it to be. 

"Fer Chaud: nos ancetres avoient deux manieres de faire subir 1'e'preuve 
du fer chaud. La premiere etoit de faire marcher 1'accuse sur des socs 
de charrue rougis au feu, et que Ton multiplioit, suivant la qualite du 
crime, dont il s'agissoit. Us etoient ordinairement du nombre de douze, 
et il falloit poser le pied sur chacun d'eux. L'autre maniere etoit de 
porter un fer rougi au feu, plus on moins, selon que les presornptions 
etoient plus ou moins fondees. Ce fer etoit ou un gantelet, ou ime 
'barre qu'il falloit soulever plusieurs fois. Cette epreuve etoit reserves 
sur-tout pour les pretres, les moines et les femmes. Le fer etoit bent 
et soigneuttement garde dans les eglises ou les monasteres assez distingues 
pour avoir ce privilege." Dictionuaire Historique des moeurs, usages et 
coutumes des Francois, 1767. 

Holinshead was one of Shakespeare's authorities in mat- 
ters historical, and here is his passage relating to Joan: 

"In time of this siege at Orleance (French stories saie) the first weeke 
of March 1428, vnto Charles the Dolphin , at Chinon as he was in verie 
great care and studie how to wrestle against the English nation, by one 
Peter Badricourt, capteine of Vacouleur, (made after marshall of France 
by the Dolphins creation) was caried a yoong wench of an eighteene 
yeeres old, called Jone of Are, by name of hir father (a sorie sheep- 
heard) James of Are, and Isabell hir mother, brought up poorelie in 
their trade of keeping cattell, borne at Domprin (therefore reported by 
Bale, Jone Domprin) upon Meuse in Lorraine within the diocesse of 
Thoule. Of fauour was she counted likesome, of person stronglie made 
and manlie, of courage great, hardie, and stout withall, an vnderstander 

1 I think a very slight alteration of Mr. Jourdain's amendment would 
probably restore Shakespeare's words: 

"Out of old ordeal iron I chose forth.'' H. Wedgwood. 


of counsels though she were not at them, great semblance of chastitie 
both of bodie and behauiour, the name of Jesus in liir mouth about all 
fair businesses, humble, obedient, and fasting diuerso daies in the weeke. 
A person (as their bookes make hir) raised up by power diuine, onelie 
for succour to the French estate then deepelie in distresse , in whome, 
for planting a credit the rather, first the companie that toward the Dol- 
phin did conduct hir, through places all dangerous, as holden by the 
English, where she neuer was afore, all the waie and Gy nightertale 
safelie did she lead: then at the Dolphins sending by hir assignement, 
from Saint Katharinit church of Fierbois in Touraine (where she neuer 
had beene and knew not) in a secret place there among old iron, ap- 
pointed she hir sword to be sought out and brought hir, that with fiue 
floure delices was grauen on both sides, wherewith she fought and did 
manie slaughters by hir owne hands. On warfar rode she in armour 
cap a pie and mustered as a man, before hir an ensigne all white, 
wherin was Jesus Christ painted with a floure delice in his hand. 

Jehan de Tillet. Les chronic de Bretaigne. 

Grand chro. 4. 

The Third volume of Chronicles An. Doni. 1428. Page 600. First 
compiled by Raphaell Holinshed. B. L. 1587." 

"She was named Joan or Jane, was Native of the Village of Dam- 
remy upon the Meuse, Daughter of James of Ar>e and Isabella Gautier, 
and bred to keep Sheep in the Country. Her Vocation was confirmed 
by miraculous proofs, for she knew the king, though meanly habited, 
amidst the throng, from all his Courtiers. 

The Doctors of Divinity and those that were of the Parliament, who 
examined her, declared that there was somewhat of Supernatural in her 
behaviour; she sent for a sword that lay in the Tomb of a Knight, be- 
hind the high Alter in the Church of St. Catharine de Fierbois, upon 
the Blade whereof were several Crosses and Flower-de-Luces graved ; and 
the king openly affirmed that she had devined a very great secret, not 
known to any but himself." De Mezeray's General Chronological His- 
tory of France. Translated by John Bulteel, 1683. Page 461. See 
1'Abbe Lenglet, Hist, de la Pucelle d'Orleans. 

II. In the Tempest, Act I, Sc. 2, Ariel addresses his 
stern Master Prospero: 

"All hail, great master! grave sir, hail! I come 
To answer thy best pleasure; be't to fly, 
To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride 
On the curl'd clouds: to thy strong bidding, task 
Ariel, and all his quality." 
This I propose to be as follows: 

"All hail, great master! grave sir, hail! I come 
To anSwer thy behest or pleasure; be't 


To fly, to swim, to dive into the fire, 

To ride on the curl'd clouds; Clhy strong bidding 

Task Ariel and all his quality." 

In Cymbeline, Act V, Sc. 4, Shakespeare uses the word 


"with care perform his great behest" 

Also in Love's Labour's Lost, Act VI, Sc. 2: 

"And shape his service wholly to my behests-'' 

III. Whist = play, fife. 

"Come unto these yellow sands, 

And then take hands: 
Court'sied when you have, and kiss'd, 
The wild waves whist," 

The opinion hitherto is that "whist" means 'are silent', 
and Spencer is quoted to prove it, 

"So was the Titaness put down and whist" (F. 2, B. 7, b. 7, S. 59); 
but why should the waves be silent? Surely they are wanted 
to pipe : and with the secondary Anglo-Saxon verb hwistlian, 
to pipe, fife, before us, I submit that whist is the base of 
whistle, and that the poet best explains his own meaning in 
"Or in the beached margent of the sea, 
To dance our ringlets to the whistling wind, 
But with thy brawls thou hast disturb'd our sport. 
Therefore the winds, piping to us in vain, 
As in revenge, have suck'd up from the sea 
Contagious fogs;" (A Midsummer-Night's Dream, Act II, Sc. 1.) 
The "wild waves" were required to keep time as the music. 

IV. Scamels. Act II, Sc. 2 a very strange word occurs: 
'T prethee let me bring thee where Crabs grow; and I with my long 

nayles will digge thee pig-nuts; show thee a Jayes nest, and instruct 
thee how to snare the nimble Marmazet: I'le bring thee to clustring 
Philbirts, and sometimes I'le get thee young Scamels from the Rocke: 
Wilt thou goe with me?" 

I propose to read scalions (or sarcels, see note p. 144). 

"I'le get thee young scalions from the rocke:" 

Scalion, chibboll, or yong ciue. Minsheu 1617. 
'Shamois'-Warburton. 'Sea-Malls' or 'Sea-Mells'-Theobald. 

"This botcher looks as if he were dough-baked; a little butter now, 
and I could eat him like an oaten cake : his father's diet was new cheese 
and onions, when he got him: what a scallion-faced rascal 'tis!" (Love's 
Cure or The Martial Maid, Act II, Sc. 1, by Fletcher.)* 


V. The passage I have next to mention has caused much 
controversy between all the commentators; and their re- 
marks are far too long to repeat, but they produce no 
satisfactory result. I now venture to add to the number 
and submit my view of this much disputed and most cor- 
rupt passage in Act 1, Sc. 3. Othello says, according to 
Quarto and Folio (which agree, except in one word; the 
Quarto reading "of her mind", the Folio "to her mind"): 
"I therefore beg it not 

To please the pallate of my Appetite: 

Nor to comply with heat the yong affects 

In my defunct, and proper satisfaction. 

But to be free and bounteous to her minde-." 
It is my firm persuasion that a line has got transposed, 
and that the word "defunct" is a misprint for 'default'. 
The passage will then read: 

"I therefore beg it not, 

To please the palate of my appetite ; 

Nor to comply with heat, the young affects; 

But to be free and bounteous to her mind, 

In my default and proper satisfaction." 
viz. In my want of appearance, in my absence, and for my own satisfaction. 

It is clear that, as Othello is forced to leave Desdemona 
on their wedding-night, he asks the Duke and Senators 
leave that she may go with him to Cyprus (whither he was 
bound) in order to make up for his present default and for 
his own satisfaction; for, be it remembered, she did not 
go with him, but was with lago in another vessel. For 
the use of the word I give the following examples: 

"That I may say, in the default he is a man I know." 

(All's Well that Ends Well, Act II, Sc. 3.) 

"Kings must leaue their Children their kingdomes, which were left 
them by their Ancestors, that by them they may be embellisht, and be 
settled; and the English haue neuer had greater care, than to preserue 
the Royal Ilouse from default of Issue." (Part of the Speech of Thomas 
Gargrave of the lower-house to Queen Elizabeth exhorting her to marry, 

"Only this is my comfort, that a king commaunds, whose precepts 
neglected or omitted, threatneth torture for the default" (The Trouble- 
some Raigne of King John.) 

"yet notwithstanding it seemed vnto them, that they had much cause 


to grieue and lament at the great inequalitie, which they saw betwixt 
the Husband and the Wife in the particular punishment of Adultery; so 
that women could not rest contented to see men in such wise free, that 
the punishment of shame, which alone was wont to terrific honourable 
persons, did now less serue to restraine them from committing against 
their wiues these beastly and libidinous defaults. In which dissolute 
courses they said, that they proceeded so far, that many Husbands were 
not onely not ashamed to keepe openly Concubines in their houses, but 
had oftentimes presumed to make them partakers of the sacred bed of 
Matrimonie." (The New found Politicke by Traiano Boccalini. The third 
Part translated by W. Vavghan. Page 203. 1626.) 

VI. In Macbeth. The following passage I propose to 
remedy by a slight change, I quote from the Folio 1623: 

"See, see, our honor'd Hostesse: 
The lone that followes vs, sometime is our trouble, 
Which still we thanke as Loue. Herein / teach you, 
How you shall bid God-eyld vs for your paines, 
And thanke vs for your trouble." 

which I think should be: 

"See, see, our honor'd Hostesse! 
The love that followes us, sometimes is our trouble, 
Which still we thank as love. Herein you teach us, 
How / shall bid God-eyld us for our pains, 
And thank us for your trouble." 

The explanation is this: The love that shows itself in 
one of so exalted a station as Lady Macbeth the king feels 
and says, is his trouble, because it is difficult for him in 
his own estimation to make an adequate return for, and 
can only requite love with love. The same thought, dif- 
ferently expressed, occurs in Act I, Sc. 4: 

"Would thou hadst less deserv'd; 
That the proportion both of thanks and payment 
Might have been mine!" 

"Herein you teach us, 
How I shall bid God-eyld us for our pains, 
And thank us for your trouble." 

On Lady Macbeth meeting the king at her Castle-gate, 
she kneels, and the king remarks, she teaches him two 
things; one, in that attitude to pray to God to shield us 
from the pains or torments our sins have deserved; and 
the other, that by her humility to him, she, as a subject, 


thanks him, a, king, for the trouble (which of course is 
ult'red an honour) he gives her. 

"howbeit, that when she wold haue taken away the leaues for the 
figs, she perceiued it, and said, Art thou here then?' 1 i. e. from the figs. 
(North's Plutarch. Life of Antonivs, page 949. 1612.) 
'Oh, but my conscience for this act doth tell, 

I get heaven's hate, earth's scorne, and paines of hell.' 
(The True Chronicle-Historic of King Leir and His Three Daughters. 1G05.) 

VII. Lear, Act II, Sc. 4. Folio 1623. 

"strike her yong bones, 
You taking At/res with Lamenesse!" 

'Young bones' i. e. Infants just born, which fairies then 
had power over, but not afterwards. By "young bones '* 
the following quotations will, I think, prove the meaning: 

"Alas, not I: poore sonle, she breeds yong bone*, 

And that is it makes her so tutchy sure.'' 
"What, breeds young bones already! you will make 

An honest woman of me then , belike." 

(The True Chronick-Historie of King Leir and His Three Daughters. 1605.) 
"Kisse me. I warrant thee my breath is sweet. 

These dead mens bones lie heere of purpose to 

Inuite vs to supply the number of 

The liuing. Come; we'l get young bones and doe't. 

I will enioy thee. No? Nay then inuoke 

Your great suppos'd protectour; I will doe't. 

(The Atheist's Tragedie, Act IV, by Cyril Tourneur 1612.) 

For "You taking airs'*, read "you taking fair'es, that is 
fairies. I am not sure whether the elision would be the 
two letters 4 r, if only 'i\ the omission is simply the '/'. 
"No fairy taken" (Hamlet Act I, Sc. 1.) 

"Bless thee from whirlwinds, star-blasting, and taking !" (Act III, Sc.4.) 
" Fayries, and Gods prosper it with thee!" (Act IV, Sc. 6, Lear. 
Folio 1623.) 

VIII. At most. Othello, Act I, Sc. 1. Brabantio says: 

"At every house I'll call; 
I may command at mo*f;" 

"At moat" here means "in the greatest degree*. Brabantio 
being one of the Council of three, as will be shown in my 
next note. 


"So grace and mercy at your most neede helpe you" (Hamlet Act I, Sc.5). 
"And that I have possest him my most stay 
Can be but brief;" (Measure for Measure, Act IV, Sc. 1). 

Act I , Sc. 2. lago , speaking of the power of Brabantio, 

"And hath, in his effect, a voice potential 
As double as the duke's". 

This is an historical mistake made by a typographical error ; 
the "as" should be "of", a circumstance of not uncommon 
occurrence, the long T for c f and 'a' for c o'. The Duke 
had not a double voice, but the members of the Council 
of Three had very nearly such, as the following will show: 

" Next vnto the Duke are three called the Signori Capi or Cai, whiche 
outwardly seenie inferiour to the Duke, and yet are of more anctoritee 
than he. For theyr power is so absolute that if there happen cause why, 
they maie arrest the Duke. And all suche proclamacions as concerne 
the maiestee of theyr comonwelth , goe foorth alwaies vnder theyr 
name: Lyke as we vse to saie in the kynges name, so saie they, Da 
parte de i Signori Cai. Two of whiche Cai or one of theim, with one 
of the Auogadori, haue power Di metter vna parte, suche as is before 
rehersed of the Duke" (The historie of Italie by William Thomas, 1549, 
B.L. page 77). 

therefore I read " a voice potential as double of the duke's", 
i. e. as double of the voice the duke has. 

IX. The first part of Henry the Fourth, Act V, Sc. 4. 
Prince Henry, seeing Falstaff on the ground, as if slain, 


"EmbowelVd will I see thee by and by: 
Till then in blood by noble Percy lie." 

EmboweWd i. e. buried. 

"Brave Scipio, your famous ancestor, 
That Rome's high worth to Africk did extend; 
And those two Scipios (that in person fought 
Before the fearful Carthaginian walls) 
Both brothers, and both war's fierce lightning fires, 
Are they not dead? Yes, and their death (our dearth) 
Hath hid them both embowel* d in the earth". 

(Cornelia, Act II. 1594.) 

"Backe warremen, backe, imbowell not the clime, 
Your seate, your nurse, your birth dayes breathing place, 
That bred you, beares you, brought you up in armes. 


Ah! be not so ingrate to diyye your mothers grave, 
Preserve your lambes and beate away the wolfe." 

(The Second Part of the Troublesome Raigne of King John.) 
"Most gracious Caesar luightie Emperour, 
Had Pellion and Cossa beene conioy'nd, 
Had mounting Tenarus with the snowie Alpes, 
And high Olympus overwhelm'd the Caue, 
Yet would Seianus (like Briarius) 
Haue beone emboicelVd in this earthie hell, 
To saue the life of great Tiberius." (The Tragicall life 
and death of Claudius Tiberius Nero, Sig. K. 1607.) 

Prince Henry makes use of the word "embowell" in the 
sense of 'to bury'; Falstaff in that of c to eviscerate'. 

X. In Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Sc. 4, the Folio, 1623, 
reads : 

"Signior Romeo, Bon iour, there's a French salutation to your French 
slop: you gaue vs the the counterfeit fairely last night." 

the Quarto, 1609: 

"the counterfeit." 

The emendation I wish to make is changing "slop" to "*////'. 
French slip i. e. going away without leave taking, or per- 
mission, or knowledge; still in use as "to take French 

XI. In " As you like it " the speech of Rosalind in Act I, 
Sc. 2, printed in the Folio of 1623 thus: 

"Cel. I pray thee, Rosalind, sweet my Coz, be merry. 
Ros. Deere Cellia; I show more mirth then I am mistresse of, and 
would you yet were merrier: 1 vnlesse you could teach me to forget a 
banished father, you must not learne mee how to remember any extra- 
ordinary pleasure." 

which , I think , if divided as follows , will be more correct : 

"Cel. I pray thee, Rosalind, sweet my coz, be merry. 
Ros. Dear Celia, I show more mirth than I am mistress of, 
Cel. And would you yet were merrier? 

Ros. Unless you could teach me to forget a banished father, you 
must not learn 3 me how to remember any extraordinary pleasure." 

1 Pope's edition reads: and would you yet 1 tcere merrier? which has 
been followed by all editors to the present time. 

* Learn is still used in this sense in Scotland, and among the poor 
in England. .. 


P.S. My other suggestions are , Othello, Act I, Sc. 3: 
"For since theso Amies of mine hud seven yeares pith 

Till now some nine Moones wasted." 

I suggest it should be "nine more wasted" ; because as Othello 
is speaking of the strength and weakness of his arms, if we 
take fourteen years of age as that of puberty , and thirty- 
three as the turning point of life, this would make Othello 
forty two, about the age he represents himself to be, 

"Or, for I am declin'd 
Into the vale of years: yet that's not much:" 

Lear, Act II, Sc. 3. Edgar, having stated how he will 
disguise himself commiserating his forlorn condition and 
fallen fortune, exclaims 

"Poore Turlygod, poore Tom" 

by transposing one letter, and dividing the word, I think 
the error will be rectified: 

"Poor, truly! God! poor Tom! 
That's something yet; Edgar I nothing am." 

Lear, Act III, Sc. 6. 

"You will say, they are Persian attire", 

this is the reading of the Quarto 1608. The Folio 1623 
omits the word 'attire'. I think that by changing one letter 
and dividing the word , we shall have what the poet wrote, 

"You will say, they are Per se an attire, but let them be changed." 

Komeo and Juliet, Act III, Sc. 2. Both Quarto 1609 and 
Folio 1623. 

"That run-awayes eyes may wincke". 

This passage has been a perpetual source of contention to 
the commentators. I know not if I unravel the difficulty 
by suggesting: 

"That wary-day' s-eyes may wink", 
compare, "The day is broke: be wary, look about." 

(Romeo and Juliet, Act III, Sc. 5.) 
" And you the judges bear a wary eye." (Hamlet, Act V, Sc. 2.) 

Note to Scamels, p. 138. As Scalions is perhaps too great a change, 
I propose the word Sarcel or Teal, which I find in "The New World of 
Words" by E. Phillips, 1678. Minshew, 1617, gives Sarcelle as the French 
for Teal; and Cotgrave, 1611, Cercelle: f. (The water fowle called) a 
Teale; so that Sarcels may be the word we want. 




HARRIDAN. Used almost exclusively in the very narrow 
sense of a woman whose feelings are blunted, and bodily 
frame worn, by a life of dissipation. 

In a translated suit then tries the town 
With borrowed pins and patches not her own. 
But just endured the winter she began 
And in four months a battered harridan. 

Usually connected with Fr. haridelle, a poor tit, lean or 
ill-favoured jade Cotgrave. From Fr. harier, to harry 

The imputation etymologically conveyed by this term of 
abuse is nothing worse than the disfigurement arising from 
breaches in the teeth which befalls most of us in the ad- 
vance of life, and which doubtless was more conspicuous 
when the skill of the dentist was not so extensively called 
in to repair the ravages of time as it is at present. 

The real origin is one which sounds unlikely enough at 
first, but will be found after a little paring to slide un- 
niistukeably into the English word; viz. Du. schaerd-tanden, 
dentes serrati, pectinatim stipati ad similitudinem dentium 
serrae Kilian , from tand, a tooth , and scliaerde or schaere, 
a notch or small breach, also a broken piece, a word 
familiar to us in E. pot-sherd. G. scharte, a notch or gap; 
eine scharte in einem messer, a gap in a knife. Now it is 
the peculiarity of the Walloon dialect that it changes the 
sound of sch or Fr. ch into a simple aspiration, as in Fr. 
echelle, dialect of Namur, chaule, Walloon hale, a ladder; 
Fr. echapper, Namur chaper , Wai. haper , to escape; and 
similar examples are very numerous. Among these we find 
Namur chaurd , Wai. hd.rd (d silent), har or haur, a breach 
or notch; harde, haurde, gap-toothed, one who has lost 
some of his front-teeth; veie hardaie, vieille brechedent, 
old gaptoothed woman Remade. In the same dialect. l-'r 
dent takes the form <////>/, giving //<//< /<W<////, Invrho-dent. in 
\vhich no one ran fail to reeouniM- K. harridan. 


At what time the word was imported into this country, 
and how a word, which could have had no meaning to 
English ears , was ever popularised here as a term of abuse, 
is a puzzle of which I cannot pretend to offer an expla- 

GAT-TOOTHED. The use of a word signifying gap-tooth 
as a term of abuse puts us in mind of Chaucer's gat-toothed, 
which has greatly exercised his critics without conducing 
much to our philological edification. When the Wife of 
Bath is introduced as saying, 

But yet I alway had a coltes tooth, 
Gat-toothed I was, and that became me well 

it is plain that the word cannot have been gap-toothed, as 
rendered by Urry and Dryden; or gag-toothed, having pro- 
jecting teeth Hal. Nor is the matter much mended by the 
cat-toothed of one MS., or by Skinner's suggestion of gat 
for goat, goat-toothed. The true explanation may probably 
be found in N. gistent, Sw. glestand, having teeth separated 
from one another, which may have been considered as a 
beauty. The former element of this compound is Sw. gles, 
thinly scattered as corn in poor soil, not compacted, stand- 
ing apart as the staves of a leaky tub; O.N. gmnn, N. 
gisen, glisen^ glesen, scattered, gaping. The same element 
is seen in Sw. gistna, Sc. geize, gizzen, to become leaky 
for want of moisture. Tubs or barrels are said to be geisent 
when their staves open in consequence of heat or drought 
Jamieson. Again, as the interstices between an assem- 
blage of objects, as the trees in a wood, are increased, 
the individuals of the collection become scarce, whence E. 
geason, scarce, rare. 

The origin of the Scandinavian forms is N. glisa, to shine 
through, to be open so that one can see through, of wood 
work or the like; the final 5 of which is exchanged for a 
t in O.N. glita, to shine, N. glytta, to peep, to glance at, 
glytt, glott, alette , an opening, hole, clear spot in the sky. 
The same loss of the liquid which is seen in N. glisen, gisen, 
identifies glott with O.N. gdtt, the crack between the door- 
post and the wall, and probably with gat, a hole or opening. 


Compare O.N. hurd d gdttum, an open door, with N. staae 
paa glytt, to stand ajar. 

Thus gat-toothed would appear to be the true equivalent 
of N. gis-tcnt; and the root gat may probably have the same 
meaning in G. gaiter, gitter, a grating, a structure full of 
open interstices. 

JACK OF DOVER. Another expression of Chaucer's, on 
which some little light may be thro\vn, is where our host 
addresses the cook, 

Full many a Jack of Dover hast thou sold 
Which has been twies hot and twies cold. 

Now we are informed by Roquefort (v. Jacquet) i\&i Jacques 
in the slang of French cooks is used to signify that a piece 
of baking, whether joint, fowl or pastry, is old and hard, 
and among tavern keepers in England a heated-up dish is 
still called a dover. The term Jack of Dover then may have 
arisen either from engrafting on the French slang a punning 
allusion to the doing over again (do-over) , or from jack in 
the French sense having first obtained currency at Dover. 

GALA, GOAL. It. far gala, to be merry, to eat and drink 
well; regalare, to feast or entertain; gala, ornament, finery, 
dress; O.Fr. gale, good cheer, galer, galler, to lead a joy- 
ous life. 

The origin is the common metaphor by which a person 
in a high state of enjoyment is compared to one swimming 
in an abundance of good things. 

I bathed still in bliss, I led a lordly life. Gascoigne. 

Long thus he lived slumbring in sweet delight 

Bathing in liquid joys his melted sprite. Spenser. Britain's Ida. 

This soft fool 
Must swim in's fathers wealth. The Ordinary I. 3. 

By the same metaphor we speak of buoyant spirits, of go- 
ing on swimmingly, and in French one in high delight is 
said "nager dans la joie, dans les plaisirs." 

Now the It. gala signifies a bubble; andare a gala, gahir> , 
yallegyiare, to float; galleggiare >ul <ind>I>ilo, as Fr. nager 
dam la joie, to give oneself up to pleasure. So also from 
the diminutives yullu: B water bubble, yalh< 


to float as a bubble, to be in a high state of enjoyment. 
By this not very obvious train of thought gala, a bubble, 
is taken as the type of festivity and enjoyment. 

Again, the buoyancy of a bubble renders it an apt type 
of one rising above the depressing influences by which he 
is surrounded, as when we say of one struggling with dif- 
ficulties, that he can barely keep his head above water. 
On this principle It. stare a galla, to float, and metaphorically, 
to prevail, to get the upper hand, to carry the day. The 
Fr. avoir le gal is used in precisely the same sense, and 
the phrase was introduced into English to get the goal. 
"There was no person that could have won the ring or 
got the gole before me" Hall. Richard III. 

Canara birds come in to bear the bell 

And goldfinches do hope to get the goal. Gascoigne. 

It is obvious from the form of the expression that neither 
in E. nor in Fr. was retained any feeling of the original 
type of the metaphor, but the expression being applied to 
the success in athletic contests, such as racing, football, or 
the like, the term gal or goal was affixed by a literal inter- 
pretation to the mark or standard , the attainment of which 
was the test of victory. Fr. gal, the goal at football 

FUDGE. Prov. Fr. fuche! feuche! an interjection like E. 
pish! who cares! "Picard, ta maison brule. Feuche! j'ai 
Tele dans ma' poque", Fudge! I've the key in my pocket. 
From this interjection is the vulgar Fr. se ficher a"une chose, 
to disregard it; je m'en fiche, I pish at it, pooh-pooh it, 
treat it with contempt. Fichez le a la porte, bid him trus! 
or trudge! turn him out. PI. D. Putsch! begone! Datt is 
futsch gaon (gone to pot) Danneil. Swiss futsch werden, 
to fail, to come to nothing, may be compared with Fr. il 
est fichu , perdu Gattel. 

To Fix. In the American sense to set to rights, to ar- 
range. "Toyfc-c the hair, the table, the fire, means to dress 
the hair, lay the table, and make the fire"' Ly ell's travels. 
Probably a remnant of the old Dutch colonisation. Du. 


fiks, fa, regie, comme il faut Hahna. Een fix snaphaan, 
a gun which carries true; zyn tuiyje fix houden, to keep 
oneself in good order (en etat d'agir). Pl.D. fix, quick, 
ready, smart ; fix unfard'uj, quite ready; een fixen junge, a 
smart lad. Perhaps from jluks, ready, by the loss of the 
/as in fatich for fiittich , a wing. 

FERRET. It. /uretto, ferctto, Fr. j'uret, G. frette, /reff- 
, a ferret, an animal used in hunting rabbits or rats, 
in holes otherwise inaccessible. 

It is commonly supposed that the name of the animal 
has i;iven rise to the verb signifying to poke in holes and 
corners, to search out. It. furettare, to ferret or hunt in 
holes, by metaphor to grope or fumble Fl. Fr. /ureter, 
to search, hunt, boult out, spy narrowly into every hole 
and corner Cot. 

It seems to me far more likely that the ferret (exclusively 
a domesticated animal) is named from the purpose for 
which it is kept, viz. for rooting or poking in holes for 
rabbits and vermin. 

Now the Prov. /reyar, li./reyare, to rub, to move to 
and fro, correspond to It. /ruyare, fureyare, to grope, 
poke, fumble for, as Prov. /retar, Fr. /rotter, to rub, to 
Du. loroeten, to root in the ground as a pig or a mole, 
Fr. /ureter, It. furettare, to poke in holes and corners. 
The G. frett-wiesel would indicate a weasel kept for what- 
ever, is signified by the verb /rettcn, which in Bav. is used 
not only in the sense of rubbing, but, like Du. wroeten 
and Prov. E. /roat, of unremitting ill rewarded labour, and 
being thus identified with the Dutch form might naturally 
acquire the same special application. 

The strongest objection to such a derivation is Fr. furon 
Patois de Champagne, Sp. huron, a ferret. But the forms 
furegarc , /urettarc, to poke, grope, or search out, have 
so much the appearance of derivatives from a root //// by 
the aid of the particles ic, et, regularly used for that pur- 
pose, that ni ron may well have been formed from the 
adoption of such a root in the same way as furtgcm* from 
and with the same sense of poker, searcher out. 


To RUN THE GAUNTLET. More correctly gantelope as it 
was formerly written, the corruption having arisen from 
the possibility of thus giving meaning to the phrase in 
English ears, on the supposition that the punishment con- 
sisted in each soldier giving a blow to the criminal with 
his gauntleted hand as he passed by. But the punishment 
never took that form , and it is correctly described by Bailey ; 
to run the gantlet or gantelope, to run through a company 
of soldiers standing on each side making a lane with each 
a switch in his hand to scourge the criminal. In G. durc/t 
die spiessrutJien laufen (spiessruthe , a sw r itch) ; Fr. passer par 
les verges. 

The punishment was probably made known to us from 
the wars of Gustavus Adolphus as the expression is pure 
Swedish; Upa gatlopp; from gata, a street, or in military 
language a line of soldiers, and lopp, a course. 


The gratification of the appetite for food is the most 
direct and universal of all pleasures , and therefore the one 
most likely to be taken as the type of delight in general. 
It is by this figure, as we learn from a late traveller, that 
the Negro of lowest civilisation expresses his admiration of 
what are to him the most valuable jewels, "The astonish- 
ment and delight of these people", says Petherick, "at 
the display of our beads was great, and was expressed by 
laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies" Egypt and 
Central Africa, p. 448. 

If the Lat. delicice, delight or the object which produces 
it, with the derivatives dclicatus, delightful, and dclectare, 
to delight, is to be explained on this principle, it should 
signify in the first instance, like the German leckerbissen, 
appetising food, food to lick our chops at, a sense which 


is still the prevailing one in the English delicious and deli- 
cacies. Nor can we fail in the radical syllable of these 
words to be struck with the widely spread root lie which 
expresses the action of the tongue in so many languages. 
The difficulty is to make a coherent sense out of such a 
signification in combination with the preposition de, and it 
is probably the attempt to give its due force to the latter 
particle which has led etymologists on a false scent. 

The idea of pleasure in eating, appreciating the taste of 
food, is constantly expressed by a representation of the 
sound made in xmcH-kiny the tongue and lips. The E. smack 
is used to signify a sounding blow with the open hand, a 
loud kiss, and the taste of food; G. gcschmack, taste, 
ftchm^cken^ to taste well, schmecker (in huntsman's language), 
the tongue. In the Finnish languages , which do not admit 
of a double consonant at the beginning of words, the 
dropping of the s from the same imitation gives Fin inaki/, 
Esthon. maggo y taste; Fin makia, Esthon. mayyus, agreeable 
to the palate, sweet. Another equally expressive imitation 
is shewn in Bohem. mlask, a smack, a kiss; mlaskati, to 
smack or make a noise with the lips in eating, to eat deli- 
cately or be nice in eating; mlaskanina, delicacies; with 
which (on the phonetic principle above explained) may be 
classed Fin maskia, mots&ta, to smack the lips; maiskb) a 
smack with the lips, a kiss, delicacies. A slightly differing 
modification is naskia, to smack in eating, explaining G. 
tutxclten, to eat daintily; ndvcherey , lickerishness, tid-bits, 

The derivation of words signifying sweet from the smack- 
ing of the tongue suggests a like origin of Gr. yhuxvg in 
a root corresponding to E. click (a term applied to the 
smacking of the tongue although not in reference to the 
enjoyment of taste), W. dec, a smack; gwefus-glec, a smack 
with the lips, loud kiss. Fr. claqucr hi lanyue, to smack 
the lips with relish. The dr. -A//n//^/, to desire eagerly, 
to long for, when compared with Lat. liyurio, to lick one's 
chops, to long for, shews that the root >'-?.// as well as 
l.r/, was used in Gr. in the sense of lick. 



The identity of yhvxvs with Lat. dulcis for dlucis has long 
been recognised , indicating in the original Latin a root dlic 
corresponding to the yli% of ykiyj>i.iui , whence the suppo- 
sititious forms dlicice, dlicatus, dlectare would naturally have 
expressed the meanings actually found in delicice, delicatus, 
delectare. The same root would have given dlinycre for 
linger e, to lick, and (if linger -e and lingua are connected, 
as in vulgar G. lecker, the tongue, from leckeri) dlingua for 
lingua, the tongue, explaining the double form of the old 
Lat. dingua and ordinary lingua by the falling away iu one 
case of. the Z, and in the other of the d of the original root. 

In process of time the combination dl seems to have been 
exploded by the Latin taste (although the tenuis of the same 
organic class is found before I in stloppus, a smack), and 
the obnoxious sound to have been avoided by transposition 
of the vowel in the case of dulcis, and by the insertion of 
an e in delicice, delicatus. The intrusive vowel must doubt- 
less in the first instance have been a short one, and was 
probably lengthened when the true construction of the word 
being forgotten, it presented the appearance of a compound 
with the preposition de. 


[Read May 10, I860.] 

As a humble enquirer in the department of linguistic 
science, but more particularly as a warm and therefore a 
jealous lover of my native language, I have watched with 
anxious interest the successive developments of the scheme 

1 In the revised p]an of the Society's New English Dictionary, the 
suggestions contained in this Paper have been partially adopted. A 
series of illustrations were subjoined, which were made use of in pre- 
paring the revised scheme, but which have since unfortunately been 


for a new English Dictionary announced by the Philological 
Society. Having ventured to express by letter and other- 
some difference of opinion as to certain points both 
of principle and of detail, I was asked to state in writing, 
and in the shape of a definite amendment, what I took to 
be objectionable, or defective in the first sketch (December 
18") 9) of the Canones Lexicographic! recently put forth by 
the Editor of the Dictionary as a rough draft for the Com- 
mittee appointed by the Society to add to, abridge, amend, 
and settle. My letter to the Editor was as follows: 

"If, in compliance with your request, I thus avail my- 
self of my privilege as a member of the Society, I shall 
not, I trust, be held guilty of any unwarrantable inter- 
ference; yet, as I have taken no part in the discussions 
which have been held on this subject in the Society, while 
I have heard something of what is thought of the scheme 
in other quarters, what I have to say, maybe regarded as 
a voice from without, and may perhaps have some little 
value on this account. 

And first let me premise that my attention has been di- 
rected, at least in the first instance, not so. much to the 
special provisions, as to the leading idea of the scheme, 
such as it has gradually unfolded itself, and, through one 
channel or other, has come under the notice of the public. 
If indeed the Canones had not been preceded by the "Pro- 
posals", and these again by the highly suggestive Pamphlet 
of Dr. Trench, I should only have had to remark that the 
rules laid down for the compilation and editorial manage- 
ment of the Dictionary were much fuller, and more precise 
on some points than on others; and that the points com- 
paratively neglected were, in my opinion, those of most 
importance. I should however have concluded that what 
were considered as the novel features of the undertaking, 
exhibited in detail, while the rest was, to some ex- 
tent, taken for granted. And this is probably a true ac- 
count of the matter. Yet even so I should have had to 
express a doubt whether an enlarged vocabulary, an historical 
arrangraent, and etymological analysis, though carried out 


more fully than has hitherto been attempted , be really more 
novel, as they are certainly, not more important chunu-- 
teristics, than full and accurate exegesis, the exact dis- 
tinction of synonyms (so called) and, in particular, a 
nice appreciation of what has been called the rhetorical 
value of each word. However this may be, a notion has 
certainly been entertained that in the plan of the Philological 
Society utility has been to some extent postponed to re- 
mote and curious speculation ; and though I regard this as a 
false inference drawn from isolated portions of the scheme, 
attributable partly perhaps to the startling effect of cer- 
tain obscure and fantastic vocables which it has been pro- 
posed, for certain assigned reasons, to transfer from limbo 
to the pages of the forthcoming dictionary, partly also to 
the archaeological and philological apparatus, prepared by 
members of the Society, portions of which have been made 
public, and which may have been regarded, not merely as 
materials, but as specimens of the work itself, or at all 
events as determining its character; while, I say, I regard 
any such notion, to whatever extent it may have prevailed, 
as sufficiently confuted by each and all of the above men- 
tioned documents in which the plan of the Dictionary is 
laid down, I yet cannot divest myself of a suspicion, de- 
rived it may be more from what has passed in conversation, 
than from anything that has appeared in writing, that what 
I conceive to be the higher functions of the Lexicographer 
have been to some extent disclaimed, and his office regarded 
as not possessing any judicial or regulative authority; as 
if it were his duty to exhibit the practice of English writers, 
though it rest but on a single instance, but not to question 
its propriety: not to decide between the rival claims of 
varying usages: and not, it would seem, so much as to 
record the practice of English speakers, except when it 
can be verified by written examples. Against this limitation 
I must enter my humble, but earnest protest. In my judg- 
ment a perfect Dictionary must not only be a complete 
Repertory , but also an available Directory within the whole 
province of word-lore (wort-lehre as distinguished from 


x<i(:-/ ( '/tt'<>). It must teach all that is known, and determine 
all that is dcterminable, first of the vocable the word in 
its material prime-work, then of the living word the vo- 
cable informed by thought, and animated by feeling, 
lastly of its immediate dependencies, necessary or cus- 
tomary the links by which it is brought into connection 
with its fellows. Now this determination must in very many 
rest with the Lexicographer himself. He must not 
merely produce authorities, he must adjudicate, settling 
each point, as it occurs, under the guidance of his own 

\ation, or more commonly of that life-long, uncon- 
scious induction, which amounts in a highly - cultivated 
native speaker, or indeed in any native speaker of any 
language when exercised within the range of his expe- 

' well-nigh to an infallible instinct, or intuition. It 
is easy, and very common, especially in this country, to 
sacrifice truth to evidence, that is to say, to producible 
evidence. It is constantly so done, and for weighty rea- 
sons, in English courts of law. It is so done, for what 
is accounted sufficient reason, in competitive examina- 
tions : but it need not be so in a Dictionary. Modesty is 
here out of place, and hostile criticism must be braved. 
'Right will prevail. Who, it has been asked, will submit 
to the legislation, in such matters, of any self-constituted 
authority? I answer, thousands, and tens of thousands, if 
the legislation be declarative merely, and approve itself to 
the national mind. The right of the lexicographer, like 
that of most other pretenders, must be tested by his 

A few months before the decease of my lamented friend 
Lord Macaulay, I noticed a newly-bound copy of Johnson's 
Dictionary lying upon the table. He told me that it was 
the fourth livery in which he had invested this trusty 
servant. And on my asking, with some surprise, in what 
service he had found so much employment for such a ralet- 
de-libraii-c, he replied, to keep his diction up to the clas- 
sical standard, and to prevent himself from slipping into 
spurious modernisms. Doubtless Johnson's authorities were 


more to Macaulay than his authority: he drew his own 
conclusions from the quotations; but the immense majority 
of those who use a dictionary are very differently qualified 
for this task. It will be convenient for all, and necessary 
for most, that the process should be performed for them, 
and the results be ready for use. They can always be 
tested by. those who are properly qualified whether by re- 
ference to the corresponding vouchers, or in other cases 
to the cultivated instinct of which I have before spoken. I 
say, in other cases, for while I would have all the evidence 
given which can be found, within reasonable limits, I doubt 
whether written authority can always be produced for all 
the minuter shades of meaning the exact propriety of every 
word, which yet approves itself infallibly to the cultivated 
ear, and which for the sake of those whose ears are not 
so cultivated, it is most necessary to point out. 

At any rate let it be understood, such is my opinion, 
valeat quantum, that the office of a Dictionary, a unilingual 
Dictionary more especially, is eminently regulative regu- 
lative in effect, though declarative in form. It separates the 
spurious from the genuine, either silently, in the way of 
exclusion, like the Dictionary of the French Academy, or 
by careful obelism. In the case of an old and highly cul- 
tivated language, like the French or English, it is, or ought 
to be, zealously conservative. It sets up a continual pro- 
test against innovation : or in the rare event of some change, 
or addition being at once possible and desirable, it indi- 
cates the law to which the novelty must conform. J 

1 The German lexicographers have taken considerable liberties in this 
respect. Carnpe has a particular mark for words invented by himself. 
A large ergdnzungsband is devoted to the verdeutschnng of foreign in- 
truders. So the Hungarian Academy undertakes to fill up the gaps in 
the native vocabulary from native sources, and Cymric equivalents are 
produced by the Welsh Dictionary-makers for the many Anglicisms by 
which that ancient tongue is supplemented and disfigured. Modern 
Finnish lexicographers pursue the same course. It is forced upon them 
by the deficiencies of their language as compared with modern require- 
ments; but whatever success may have attended these endeavours, little 
or nothing of this kind can be effected, or ought to be attempted, in 


You purpose to introduce every word in the language of 
\vhieh you can find a printed example. Well and good. 
So far as the writings of the first and second period are 
concerned, or even as far as the end of the last century, 
1 have no objection that the attempt should be made. An 
approximate success is all that can be expected even if this 
limit be taken. Here, at all events, if not before, a liberty 
of selection must be allowed. Would it be desirable, even 
if it were practicable, to record all the clumsy derivatives, 
false inflexions, and unauthorized connections supplied by 
the current literature of the day? The Lexicon of a dead 
language cannot be cited as a case in point. The analogy 
is one of contrast rather than of likeness. In the first 
place the literature of a dead language, take the Greek 
as an example, has been puddled, to use a mining phrase, 
in the stream of time, and though some dross has come 
down with the gold, as alas! much gold has been left be- 
hind with the dross, yet upon the whole we have only 
to deal with good stuff, and this in limited quantity, whereas 
in a modern language we have the unsifted ore, with per- 
haps but a small proportion of valuable metal, and literally, 
no end of it. The queer words in Aristophanes and Lyco- 
phron must be expounded , mainly because we want to read 
Aristophanes and Lycophron. They derive their value from 
the place in which they are found. 

And secondly, the value of a Greek or Latin word is de- 
English except perhaps in the way of compounds and quasi-compounds 
(words in 'hood', 'ship', 'less' <fec., where the meaning of the suffix 
is still apparent), or other obvious analogies, which however can hardly 
be anticipated in a Dictionary. Yet I think that it might be com- 
petent to our learned societies to do something towards settling the 
scientific terminology of the language in their own department. Thus 
in the case of Etymology, how shall we deal with anlaul, Inlaut . and 
auslaut? with umlaut and ablaut? .Shall we translate these terms: on- 
sound, insound, outsound etc.? or Anglo-gra.-cise them, proto, meso, 
- phon? thong? or shall we adopt our names as well as our 
arms from the Samnites , and if so, shall we anglicise the pronunciation, 
or submit to perpetual Italics? What again, about the Krit and Tad- 
dhita suffixes, which suggest a law of general application? 


termined at once, as a matter of fact, by its occurrence in 
an author of such and such a date. 

All this applies to our own literature only to a limited 
extent. What follows does not apply at all. 

The Greek and Latin languages are what we call dead. 
It would be more correct to say that they have put on im- 
mortality, but anyhow they are secure from chance or 
change. The English language is still in the flesh, and 
though too old for much further growth, is very capable 
of misgrowth. In the one case we are concerned, mainly, 
with what is, with the unalterable fact, in the other we are 
most concerned with what ought to be, with what is in the 
truth of the idea. Yet even in Greek and Latin authors 
there are ccitanda which the lexicographer is careful to 
note, as a warning in imitative composition. 

Lastly and chiefly, in a so-called dead language we have 
no authority to which we can appeal , except the extant re- 
mains. In the living language we have the living instinct 
of those who speak it , to which we can apply. Who would 
not rather have the ipse dixit of a Gorgias or a Menander, 
not to say of Plato or Aristotle, as to the exact force and 
propriety of a Greek word or expression, than the most 
careful induction from written examples , particularly if these 
were rare and exceptional? And why should we forego an 
advantage in the case of our own living tongue, which we 
should prize so highly, which we would fain unsphere 
the spirit of Plato to obtain in the Greek? Swedenborg, 
we read, had once a long conversation with the spirit of 
Virgil, surely he might have learnt something about the 
Latin language not to be found in Facclolati. I am afraid 
that the opportunity was neglected. 

My views on the subject of lexicography are not new, 
except perhaps in the formal application of them to the 
English language. Dr. William Freund, in his preface to 
his Latin Dictionary (I quote from Andrews's translation), 
arranges the elements of lexicography under six heads 
the grammatical, etymological, exegetical, synonymous, 
special-historical (or chronological), and rhetorical. Full 


justice is done in the Canones to the etymological and 
chronological elements, the exegctical and grammatical arc 
also mentioned, but no notice is taken of the synonymous, 
though it is specially urged in Dr. Trench's pamphlet, or 
of the rhetorical. In the suggestions which follow (and 
which I regret to say I am prevented by utter want of time 
from maturing or revising), I insist mainly on the two 
omitted features not however with any reference to, or at 
the time they were drawn up, with any remembrance of 
Dr. Freund's arrangement. 

The rhetorical element in lexicography is that which treats 
of the character of words as distinct from the meaning, 
distinct, or at least distinguishable, though often closely 
connected with it. In fact it results either from some pecu- 
liar shade of signification, or from the etymological structure, 
or from the age of the word, many old words having sunk 
to the bottom, while others have remained at the top of 
the rhetorical scale, or hover between the two extremes; 
or it has arisen simply from accidental association. Take 
as instances of a fall in what we may call social position, 
with or without a change of meaning, such words as "lass" 1 , 
"wench", "gossip"'; of a high position maintained or im- 
proved , such words as "griesly", "enthralled", "behest", 
and of the doubtful class, such words as "doughty", "swain", 
"dame" and "damsel", words used either in poetry, or 
if in familiar speech, with slight irony, and with a con- 
temptuous or a playful emphasis. 

Now setting aside obsolete and antiquated words as such, 
of which there are several kinds, technical words, and mere 
slang there may be distinguished, in the current speech, 
at least five grades of rhetorical usage; live distinct zones 
of language seldom confounded by any good writer or 
speaker, never confounded or misapplied without jarring 
upon a cultivated ear. It will be perceived at once that 
the words "inebriate", "intoxicated", "drunk", "tipsy", and 
"fuddled", follow each other in a descending scale. It is 
seldom however that the entire gamut can be tilled up with 
synonymous or quasi-synonymous words. "Bantling", "baity". 


"infant", "babe", and "nurseling", exhibit a certain rise 
in dignity though more faintly marked. Triplets and pairs 
of words are common in which the distinction of character 
is unmistakeable , as "stiff-necked", "contumacious", and 
"stubborn" ; "sanguinary" and "bloody"; "percolate" and 
"strain" &c. It more commonly happens however that the 
words of one class have no exact equivalent in any other, 
because the thoughts proper to each style of writing or 
speaking, if they do not refer to a different class of ob- 
jects, yet differ either in elevation or in precision. But of 
this difference there is here no question, except in so far 
as it imparts a permanent character to the word itself. The 
word itself takes a colouring from its occupation, "Like 
the dyer's hand it is subdued to what it works in". A similar 
distinction must obtain in all cultivated languages. Social 
manners and academic dictation have made it carefully ob- 
served in France. The tragic Muse may not use the lan- 
guage of the salon\ the diction of common life is not heard 
from the tribune or la chaire; but in the English language, 
from the many stages of cultivation through which it has 
passed, as well as from its multifarious composition, it is 
more strongly marked than in any other. Our several or- 
ders of words appear for the most part in an appropriate 
costume. I account this a high and characteristic advantage, 
which should be jealously maintained. 

The definition of these classes is more easy than the 
nomenclature. We shall have to choose, as in all similar 
cases where the terminology is unsettled, between the coin- 
ing of new words, which startle by their strangeness, and 
the employment of old terms, in a restricted or modified 
acceptation, or the dry and technical expedient of numbers, 
letters, or artificial signs referring to a prefatory explana- 
tion. .Referring this question to another occasion, when I 
propose to set forth my arrangement in a tabulated form, 
with the requisite illustrations ; and commencing with the 
lingua communis, including the necessary elements of speech, 
and constituting the bulk of the language , I hold that there 
lies above this, first the language of set discourse, words 


for the most part of Latin derivation , and of learned origin 
"long-tailed words in -entity and -ation", the hard words 
of the schoolboy, the book words of the peasant; I have 
thought of designating these words as scholastic, but the 
t term, I think, is clerical, or better still clerkly , 
clerical having acquired a secondary meaning. "Incarcerate" 
and "manacle", as distinguished from "imprison" and "hand- 
cuff", are obvious examples 1 . Above these in the highest 
zone of all there lies the domain of poetry and impassioned 
rhetoric, to which also there belongs a class of peculiar 
words, set apart as poetical., whether simply by their mean- 
ing, or by some peculiarity of form, or by their meta- 
phorical, or by their archaic character. Take as examples 
'empyreal", "cynosure", "battailous", "welkin". Below 
the middle zone I find a class of familiar words, not com- 
monly used in set discourse, or only used with a view to 
peculiar effect and felt to be in a different key; and below 
these again a still humbler class, hardly used in polite 
conversation except under circumstances of unreserved free- 
dom and with somewhat of a comic emphasis. Considered 
as the corresponding opposites to the highest class, they 
might be termed 'comic'; scherzhaft is the German term; 
but as falling below the ordinary language even of familiar 
intercourse, homely in the last degree. I have thought of 
the term "trivial" or "popular" such words as hugger- 
mugger, higgledy-piggledy^ pate, snigger, tattetdtmalKon, 
xlubberdegullion, &c. 2 There are also a few words of harm- 
less meaning, and of considerable force, which are ex- 
cluded from ordinary use by a tinge of coarseness, as 
"pimping" and "piddling", in the sense of mean, little, and 
contemptible. Many of these are antiquated terms, and as 
extremes meet, that which has fallen lowest, may some- 

1 "Tergiversation 1 ', "inescate", and "traiisudation" belong to this class, 
though the first is commonly used with a slight comic, or satirical em- 
phasis; (he thinl is raro and pedantic, and the second qnasi-scientitic. 

- llndilirastic \\nrds of learned origin, as "siimissaliou" for "trotting", 
are oi' a different character. The comic effect dues not depend upon the 
word itself, hut upon did connection. 


times be carried upwards into the highest region, on the 
wings of passion and poetry. 

These faint tones of colouring cannot perhaps be deter- 
mined with precision. The lexicographer must confine him- 
self to broader distinctions. Yet the more help he can 
afford to the student in the aid of words, the more useful 
will be his work. It is no objection to this view that the 
character of words varies from age to age, or at shorter 
intervals. The lexicographer at least records the usaga of 
his time, and may do something to perpetuate it. 

If this division be accepted the several classes may be 
specified as 1. poetical, 2. clerkly, 3. common, 4. familiar, 
5. trivial, or popular and comic. The distinction between 
the last class and mere slang lies in the fact that the former 
belongs to the genuine currency of the language, while the 
latter forms a peculiar dialect 1 . A word may be low with- 
out being vulgar, corrupt, or affected. Whatever .is here 
said of words, applies, with yet greater distinctness, to 

It is no objection to this arrangement that the several 
classes melt into each other at their confines. Such is the 
case with all classification. Nature is continuous, in mind 
no less than in matter. But it is no less certain that there 
is an ideal truth in kinds, whether their actual existence be 
real or nominal, and that they help to the knowledge of 
individuals. As a rule of practice let the doubtful words 
be assigned to the ordinary class , which of course requires 
no mark, or to that which lies nearest to it. Very many 
words of clerkly origin have fallen into common use, and 
have acquired a familiar sound. These may be left un- 

To conclude this branch of my subject. It will be seen 
that the character of a word may be considered under three 

1 Thus "gammy", "bone", "flumniusked", "kinchen", &c. = beggars- 
patter. "Darned", "Mowed", &c., are popular and corrupt; "knowledge- 
box", "bread-basket", "claret", and such like flowers of pugilistic rhetoric, 
are slang metaphors, but the words, as words, belong to the standard 


points of view, according as we regard, first its date and 
currency, secondly its rhetorical value (of which I have fully 
spoken), and thirdly its specialty of application and technical 
use. A single word may be referable to more than one of 
heads. It may for instance be archaic in respect of 
date, and poetical as regards its use. 

As regards date and currency a word may either be 
thoroughly obsolete, and supplanted by some other equi- 
valent; or obsolete in form only; or only in its special signi- 
fication; or it may have passed out of use without leaving 
any available substitute; or lastly it may be obsolete in the 
current language, but still in use in some spoken dialect; 
or again, it may be partially obsolete, and in this case, if 
it be of old date and still finds a place in poetry and ro- 
mance, it may be called archaic; if it belong to a later 
period, say to the reign of Queene Anne, but is getting out 
of date, it may be simply old-fashioned ^ the style affected by 
Mr. Thackeray in the novel of Esmond. The same distinction 
applies to modes of spelling, verbal inflexion and pronunciation, 
"Goohr, "Rooin-' (for "Rome"), "marchant", and "sirline", 
may still be heard from the lips of old people but if aic/ies^ 
for chc$ is quite passed away. The above subdivisions all 
refer to words more or less antiquated. On the other hand 
there are words of recent origin such as "telegram"', 
'-eventuate", "esemplastic" &c. either to be approved 
or condemned, and here, I think, the lexicographer must 
exercise his own judgement. Where else is the enquirer 
to seek for guidance? Again, there are foreign words, more 
or less perfectly naturalized, dialectic words, and slang 

As regards dialectic words I read in the "Proposals for 
a new English Dictionary", that the spoken language of the 
country, so much of it as is derived from ancient sources, 
and not from modern corruption, though it may be heard 
only in particular districts, was all to find a place in our 
Dictionary, so far as it could be ascertained. 

I regret that this intention has been abandoned 1 , though 

1 It ha* Mure Iteeii ivsrniu-d. The Philological Society has now <Je- 


I do not presume to question the judgement by which this 
decision has been determined. The ground, however, taken 
in laying down the new rule, does not in fact assign any 
reason for the change. It is merely stated that since the 
Reformation there has been a standard language to which 
the provincial (country?) dialects do not conform, a fact, 
of which , 1 suppose , the writers of the Proposals were fully 
cognizant. The question is not whether a dialectic word 
belongs to the standard currency of the language, but 
whether, on other grounds, it deserves to be recorded. 
Now a knowledge of the country dialects is of some value 
as a guide to intercourse with the natives , and to the local 
literature. For etymological purposes , and as bearing upon 
the ancient literature or language of the country, it has a 
great value. Such was the opinion of the best English 
verbalist I ever knew, Sidney Walker. Now the proposed 
Dictionary is professedly inclusive, not exclusive. If the 
plan be strictly carried out (if every word is to be recorded, 
good or bad, for which printed authority is to be found), it 
must include many a mere whimsey and many a gross cor- 
ruption, the ana* ksyoiisva of the pedant, the slip-slop 
catachreses of the ignoramus. It is to be an omnium-gatherum, 
and if this be practicable, so best; but if so, with what 
force will you shut the door against the genuine independent 
remains, Celtic, Saxon, or Scandinavian, of the ancient 
spoken language of the country , still heard , in spite of rail- 
roads and national schools, in our remoter and more se- 
cluded hamlets 1 . 

termined to admit genuine dialectic words, as distinguished from mere 
vulgarisms, into the dictionary. 

1 "You must fend for yoursels", my old school-dame used to say to 
her guests when she left them to their unaided exertions at dinner-time. 
"Oor awn sheep ur inair fendable than what we git from t' Sooth", said 
a Cumbrian shepherd to me, meaning that they were better able to pick 
up a livelihood, under difficulties, on the fells more active, and fuller 
of resources. The only standard words which answer to "fend" and 
"fendable" are "shift" and "shifty". But while the former imply self- 
dependence and energy, the latter lie very close to cunning and trick. 
There are hundreds , perhaps thousands of such words , either wholly 


But whatever may be thought of the value of our English 
Dialects , the value of the modern Scotch must on all hands 
be allowed to be very great indeed, and while, as I have 
above intimated, I doubt not that strong reasons exist for 
\ulusion, though none are assigned, I cannot forbear 
from expressing a modest regret that this should have been 
found necessary or expedient; and for the following reasons. 

First, the ancient Scottish poets fill up what would else 
be almost a blank in our poetic literature. And in fact the 
principal of these do appear in the list of authors whose 
works are to be examined. And if these have been sifted, 
a broad foundation, to say the very least, will have been 
laid, and more than half the work accomplished. Besides 
if you admit the ancient Scotch, with what consistency can 
you shut out the modern? If Blind Harry and Dunbar are 
kinsmen, and house-mates, shall we shut the door on Allan 
It a in say and Burns? 

Caecilio, Plautoque dabit Romanus ademptuiu 
Virgilio, Varioque? 

Secondly, there is no linguistic boundary between Eng- 
land and Scotland. The Lowland Scotch occupies a pre- 
cisely similar relation to Southern English , with the ancient 
dialect of my native Cumbrian hills, and indeed affords by 
far the best basis of comparison with all the northern dia- 
lects, and together with these, with the language of our 
ancient writers. It is not a separate language in any sense 
which may not be claimed by other Anglian dialects on this 
side of the Tweed. The Northumbrian may be traced back 
uninterruptedly to its own Anglo Saxon. It is a dialect, a 
peculiar form of our own tongue , of such value as to demand 
the attention of every English scholar, almost as a matter 
of necessity, and why should it be excluded from an Eng- 
lish Dictionary. The Dorians were far more sharply divided 
from thelonians, both historically and politically, than the 

wanting or miserably explained in Halliday; and except by Macphersou 
little or nothing has been done for our country dialects in the v 


Scotch from the English. The ethnographical differences 
were greater , the linguistic quite as great. Yet every Greek 
Lexicon includes Doric words, every Greek Grammar ex- 
plains Doric forms, and why? because the writings of Doric 
poets form part of the treasures of Greek Literature, and 
because the Dorian dialect is an important element in the 
investigation of the Greek language. And both reasons apply 
with at least equal force to England and Scotland. 

Thirdly and lastly. Looking at the matter as a question 
of expediency. Every student of the English language, na- 
tive, Colonial or American, will also try to read Scottish. 
Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary is a rare and expensive work. 
The ordinary glossaries are most unsatisfactory; surely the 
commercial value of the work would be enhanced if it 
covered the whole field: even as our Hebrew Lexicons take 
in the Chaldee, both being required for the same class of 

Technical words will of course be marked according to 
their department in the usual manner, in their own sub- 
division. Many words of technical origin have found their 
way into ordinary speech, as "zenith", "culminate", "amal- 
gamate" &c. These will doubtless appear in the general 
Dictionary, and present no difficulty. But there is a large 
class of words, which, without being exactly technical, are 
yet incapable of being used, except on occasions implying 
scientific research and technical precision. "Saponaceous" 
for "soapy", "amygdalaceous" for "almondy", would be in- 
tolerably pedantic, except in some connexion with natural 
history, physiology, or the like; other instances are such 
words as "anaesthetic", "mephitic", and " empyromatic ". 
And again such words as "analogue", "correlate", and the 
like. These words must certainly be found in the general 
Dictionary, but may they not be distinguished as scientific 1 . 

1 The orthoepical portion of the plan is barely indicated. It will how- 
ever involve some difficulties, and must be conducted on fixed principles. 
The standard of pronunciation should be fixed by a comparison with 
some foreign standard or standards, perhaps French or German. Thus 
the () in man, the central-vowel and key-note of the vocalic scale, lies, 


To the etymological portion I look forward with warm 
interest and the most lively hope. We may confidently ex- 
pect that an advance will here be made on any previous per- 
formance. Yet even here I would venture to suggest with 
all due humility, caution, moderation, and some amount of 
self-denial. I have heard S. T. Coleridge say that etymology 
died of a plethora of probability. He meant to say that, 
plausible reasons might be assigned for very different etyma, 
and the same word traced with as much likelihood and 
modesty as Hamlet claimed for his derivation in the instance 
of Alexanders dust, to very different originals. Since his 
day u wider field of induction has been opened, and more 
rigorous methods of investigation are employed. Still, if I 
mistake not, we are on the eve of new discoveries, and 
our Dictionary should not, I think, be exposed to the danger 
of reflecting any mere transient phasis of etymological en- 
quiry. Let us not have the dry bones of what twenty years 
hence may be by-gone speculation. It is too costly a shrine 
for such relics. At any rate let our etymology be strictly 
comparative. Sanskrit has now taken the place of Hebrew, 
with much better claims, as the universal solvent, the cli.,-lr 
etymologice^ the master key of Arian wordlore. Yet even 
in the case of Sanskrit, I would take nothing on trust, 
nothing on authority, however respectable. I am not indeed 
able to decide whether the Sanskrit etyma are indeed re- 

as Matzner <fcc. observes (Englische Grainmatik, p. 14), between German 
d and <". A native of Lancaster or Manchester may be distinguished at 
once as north-countryman, or at least as not born within the linguistic 
district of the metropolis, by the greater openness of the a in the initial 
syllables of those names ; and as we go still farther north the same (a) 
expands, in the Scandinavian a, to the () in what. Varying pronun- 
ciation should be given , and where the preference is not decided by 
custom, then, and then only, it may be given in favour of the spoiling 
or etymology A want of purity in the enunciation of the vowels, par- 
ticularly the intermediates e and o, may be detected by a fine ear in 
all but the very !">{ speakers. Where the accent is quite pure, the 
language, tlnm^li IK,; and sonorous as the Italian, is extremely 

muM.-al, :uul is MiMvptiM,., through its varied accentuation, of the richest 



sponsible for all the children and grandchildren affiliated 
upon them , I presume upon the ipse dixit of Sanskrit gram- 
marians ; but I have seen enough of the inspired Panini's of 
Cymric lexicography to distrust every genealogy which can- 
not be verified by crucial experiment. The etyma of the 
worthy Idrison, as he called himself, Dr. Owen Pugh, re- 
semble the primal cells of the physiologist, shapeless them- 
selves, but capable of assuming every shape, and I con- 
fess that I have seen some very similar protozoa brought 
from beyond the Indus. 

The relation which our Indian sister holds to the ancient 
Bactrian matriarch, nay of the great mother herself to the 
surrounding families, after all that Bunsen and Max Miiller 
have written, is still somewhat indeterminate. Of the roots 
which the Sanskrit grammarian finds in his own tongue, 
some, I believe, will be found to have wandered with the 
Kelt to the Western Eirin, some may be roaming on the 
slopes of the Altai , or have settled in the morasses of Fin- 
land ; nay , some , I believe , will be found to have remained, 
after all, in the plains of Shinar, or to have travelled to 
the valley of the Nile." 



The omission of one of the subject-pronouns of a Verb. 

It is a wellknown rule in Old Norse that "where in other 
tongues a personal pronoun is joined to a proper name by 
the conjunction and, the Icelanders leave out and, but on 
the other hand throw the pronoun into the dual or plural 
in the same case as the proper name." * Thus in the Edda 
(Volundarkvida 38) NiduQr asks his daughter Boflvildr: 

1 Kask's Icelandic Grammar, translated by Dasent, p. 186. 


satuff it Volundr "sat ye-two, [thou and] Wayland 

saman i holmi together in the holm?" 

So which Boflvildr replies: 

satu vit Volundr "we two sat [I and] Wayland 

saman i holmi together in the holm." 

So in Atlamal, 40: 

Flykffusk peir Atli "they assembled [they and] Atli, 

ok foru i brynjur and fared into byrnies." 

Mr. Benjamin Thorpe has remarked a similar construction 
in Anglo-Saxon. Thus in Beowulf 4008, 4009: 

hvylce [orleg] hvil "what while (of conflict) 

uucer Grendles of us two [me and] of Grendel 

wearff on pam wange was on the place." 

and in Caedmon 290, 6: 

ic pe aene abealh "I alone angered Thee, 

ece drihten Eternal Lord, 

pa vit Adam tva when we two [I and] Adam, two 

eaples pigdon ate the apple." 

so in the Scop's tale, 207: 

sSTonne vit Scilling "then we two [I and] Scilling 

sciran reorde with clear voice 

for uncnmi sige-dryhtne for our victorious lord 

song ahofan (leg. ahofon) raised the song." 

Mr. Thorpe also refers to Cod. Exon. pp. 324, 31. 467, 7 
for other such instances. 

I have noticed two instances of a somewhat similar con- 
struction in Old Irish. Thus in the Book of Armagh: 

Dulluid patricc othemuir hicrich laigen: conrancatar ocus dubthach. 
"Patrick went from Temuir (Tara) into the boundary of Leinster: they 
met [he] and Dubthach." 

And in a poem attributed to Patrick, and cited in a note 
to the Felire Oingusso, March 5, we find: 

i cind .xxx. bliadne band [leg. ban?] 
condricfem and ocus tii 
"at the end of thirty fair years, we shall meet there [I] and thou." 

It will be observed that in Irish the first pronoun is thrown 
into the verb, which is in the plural, but in the same person 
as the pronoun, and the conjunction is expressed. 



The Irish Infinitive with an Accusative instead of a Genitive. 
The Irish infinitive has long since been recognised to be 
merely a noun, and accordingly, as a rule, it governs the 
genitive. But I have found three examples of its governing 
the accusative. 

co carad chdingnimu du denuin. Zeuss 1065. 
"so that he loved to do good deeds." 

rotriall-som dana inn-des n-dana do marbad. Seirglige conculainn. 
"then he tried to kill the men of science." 
nf lamad nech tenid d'fatod. Lebar Brecc cited O'Don. Gr. 384. 
"no one dared to kindle a fire." 

This construction may perhaps be compared with the Vedic 
suryam drc,e, and the many instances in Plautus, where 
abstracts in -tio govern the accusative, such as: Quid tibi 
hanc digito tactio est? Quid tibi hue receptio ad te est 
meum virum? &c. 


A Demonstrative suffix for that of the first Personal pronoun. 
The Old-Irish forms ba-sa, rop-sa u fui": nip-sa "non fui" 
Z. 480; rot-gdd-sa "rogavi te" Z. 442; rogad-sa "rogavi" 
Felire Epilogue 412; dorret-sa Z. 1058; forroichan-sa , gl. 
institui, Z. 442 J &c.; have lost the original ending of the 
first person sing, and replaced it by the suffix -sa which is 
properly a demonstrative of nearness (Zeuss 353, 354). As 
in the forms above cited it means "I", it affords an in- 
teresting syntactical (though hardly etymological) parallel 
to the Armenian suftix -s (== Skr. eshd according to Bopp), 
especially when we remember that, like this -s, it may 
also mean "my". Thus diangalar fuail-se z "languor urinae 
meae" St. Gall. Incant., Zeuss 926. 

Indalim ba brathir dain 

mdthir-se* a mathir sem (Zeuss 930). 

1 For forroechan-sa ex for-ro-ce-chan~sa, pres. indie, forchun, root CAN. 

2 The nom. sg. fual = Skr. vari, Lat. urina, urinari, ur-na, Gr. ovoov. 

3 Here probably the -se has not arisen from progressive umlaut, but 
is = the Skr. demonstrative sya. 


"it seemed to me [that] jie was my brother [and that] my mother [was] 
his mother." 

Compare the Armenian hair-s "pater ego" or "pater meus" 
(=O.Ir. athir-se): sai-s "hoc meuin" &c. Bopp, Verglei- 
chende Grammatik, 2te Aufl., II, 165. 

W. S. 


The most singular point about the Cornish verb is one 
of the forms of the third singular imperative active, which 
ends not only in -as, -es (= -at, -et) but also in -ans, -ens, 
or -yns. Thus tommans onan dour war tan "let one warm 
water on (the) fire" D. 833; suel a vynno bos sylwys gol- 
sowcns ow lavarow "whosoever would be saved, let him 

hear my words" P. 2, 1; hag onan guyskyns kenter scon 

ynny "and let one strike a nail straightway into it" D. 2765, 
2766. Zeuss 518 regards this termination as having passed 
over from the plural into the singular. But apart from the 
unlikelihood of such a passage, his theory will not account 
for the forms in -ans, inasmuch as the third plural is al- 
ways in -yns (= Welsh and Breton -ent). Thus: mar an 
kefons yn nep chy ban Mmym treys ha dule "if they find 
him in any house, let them bind him feet and hands" 
D. 582, 583. 

As -cms, -ens, -yns stand , according to Cornish phonetics, 
for -ant, -cnt, -ynt, I suggest, with some diffidence, that 
we have here a case of nasalisation of the old singular 
termination -as, -#?, -ys (ex -at, -ct, -it) precisely parallel 
to that of the third singular of the secondary present active 
in Middle-Irish in -a-n-d, -e-n-d (beside -adh, -edh = -ath, 
-ctli). Thus: ni charand mo menma "my mind loves not" 
Seirglige Conculainn; na huli nos mfi&amJUcnghend o iris 
foirpthi "all that resemble him in firm faith" Vita Colum- 
bue, Book of Lismore; iar ndesmirecht poil apstel ro- 


pritckan [leg. apstail rophritchand ] do genntibh "after the 
example -of Paul (the) apostle who preached to the Gentiles" 
ibid.; ni etarscarann a mhe[n]ma fri pecdaibh "his mind 
does not separate from sins" ibid.; is inann do neoch acas 
no liaittreband ma ,thardha "it is the same to any one as 
if he was residing in his fatherland". This is the reading 
of the Highland Society's MS. In the Book of Lismore we 
have the un-nasalised form ... no aittrebad . . . The nasalised 
Middle-Irish form is now -ann, -eann, is called the consue- 
tudinal present, and is used impersonally. The explanation 
above given of the Cornish nasalised forms will perhaps 
meet with more favour if we remember that in Irish the 
third sing, imperat. active is nothing but the third sing, of 
the secondary present. That in Celtic nasalisation of t oc- 
casionally occurs, will appear from the Irish conjunction 
es, is 'and', which can only be explained as = the Ohg. 
e-n-ti, i-n-ti the Skr. prep, dti, Gr. ITI, Lat. et. In es, 
is, as mfilus 'they are' Zeuss, G. C. 1007, 1009, the * has 
first become s, and then, according to Irish phonetics, the 
n has been lost or assimilated. So in Greek -ouai, the 
termination of the third pi. pres. indie, act., stands for -ovot, 
and this for -OVTL = Skr. -anti. 

W. S. 


Professor Ritschl has done so much good service in the 
cause of Latin Literature by his labours upon Plautus and 
Roman Comedy in general, that adverse criticism is of ne- 
cessity painful ; and the more so, as the justification of any 
dissent from his views naturally requires a considerable ex- 
penditure of words, while the acknowledgement of his merits, 
just in proportion as .that acknowledgement is wide, must 


be comparatively brief. In such cases a hasty comparison 
of the two sides in the account may at first leave the im- 
pression that the balance is unfavourable. Such a result 
would be greatly at variance with the feelings of the present 
writer; and it is for this very reason that the paper com- 
mences with this warning against erroneous conclusions. 

Still it cannot be denied that on a careful examination 
grave doubts may well be entertained as to much that is 
found in the edition of Plautus, which the Professor com- 
menced in 1848 and is still conducting. If the great Eng- 
lish scholar of the eighteenth century has subjected himself 
to just censure for innovations in the text of Horace and 
Terence ill-supported by manuscripts , Ritschl has taken far 
greater liberties in the same direction, while in accuracy 
and profundity of scholarship he cannot bear comparison 
with Bentley. On the other hand we owe to the German 
an advantage which the English scholar did not concede to 
us. Bentley is ever apt to quote only those manuscript 
authorities which tend to support his proposed emendations. 
Ritschl has amassed the readings , even though at first sight 
of trivial variety, of not a few of the best MSS. of his 
author, without any reference to his own predilections. It 
is thus from his own quiver that a critic of his text must 
draw his arrows. 

In the first place then exception may, I think, fairly be 
taken to a practice which runs through his pages of at- 
taching to his ow r n conjectures an initial R in the same thick 
type which he employs for the designation of his MSS., as 
\, B, C, &c., so that a careless reader of his annotations is 
led to treat these conjectural changes, as of the same charac- 
ter with readings for which there is traditional authority; 
or rather to give an undue preference to the progeny of 
the editors brain, as the symbol R has always precedence 
over the other initials. What with omissions, insertions, 
changes , and transpositions of words , and not unfrequently 
of lines, his text differs from what the MSS. sanction, by 
a very considerable per-centage. But if the text of the 
plays be thus in not a few instances untrustworthy, it is 


of the highest advantage for the purposes of precise criticism, 
that the variations of readings are detailed with a minute- 
ness almost unexampled in classical authors; and thus even 
when Ritschl may be thought to have failed in extracting 
the genuine text, he has still supplied future editors with 
the best materials for the purpose; the best at least to be 
found, until the time arrives, and we may hope that it is 
not far distant, when the agency of the photograph may 
be used for taking copies of the best MSS., and the multi- 
plication of them be effected by the process now employed 
with such success and economy in the reproduction of maps 
by the Ordnance authorities at Southampton. When peace 
then has once more sway in Italy, we may hope that the 
literary treasures of Rome , Florence and Milan may by this 
means be effectually placed within reach of the scholars of 
other lands. 

A few examples of hasty corrections made by Ritschl in 
defiance of his manuscripts shall now be given. It may be 
remembered that in the Trinummus the suborned agent who 
pretends to have brought money from Charmides in a foreign 
land, falls in with the actual Charmides at Athens, and 
under the belief that he is an impostor who is personating 
Charmides, bids him at once give up the attempt. Here 
Ritschl, and Fleckeisen copying him, give us: 

Proiii tute itidem ut charmidatu's , rusuin te decharmida. 
'At once then, just as you have put on the character of 
Charmides , so please to uncharmidize yourself. But the 
MSS. only authorize: 

Proin tu te itideni ut charmidatus es, rusum rechannida. 
And as regards the verb recharmida, Ritschl at once rejects 
it on the ground, as he puts it in the preface (p. Ixxv), 
that such a compound with re can only mean 'rursus indue 
Charmidis personam'. Now a little examination of the Latin 
vocabulary might have placed before him not a few examples, 
which justify the original reading, as re-fig- 'unfix', re-teg- 
'uncover', re-siyna- 'unseal', re-sera- 'unbolt', re-dud- 'un- 
lock 7 , re-ylutina- 'unglue', re-gela- 'thaw', re-cing- 'ungird', 
re-canta- 'exorcise what has been charmed', re-tex- 'unweave'. 


re-fod- 'take up again what has been buried', re-laxa- 'un- 
loose', re-pignera- 'take out of pawn', re-plumba- 'unsolder', 
,'<'-rrla- 'unveil', re-tend- (arcum) 'unstring 1 , re-fell- 'unde- 
ceive', red-ordi- (r) 'unweave', re-fibula- 'unbuckle', re-vinci- 
'unbind' (Colum.), re-vorr- 'unsweep' so to say, re-torque- 
'untwist', re-secra- 'undo what is expressed by obsecra-', 
re-cuti- 'skin' (i. e. 'unskin'), whence recutito- part., re-cid- 
iraplied in the adj. recidico- 'springing up again after fell- 
ing', as the shoots from the stump of an oak &c. I may 
here note that although rc-tex- has in our dictionaries many 
meanings attached to it, the idea of 'unweaving' is the only 
one which really belongs to the verb. Retorque- has the 
notion 'untwist' in the last book of the Aeneid, where Juno 
"mentem laetata retorsit", i. e. 'smoothed again a soul so 
long by passion wrung'. On the other hand it would be a 
task of some difficulty to get together an equal number of 
verbs which by composition with de attain to the same idea 
of reversal. De-teg- 'uncover' is one example of such use. 
On the other hand the Latin language has a prefix e, cor- 
responding to the Greek crr, with the same power in the 
verb ignosc- (in -f- gnosc-) 'unknow' so to say , i. e. 'forget', 
like the Breton an-kouna of the same origin and power. In 
my paper (Trans, for 1854, p. 41) on the European repre- 
sentatives of the preposition ara I spoke of this verb as 
the sole example in the Latin language, where this in de- 
noted reversal of former action. I have since found that 
the compound verb in-concilia- obtains its peculiar meaning 
in precisely the same way. But as the Latin Dictionaries 
of the present day are wholly at fault in the treatment of 
this verb, a few words on the subject may be serviceable. 
It may well startle a student to find two such very dif- 
ferent meanings assigned to this verb, as 1. 'to win over 
to one's side, to conciliate', and 2. 'to make an enemy of, 
to turn against one'. But the simple truth is that the verb 
neither has nor could have either of these meanings. The 
true meaning is one of peculiar character, but given with 
all accuracy by Forcellini, yet unknown to our modern 
lexicographers, si div placet, who affect however to have 


always corrected their translations by a clue reference to 
the great Italian Lexicon. As the simple verb conciliare, 
formed with all accuracy from con and cilia 'small hairs', 
signified strictly 'to felt (wool)', so inconciliare is properly 
c to unfelt', if the word may be allowed , that is to separate 
again the woolly fibres which had been previously united 
in the process of felting. Thus we have a most expressive 
metaphor, somewhat like our own 'unravelling' and available 
generally for the idea of breaking up , dissolving , what had 
been closely united. The word occurs in at least four pas- 
sages of Plautus, and in all this idea is most appropriate, 
due allowance being made for this comic poet's love of bold 
metaphors. The process of felting is no longer carried on 
under our eyes , as it was under the eyes of Romans in the 
age of Plautus ; we shall therefore have a more intelligible, 
yet at the same time equivalent metaphor, if we use in its 
place the phrase 'to make oakum' of him or it, 'to tear to 
rags'. In the Trinummus 1. 2. 99, and the Mostellaria 3. 1. 85 
the accompanying accusatives are persons, and the idea is 
breaking them up as regards their property. In the Bacci- 
des 3. 6. 22 inconciliare copias omnis meas the idea is sub- 
stantially the same ; and in the Persa 5. 2. 53 non inconciliat 
quom te emo, may be rendered by 'he does not tear up' 
that is 'annul my purchase of you', quom in the older writers 
often having the power of quod. C. 0. Miiller indeed in 
his edition of Festus, v. inconciliasti , finds an objection to 
the doctrine that this verb is the opposite of 'concilia-' in 
that the prefix in, which denotes negation (abnuitioneni), is 
never attached to verbs , except in the participial form. This 
is a point for which I have myself contended in speaking 
of the verb i-gnosc--, but the difficulty vanishes, if the in 
be that other particle which represents the Greek ava-, Germ. 
ent-j Eng. un- before verbs, which must be carefully distin- 
guished from the negative prefix. This in Greek takes the 
form av , not ava, in German the form un, not ent. It is 
a mere accident that in the Latin and English the particles 
have at times slipped into an identity of form. The Dutch, 
Danish, Swedish, and Welsh again distinguish them, as 


may be seen in the Table I have given in the paper just 
referred to (p. 49). 

But to return from the digression thus caused by Ritschl's 
misinterpretation of the fictitious verb rccharmida-, a more 
striking instance of persevering rashness can scarcely be 
found than in the determination with which the editor per- 
secutes the name Pamphilippue in the Sticus. The word 
occurs in the body of the play just six times, but in the 
first passage (2. 2.71), the Palimpsest differing from all 
th" other MSS. has: 

Vidistin uirum sororis Pamphilum Non Non adest 

and it is true that the transcriber by the breaks left after 
Pamphiluni and the first Non intended as elsewhere to de- 
note a change of speaker. The other MSS. give us : 

Vidistin uirum sovoris Pamphilippum? Non adest? 

Now it is quite clear that this last reading is in itself 
thoroughly satisfactory, and secondly, that, if it be desirable 
to divide the line into three portions , as in the Palimpsest, 
the object may be effected, as some one has proposed, by 
the reading: 

Vidistin uirum sororis Pamphilippum? Non. Abest? 

But rather than admit one of these simple solutions of the 
difficulty, he prefers to alter the five other passages in an 
arbitrary manner, so as to substitute the favoured Pamphilum, 
and this with all the MSS. including the Palimpsest itself 
against him, and he even attempts to strengthen his argu- 
ment by throwing suspicion on Pamphiltppu* as an irrational 
form, forgetting one would suppose the numerous adjectives 
so compounded, which may be seen in any tolerable Greek 

A whole class of words in which Ritschl hesitates unduly 
to follow the guidance of his MSS., consists of Greek words 
adopted into Latin. The Editor himself has properly noted 
that such accusatives as Calchan, and such vocatives as 
onitli' were in all probability unknown to Plautus, who 
seems to use exclusively for these purposes ( 'ak-luun and 
Megaronides. In truth the Greek words which this poet 
employs, are first naturalized and assume something of a 


Roman dress. niaTeia, for example, with its long penult 
becomes for Plautus, and indeed for Terence also, platfa, 
and so easily passes through the Italian piazza into the 
French and Norman-English place. (Plant. Trin. 4. 1.21; 
Ter. Eun. 2. 3. 52, Ad. 4. 2. 35, Ph. 1. 4. 38.) Similarly yv- 
vaixEiov takes in Latin' comedy the shape of gynaeceum or 
rather cinaeceum (Most. 3. 2. 68 and 72; and 3. 3. 5). A 
Greek writes IMvQixrj, but the metre of the Trinumnnis 
(4. 2. 10) requires and the Ambrosian codex actually gives 
BHurica, that is Hilurica, pronounced HiMcd , in the line: 
Hilurica facies uidetur hominis; eo ornatu aduenit 

where the long final a is thoroughly consistent with the 
early habit of the language (see Corssen's Aussprache ... 
der Lateinischen Sprache , Vol. I. p. 830) , and , as regards 
the initial aspirate and single liquid, no better confirmation 
could be desired than the line in the Mercator 2. 1. 10: 
Istros Hispanos Massiliensis Hilurios. 

Here Ritschl indeed gives Ilurios, still without the A in 
direct opposition to his three best MSS. 

Nor can we see any just reason why the editor should 
so frequently write in Greek characters words which his 
MSS. present in Latin characters, much less why he should 
run into the inconsistency of printing in the same line naliv 
and euge, his MSS. having simply palin. These two words 
probably passed into the Latin vocabulary from the Greek 
theatre as seen in Italy, much in the same way as the stage 
has introduced among us the foreign words encore and bravo. 
Again in Trin. 3. 1 . 24 he most unnecessarily gives us the far 
less suitable phrase, haut ei euscheme astiterunt, where the 
MSS. have, what is letter for letter correct, haut ineusceme 
astiterunt, 'not an ungraceful pose that', the adverb being 
the Latin form of the Greek avevo^^o^, the change of av 
to in, of cog to e, and the loss of the aspirate being pre- 
cisely what the idiom of the Latin language called for. 
Clamidem too, supported by all the MSS. in Mercator 5. 2. 7, 
to say nothing of the same form occurring in many other 
passages, might well have had precedence over chlamydem. 
Similarly one may with reason prefer among the proper 


names Carmides (so the Palimpsest in Trin. 3. 3. 16), Filto 
(so the same authority ibid. 2. 2 and 2. 4, the more so as 
this form accounts for the erroneous reading- filio in the 
MSS. in 2. 4. 105 and 115); Sticus, rather than St-ichus, 
throughout the play so-called. Oddly enough he has him- 
self yielded to the authority of his MSS. in Mercator 5. 2. 84, 
and with a wise boldness printed sonam tor zonam. 

Let me also briefly note the unwillingness of Ritschl to 
admit in Plautus the form pater before a vowel, like the 
Greek naii]<), when already Virgil has three examples of 
such long quantity, and when his Ambrosian MS. (Triu. 
<. 2. 19) has 

Tibi pater auosque facilem fecit et planam uiam. 

to say nothing of other passages. In truth natr^ represents 
;uiitQ, where the tinal sibilant is the ordinary representa- 
tive of the nominative. Precisely in the same way %i(> 
stands for x (>*> a form which actually occurs in a penta- 
meter quoted from Timocreon by Hephaestion (TTSQI (iie- 
i ()(<)) 1): 

ii) ai'f.ip<iv).ti'eiy ytoq KTJO, vtji'j tit nctna. 

But I pass from these somewhat trivial matters to a 
question of more importance, the light thrown on the for- 
mation of the perfect tense by readings recorded in this 
edition. But here some preliminary remarks seem to be 
required. That reduplication prevailed to a very consider- 
able extent in the formation of perfect tenses is of course 
not to be denied. The evidence of the Sanskrit, Greek, 
Latin , and Gothic languages is decisive on this point. At 
the same time one may justly doubt whether it be in any 
way by virtue of the reduplication that the perfect tense 
obtained the power belonging to it. In not a few languages 
the repetition of the simple adjective serves as a superlative, 
for instance in the Hebrew. The Breton too from 
'good' has -m<nl mad "best", from fa II 'bad", fall fall 'worst'; 
and our own Shakspere found an expressive superlative in 
it'onili'i-ful n'omlcrfnl. So ii^aiii the French have the term 
boil-bun*, translated by English children into the correspond- 
ing goodie-goodie This is thoroughly intelligible, for a* ihe 


simple adjective 'good' makes its selection out of all that 
is good, bad, or indifferent, so a second selection may well 
be made out of the category 'good', and thus we arrive at 
any rate at a class of 'very good' ; and by a similar process, 
may hope to attain to the very highest degree of goodness, 
or the beau ideal represented by 'best'. This being the 
case then there may seem at first to be a natural connection 
between the superlative among adjectives and the perfect 
in verbs; but such assumption would be little better than 
a play upon words , as the term perfect applied to the verb 
simply means 'finished', without any laudation of the act. 
The work in fact may have been of very bad quality. All 
we know is that it is over. Then again, when we look to 
facts, we find that reduplication is no way confined to per- 
fects. The Greek verbs fuif.iv-, mm-, yiyv- , for example, 
and the Latin sist- and gign-, are not the less reduplicative, 
because they exhibit a vowel i, while the perfects have a 
short 0, for an ascent to the earlier forms would no doubt 
give us in both cases a mere repetition of the root syllable. 
Thus momordij spopondi, scicidi, tutudi, coexist with tetendi. 
The Greek again in the imperfect tenses has reduplicated 
verbs, such as oholvt-, axct%ii,-, naiicpaiv-, naicpctGG-. So 
in the Gothic again we find such reduplicated perfects as 
hdihdit 'called', skdiskdid 'separated', stdistdut 'struck'. In 
the early stages of language there seems to have prevailed 
a general fondness for repetition, but without attaching to 
it any grammatical idea. Thus in South America we find 
a river Biobio, a lake Titi-caca, a rodent animal tuco-tuco. 
So too the New-Zealander's vocabulary swarms with sub- 
stantives, adjectives, and verbs of such formation, as dko- 
dko 'split', dkidki 'urge', dtidti 'drive away', minamina 'de- 
sire' ; dngednge 'thin' ; hduhdu 'brisk', korokoro 'loose', mingo- 
mingo 'curly'; motumotu 'embers', emiemi 'a tree', kirikiri 
'gravel', mdtimdti 'toe'. Our own ears also are familiar with 
such forms as talkie-talkie, and we seem to find them of 
especial value in our dealings with barbarous races. Not 
unlike this is the familiar formation seen in wishy-washy, 
fiddle-faddle, tittle-tattle; or again in the Latin substantives 


ciconia beside conia, cucumis, cucurbita, susurrw, tintinna- 
bulum, and in the verb tit Ilia- re. 

From all this it seems to be a reasonable inference that 
reduplication was not in the outset employed to denote any 
relation of time, such as that expressed in the term perfect. 
I propose now to make some remarks on the formation of 
tin- Latin perfect by way of supplement to what I have 
written on this subject in the pages of our Proceedings; 
and I am led to do so at this moment, because 1 find some 
new evidence in the Plautian readings as recorded by Ritschl. 
In the year 1832 in the Journal of Education, IV, 354, 355, 
I had occasion to speak of the Latin perfect, and there 
suggested, what very possibly others had suggested before 
me, that uerri, uct-t-i, uelli, uisi had originated in redupli- 
cated forms ueuerri &c. Again in the Penny Cyclopaedia 
(Auxiliary verbs) I contended that the verb es 'be' entered 
into the formation of all Latin perfects, active as well as 
passive. In 1844 in a 'Rejoinder' to a pamphlet by the 
Rev. J. W. Donaldson, I entered more fully into this ques- 
tion, and again in our Proceedings IV, 34. My last re- 
marks on the subject were given (May 13, 1853) ibid. VI, 
72. I will here simply repeat that in my opinion the com- 
monest and oldest as well as simplest mode of denoting the 
relations of time is by the employment of prepositions with 
the respective powers of 'from', 'at or in', and 'to'. Thus 
/>* de diner denotes a past act, / am ^-dining is the 
old English form of the present imperfect, / am to Jim* 
is in familiar use as a future; and these phrases owe their 
definition of time chiefly to the three little prepositions, de, 
a, and to. As a in 'a-dining' is the remnant of an Anglo- 
Saxon preposition, so the Gaelic employs ag 'at' in its 
present imperfect, as ta iad ag iarruidh 'they are a-asking". 
(See our Proceedings VI, 69.) In the same paper I drew 
similar arguments from other members of the Keltic family, 
and I should have done well to note the familiar fact 
that as the Breton for example forms its imperfect participle 
by prefixing a preposition to the infinitive, ock ober "faisanf, 
so the French lan^ua^e also has the form en disant ces mots 


il sortit where en is added, because what is now called a 
participle, disant, was at first a verbal substantive like the 
Latin gerund dicendum, so that en disant strictly represents 
in dicendo. 

But to return to the Latin perfect, it needs no words to 
show that the final syllables of feccram, fecero, fecerim, fe- 
cissem, fecisse, represent with great accuracy the simple 
tenses of the verb es 'be', as eram, ero, sim (old form esim), 
esscm, esse. But this being the case the analogy will not 
be complete unless we account for the differences, which 
are only too marked between the endings of the present 
perfect fed &c. and the several forms of sum &c. Two of 
these indeed are all we could desire. Fec-istis corresponds 
to estis; and if fecistis as a plural is justified, the singular 
of the same person may well be fecisti. Again if fecerunt 
with its long penult has something discordant with fount 
(sunt), we are entitled to fall back upon fecerunt, for 
examples of such short penults are not unknown in the 
poets of the Augustan age, and are yet more common, the 
higher we ascend in the literature. Thus Ritschl might well 
have followed the guidance of what he thought he found in 
the Palimpsest (2. 2. 61): 

Maliuoli perquisitores auctionum perierunt 

for the perfect of the indicative better accords with the tone 
of the context than the future perierint; and by the way he 
need not have defied his MSS. by writing maleuoli in place 
of maliuoli, in which the i is as thoroughly entitled to hold 
its ground as in maligni, beniyni, two words of exactly 
similar formation. 

Still there is a difficulty which overhangs the theory for 
which I am contending. If fecerunt be older than fecerunt, 
we have what is prima facie a violation of the law which 
governs the changes of words. The passage from long to 
short vowels is a common occurrence, and indeed but an 
instance of the general principle that man is ever en- 
deavouring to abridge his labour. My defence of the ano- 
maly is this, that the five forms which preceded the third 
person of the plural, having, as will soon be made to ap- 


pear, a long syllable in the place that corresponds to the 
penult of fecenmt, there was a natural tendency to extend 
the principle beyond its due limits, and so fecerunt got 
established. We have what is precisely parallel in the Greek 
past perfect, Eienxpcii', -*<,'. -i; -eivov, -sizy; -tif.iv, 
-sue, which led almost irresistibly to iTvcpioav. Yet we 
know that the older and more correct form was tTetvrpeaav, 
and indeed as taav of the Greek substantive verb had un- 
dergone no contraction, the short e is alone to be justified 
by its formation. The same applies to esunt, as seen in 
fec-crunt. The Italian too by the accent of its form fecero 
confirms the doctrine. 

From the plural of the third person I go back to the 
singular; and here my theory suggests a form fecist^ while 
practice seems to present us with fecit alone, and if our 
grammars be trustworthy with a short final. A due search 
however will not merely guide us to the very form fecist, 
but also establish on the surest ground that the third person 
of the Latin perfect ended originally in a long syllable fecit. 
First as to the latter point, Ritschl, it is true in p. 185 of 
the Prolegomena to the Trinummus, treats with a sort of 
contempt the doctrine that the final of vcndidit may be long 
(apage igitur uendidit), and accordingly he commends Becker 
for correcting the line of the Capt. prol. 9: 

Bcunqne hinc profugiens uendidit in Alide, 

by the reading: 

Eumque hinc profugiens uennm dedit in Alide. 
Such a collocation of words gives us unhappily what is al- 
together unmetrical, for whether uenum dedit be written as 
one word, or as two, the accent must be on the urn of 

As there happen to be a good dozen passages in Plautus, 
where the perfect, in spite of RitschFs dogma, ends in a 
long it before a vowel, he was likely to find abundant 
exercise for his ingenuity in the way of transpositions and 
insertions for the purpose of reducing to order the rebellious 
passages, but I need not enter into particulars as to the 
means he employs, tor in one of the more recently edited 


plays (Pseudulus, Praef. 14 and again at v. 311) he has 
given up the point and confessed that Fleckeisen has at 
last satisfied him that the it of perfects may be long. It 
was time he did, for the passages in the Latin poets, in- 
cluding Virgil, Horace, and Ovid, which present us with 
such forms as perruptt, redilt, praeterilt, &c. , would have 
required the most liberal use of RitschFs innovations. Corssen 
in his work, Aussprache &c. der Lateinischen Sprache, Vol. I, 
p. 353, has given an extensive yet far from complete list 
of the instances, including ten from Plautus, two from 
Terence, four from Virgil (enitult Georg. 2. 211, petilt Aen. 
10. 67, illislt 5. 480, subiit 8. 363), two from Horace (per- 
rupit Carm. 1. 3. 36, subiit Sat. 1. 9. 21), seven from Ovid, 
fult and fuet from the metrical epitaphs of the Scipios. In 
addition to these he quotes from inscriptions of authority 
the efficient evidence of REDIEIT and PERI!T. It is no slight 
confirmation of this doctrine that the third preterite in 
Sanskrit has for the singular akarsh-am, akarsh-ls (or -?/*), 
akarsli-it, and that this tense is evidently formed throughout 
by the addition of the Sanskrit verb for 'I am' &c. to 
a-kar-sh-, in which kar alone represents the base of the 
verb. Thus the tense is the accurate analogue of the Greek 
e-yQUTi-G-n, of which more presently. 

But if the proofs of the length of the final vowel m fecit 
be thus abundant, we have also proof that its justification 
lies in the assumption of an old fecist, for the earliest 
specimens of the French language not unfrequently exhibit 
perfects in st. Thus Kaynouard in his Grammaire Com- 
paree (p. 372) quotes: 

Qui du latin la trest et en roinant la mist 

where the first verb stands for traist, the preterite of traire, 
in the sense of 'drew'; and Diez (2. 200 &c.) confirms what 
Raynouard quotes by numerous examples, as chausist, fauhist, 
vausist, vousist from verbs in loir, as also by diet, prittt, 
rist, sist, traist j arsist, remansist. 

In the first person plural, if sumus is to enter into the 
formation, we ought to have fecismus, but we find fecimus. 
Here the Latin language offers no explanation, and thus I 


was driven on a former occasion to seek aid from one of 
the Slavic family , viz. from the Illyrian. Thus in our Pro- 
ceedings IV, 37 I quoted the present and perfect tenses of 
the verb vidi-ti 'to see', as: 

pres. : vidim, vidis, vidi; vidimo, vidite, vide. 

perf. : vidyeh, vidye, vidye ; vidyesmo, vidyeste, vidyeshe, 
while ye, yesmo, yeste are severally the third sing, and first 
and second plur. of the Illyrian verb Ho be'. 

This argument may be thought far fetched. My next shall 
be drawn from the daughters so-called of the Latin. The very 
word feciimis appears in Ttal. &$ facemmo, in Span, as hi- 
zimos, two words which by their accents speak strongly in 
favour of an old Latin fecismus. Still more decisive is 
/wines of old French (Diez 2.201), backed as it is by 
trdt-stnex, deismes (ibid.). When Diez adds to the last word 
'with an intrusive v' (mit eingeschobenem s), he shows that 
he is an unwilling witness ; and I am glad to find his ad- 
mission that the forms with this s are more numerous in 
old French than those without it. In this matter I value 
his evidence more than his theory. 

But if a plural fecismus be thus theoretically established, 
it follows at once that the singular must have been in earlier 
times j<'<'i.*iii , which would naturally pass through fecim to 
few, for the loss of an s before wt 1 , so common in the lan- 
guages derived from Latin, was also well known to the 
Latin itself, as in camena-, remo-, pomoerio-, darno- (beside 
<lusmoso-\ The loss of a h'nal m in the first person of verbs 
is what we are familiar with in f ado, fecero, yyctcpw, eyQatya, 
W()<(ffc(. I now repeat what I said above, that the tongue 
after passing through fedvm, feeM, fecitst, fecinmu*, fecisti*, 
would naturally slip into the utterance of feccnnit rather 
Ihun the legitimate fcccmnf. 

The part which the verb es 'be' plays as a suffix in the 
formation of the Latin perfect having been fully examined, 
the next step is to take into consideration the element which 

1 Note that the Greek tun, Gothic im, and English am drop the radi- 
cal s before m in the very verb under discussion. 


is found to intervene between the root syllable and the same 
suffix. In scripsi we find an s, in amaui and colui a u, in 
fed and memini nothing whatever. Reserving the consider- 
ation of the u in amaui and colui, I venture to re-affirm 
the doctrine that the s in scripsi is of prepositional power, 
and in fact identical with the case-ending of the genitive 
in nouns. Thus scripsi will stand for scripsism, that is for 
scrib-s-is-m , with the sense of 'I am from writing', or C I 
have just written '. Without some representative of the idea 
from, my theoiy would be altogether without meaning, for 
it is not in the power of the verb 'I am' to perform this 
office; indeed we have already seen that this verb is just 
as much employed in the formation of the present C I am 
a- writing ' and of the future C I am to write'. I may confirm 
this argument by the evidence of the Sanskrit future kar- 
tasmi, in which the terminal letters are admitted on all 
hands to be identical with the Sanskrit verb asmi 'I am'. 
Again we find a similar s in the Greek aorist sygaijja (s- 
ypaqp-ff-cf/t); but then it has generally been taught that the 
Latin scripsi is rather an aorist than a perfect. No doubt 
such is practically the sole employment of the Greek tense 
syQcuJja, and not unfrequently scripsi is used with the same 
power. Yet the latter is of course also a perfect; and I 
claim this as being its earlier sense, partly because the 
theory I am supporting gives a satisfactory explanation of 
the way in which it attained such meaning, and still more 
because in savage life the consideration of both past and 
future would naturally be limited for the most part to the 
recent past and to the early future. For these uses the 
forms C I am from writing' and C I am to write' are admirably 
adapted, not so for the distant past or future. At the same 
time, a term for time only just past having been once 
formed, may well, by an extension of meaning so common 
in language, come at last to be employed as an aorist. 

If I should fail to discover in all perfects the genitival s 
so essential to my theory, I might well appeal to the fact 
that this element is very apt to disappear. Thus the Latin 
genitives musae, domini, Achilli, diei, as well as the pro- 


nouns met, tui, mi, have all lost the distinctive consonant. 
So the French lundi bears no trace whatever of a genitival 
suffix, though we know it to be derived from lunae dies. 
Similarly the Greek term lIelo7Tov-vri<in- should have a 
genitive in the first part, and in fact has one, for the final 
v of Jlehorcov is a substitute for an o caused in part by 
assimilation to the following consonant. Yet this n very 
commonly supplants the genitival s without any such excuse. 
Thus our tsunday grew out of an older son-en-day or, as 
the Scotch wrote, son-oun-day, like the numerous derivatives 
in the German language, as sonnen-blume ; sun-flower'. Ox- 
ford again is a corruption of Oxen-ford. 

But I shall not be satisfied with thus avoiding the diffi- 
culty. It is true that in such forms as fed we see no trace 
of the assumed suffix. This however is at once accounted 
for when we have before us the fuller forms, such bsfecism, 
fecixti, fecivt, for the loss of the desired is, before a syl- 
lable of exactly the same shape, is not only likely but in 
some measure a necessity. It is precisely in this way that 
the Latin language presents us with the forms : sumpse Naev., 
despexe Plant., iusse Ter., inuasse Lucil. , abstraxe Lucr., 
subdujce Varr. , uixet Virg. , erepsemus Hor. , affixet Sil., 
vcripse Aus. I ought here to note that this view suggests 
an explanation of fecenmt with a long penult, inasmuch as 
fec-is-es-unt might first lead to fecmunt, and then to fe- 
ccnt/it. The explanation however ^vvould altogether fail in 
the case of scripserunt; unless indeed, as may well have 
been the case, a false analogy from the justifiable fecfrunt 
led to the extension of the long penult. 

The evidence of eyoa t/> was but now called in aid, but 
the Greek perfects also bear indisputable traces of the same 
formation. As s-veTvcp-tauv, and e-itrucp-yv of the past 
perfect have suffixes identical with eaav and r t v of the past 
tense of the substantive verb, the former representing the 
Lat. erantj while j?r, contracted from ', represents the 
Lat. erani; and as letvipa, i. e. T6tvfp-ait, has a suffix not 
unlike the verb ////. and precisely the same as our English 
am so also the aspirate in Twvcp- may fairly be accepted 


as the representative of the desired s, in accordance with 
the ordinary habit of the language. 

But the case of necpih^x-a and verbs of similar form 
presents a new difficulty, but one which in the end will, 
it is thought, be found to confirm the doctrine here main- 
tained. In the first place the aorists edwxa, e^r^a, >^u, 
exhibit the same guttural, and so far add to the probability 
of the theory which would assign to the first aorist and to 
the perfect a common origin. Buttmann, it is true, seems 
to consider this x as a merely intrusive letter (see his 
Gramm. 107, Anm. 17, note, p. 510); but this is a more 
convenient than trustworthy mode of eliminating difficulties. 
The x no doubt had its office to perform, and I had first 
thought that the just explanation was to divide the word 
ne-cpd-qx-oc , so that r^x should be the fuller and more 
correct form of the suffix seen in the verb cpd-e- 'love', 
just as ver-ec- is proved to be the older form of the Latin 
verb vere-ri c to fear', by the derivative ver-ec-undo- and by 
the guttural of the modern words fr-igh-t and fur-ch-t, while 
the perfect participle a-fr-ai-d has again lost the guttural. 
Similarly trdbe- 'a tree or beam' is shown to have once 
had a guttural both by the Latin trabec-ula, and by the 
Greek TQCKprjx-. But a fuller consideration of the problem 
has resulted in the belief that x of Tiecpdyxct, the aspirate 
of TETvcpa, and the sibilant in eyQaipa and scripsi are but 
varieties of the same element, viz. of the genitival suffix. 
This will be thought by many a rash interpretation, and 
those who reject every thing that has not received the im- 
primatur of the German school of philology, may perhaps 
designate it as a 'jeu d'esprit'. These critics will perhaps 
drop a little of their sarcasm, when they find that I am 
going to draw upon the Vergleichende Grammatik for part 
of my evidence. In 269 of this work the Slavic genitive 
in go, as to-go, falls under consideration, and on the prin- 
ciple that the Slavic language readily interchanges sibilants 
with gutturals, it is inferred by Bopp that this suffix go 
represents the Sanskrit suffix sya of the same case. Schleicher 
on the other hand ? and Miklosich, are quoted in the same 


passage for the explanation that the guttural in question is 
a hardening of the semivowel y in the same suffix. The 
Latin and Greek languages indeed seem not to have known 
the initial s of this suffix sya 1 , but merely io or ios, as 
seen in loyo-io , quo-ius, and so lend some support to this 
second explanation. 

But even a third theory may be propounded, viz., that 
as a suffix -ios, afterwards is and os, gives a better expla- 
nation of all the Greek and Latin, and of some of the 
Sanskrit genitives, the guttural we have before us may re- 
present the final s rather than any initial * of the genitival 
case-ending. Be this as it may , it is admitted by three of 
the leading philologists of the continent, that in one member 
of the Indo-European the consonant of the genitival suffix 
assumes the sound of a guttural. Nor is this a solitary 
case. The all-honoured Sanskrit also presents a k in the 
plural genitive of the pronominal declension, asmdkam 'of 
us', yushmdkam 4 of you'. A comparison of these cases 
with the instrumental and dative of the same number, 
asmd-bhis, asma-bhyam &c., tells us pretty plainly that as 
the tlat/ni or base of the pronoun is as mat &c., and as * 
and am are suffixes of plurality like s and urn in the Lat. 
no-bi 9 equa-bus, equa-rum, so the k and the k alone of 
a&nuk&m&e. represents the 5. Bopp, it is true, would fain 
derive these two Sanskrit forms from the possessive asnwka 
&r., as seen in the Veda-dialect, but this is to reverse the 
stream of derivation, unless indeed he be prepared to say 
that the Lat. adj. cuhi*, -a, -uni is the parent of the Lat, 
gen. cuius. The theory which ascribes the k of asnuikani 
to a genuine genitival suffix is again confirmed by the suffix 
cku of Slavic pronouns. Thus Bopp himself ( 278) iden- 
tifies the Slavic te-chu 'horunv with the Sanskrit tc-sam of 
exactly the same power. Further the preposition tx of the 
Greek language, so well calculated to fulfil the office of a 
genitival suffix, may itself be traced till it disappears in a 

1 Bopp's reference to tiquoaio- the adj. avails him not, as this is only 
a softening of a form J^UOT/O- from the snbst. tiquoitt-. 


mere sibilant. Thus it first takes ;i fuller form t or ex, 
and then in not a few cases loses its guttural. Thus the 
Latin expanse- , extenso-, excurr-cre, exsecra-re^ exhala-rc, 
exi-re, become severally spaso, esteso, scorrere, csecrare, 
scialare, and escire or uscire. The last verb enters the French 
as Mr (obs.) or ussir (reussir'). Again the Latin substantives 
exitu- and textu- pass through the French issue and tissu 
into the English issue and tissue. This consideration adds 
to the probability that the guttural and sibilant suffixes of 
the genitive may have a common origin in some form of 
which the preposition ex is itself one representative. 

Enough then has perhaps been said in support of the 
doctrine that nufilrixu. and i-duxa have in the guttural a 
substitute for the more common s of the genitival suffix. 

The u of colui, amaui &c. claims our next consideration. 
I formerly threw out the idea that this u belonged to the 
substantive verb, and no doubt the verb esse had once an 
initial digarnma. At any rate my own conviction on this 
point will remain, until the doctrine be upset which treats 
esse 'to eat' and esse 'to be' as identical, the first of the 
two meanings being the original. Esca 'food' and uescor 
'I eat', go far to establish the claim of esca to a digamma; 
and the same is established for esse 'to be' by the German 
wes-en 'existence' and our English preterite was, as well 
as the German war. Notwithstanding this evidence I now 
hold that the u of colui &c. cannot justly be so explained, 
and for this reason. I am bound to claim some representa- 
tive of the genitival suffix for colui as well as for fed and 
scripsi; but if the u of colui be the first letter of the sub- 
stantival verb , it becomes pretty well impossible to account 
for the loss of the first is in the theoretic col-is -tiis-m; for 
the compression of the two sibilants into one would have 
carried away the u also. I prefer therefore a very different 
theory, viz., that the genitival s first passed into a guttural, 
as in sdwxa, necpibrjxa, and then into a u. The latter 
change is abundantly familiar to the Latin, as in niv-is from 
nix , conniveo beside connixi, vico beside mxi, Davo- beside 
Daco-. 'Those who hesitate to give their sanction to this 


doctrine will perhaps have their scruples removed, when 
they call to mind the fact that the modern Italian gives us 
<;i/*(>, valse, volse for the Latin calu-it, ualuit, uoluit. 

But what has just been said, as well as some previous 
remarks, suggest an enquiry of some moment. I am here 
again appealing to the modern dialects, as I did in an 
earlier part of the paper to the accent of the Italian fa- 
cenimo, a,ndfecero, and the Spanish hizimos, and again to 
the appearance of a sibilant in the old French fames &c. 
But is it reasonable to draw arguments in this way from 
languages which are themselves derived from the Latin, 
and so cannot honestly have come by aught which they 
have not inherited from their ancestor? The just answer 
I believe to be, that they are not strictly derivatives from 
the Latin, but rather from an under current of the old 
Italian language, which coexisted with the Latin of the 
higher classes in Roman Society, and which as a spoken 
language had a far wider domain than the language of books. 
The corruption of language is far more rapid in the drawing- 
room and the counting-house than in country districts where 
time is accounted of less moment. Thus our own provinces 
have for the most part fuller forms of sound than the fa- 
voured dialect of society ; and thus also the bustling life of 
the Athenian led to a habit of contracting words which the 
Ionic of the country outside of Athens needed not, and 
much less the broad speech of Lacedaemon. This conser- 
vative tendency of the rustic mouth has no doubt at times 
something to balance it in that refinement of more civilized 
life which with occasional prudery rejects such forms as 
aint, wont. Fin, for the theoretically more correct 'is not', 
'will not', 'I am'; but these, if I may call them, affecta- 
tions, generally die out. I must further admit that when 
once the language of books becomes a dead language, and 
such is generally its fate, then all further power of con- 
traction is lost: nay not unfrequently words which during 
the life of the language of books were in fact pronounced 
with a brevity beyond the written forms , resume almost of 
necessity the full pronunciation of every letter, much as 


Talma, for example, in the play of Marie Stuart always 
called himself Lei-ces-ter, and a Londoner amuses a Scotch- 
man by talking of Kircud-bright-shire instead of Kirciibri- 
shire. For these reasons I do not hesitate at times to at- 
tach more value to the evidence of the modern Romanic 
languages than to the classic writers of Rome. 

But I revert to the theory that fed is but a compression 
of a reduplicated fefad, and to evidence in support of the 
view which the notes of RitschFs edition afford. When I 
suggested in the Journal of Education (see above) that the 
perfect uerri &c. was compressed from ueuerri &c. , I was 
perhaps so far incorrect, that I ought rather to have kept 
in view the old mode of spelling the word with an o, rather 
an c; and then treating uor as the root syllable, I should 
have given uorr- as the lengthened form, due to the im- 
perfect tenses uorro, uorrebam, uorr am , uorr ere, and ueuor-i 
as the reduplicated perfect, which under compression would 
become first ueuri, and then by assimilation uerri. This 
premised I would request attention to two varieties of 
spelling which occur in the MSS. of Plautus. In the Sticus 
2. 2. 50 the parasite on hearing of the arrival of Epignomus 
from abroad with vast wealth there acquired, takes an ac- 
tive part in getting the house ready for his reception, 

Hercle uero capiain scopas atque hoc conuorram lubens 

but soon after ('2. 2. 67) at the news that the traveller had 
brought with him from abroad a good supply of parasites 
of his own, cries broken-hearted: 

Reuorram hercle hoc quod conuerri inodo 
Til unsweep faith all this that I have just been sweeping', 

thus anticipating Dickens in his picture of the crossing- 
sweeper, who in this way 'shut up shop' every evening. 
In the line just quoted we had the future reuorram with 
an a, the perfect conuerri with an e, for I have copied 
strictly what is found in all the best, if not absolutely all 
the MSS. Conuorri in RitschFs text is avowedly the al- 
teration of the Editor in defiance of the MSS. 
I next quote a passage from the Trinummus (3. 1. 15): 


Propemodum quid illic festinet sentio et subolet nrihi: 
Vt agro euortat Lesbonicum, quando euertit aedibus 

Ritschl gives in his note: euortat libri omnes; euertit item 
o nines; and then in his text writes an o in both forms, 
euortat and cuorlit. In the same play (2. 4. 133) uortcrii 
stands in Ritschl's text, and incorrect as it no doubt is, 
may plead the sanction of one good MS.; but the Palimpsest 
again gives us wrier it. 

Again in Pseud. 2. 3. 16 the text has uortit as an aorist; 
but again: "Ubri omnes uertit". 

1 turn to the Mercator and there find the compound with 
prae in three passages, which, if we take Ritschl for our 
guide, are severally (vv. 113, 377, 379): 

Abige abs te lassitudineni: caue pigritiae praeuortier 

Otium non est: mandatis rebus praeuorti uolo 

Rei mandatae omnis sapientis primuiu praeuorti decet 

But praeuortier in the first line is an arbitrary substitution 
by the editor for what all the MSS. have, viz. pracuertpri-t. 
Why the change was made, it is difficult to see. Was he 
afraid of the subjunctive? but the verb caue is habitually used 
with a subjunctive; indeed the infinitive seems only ad- 
missible in certain legal forms. Was it the perfect that he 
distrusted? Caue dixer-is in Plaut. and Ter., and caue j'a.ri* 
in both Terence and Horace might have quieted all scruples 
on this head. Or lastly did he deem a reflective verb es- 
sential? I have already shown in the pages of our Society 
that the verbs rcuort- and deuort- in the best Latin writers 
are always reflective in the imperfect tenses reuortor, re- 
uortebar, reuortar, and inf. reuorti; never reflective in the 
perfect tenses, the simple form of the verb being then 
alone admissible. These two compounds of uort- would no 
doubt be found to obey the same law with uort- and prae- 
uort-, as regards the vowels e and o. Unhappily the editors 
of our texts do not examine the MSS. with sufficient care 
in these little matters. Still I have no doubt that Cicero 
an observer of the distinction, when 1 find that the 
Medkean MS. of Cicero's letters to Atticus has deuorterer 
in 8. 7, and deuerterat in 10. 16. 5. Indeed the only breach 


of the rule in the ten other passages of Cicero that I have 
been able to note, is deucrterentur in the Or. pro Fonteio 5. 

Another example in point is perhaps found in the case 
of the verb uota-re^ as the old writers seem to have written 
what we are more familiar with in the form uetare. Nonius 
ascribes to Plautus in the Asinaria a perfect uotitum est, 
and the Palimpsest gives us in Trin. 2. 4. 1\\ uotet, in op- 
position, it is true, to all the other MSS., yet its authority 
in such a case is sufficient to outweigh them all. On the 
other hand we have uetuit in the Mercator 1. 1. 10, so far 
as the readings are reported; and haruspex uetuit in the 
Phonnio of Terence. 

In any future reading of the Plays of Plautus and other 
of the older writers, whose text is duly reported, I shall 
be careful to note such forms. Meanwhile I am bound to 
state that the Sticus in 2. 2. 27 has: Hoc egomet, tu hoc 
conuerre on the authority of the MSS. in general and per- 
haps of the Palimpsest. Ritschl has here given us conuerre , 
somewhat inconsistently it would appear. Yet he may per- 
haps be right. Just as we say pry-thee (from pray), and 
old authors wrote Qvenpreethee, owing to the umlaut caused 
by the vowel-sound of thee, and as the Latin has uelim, 
uelle, and I may add the imperative uel c or' (i. e. uele\ all 
with an e in opposition to the o of uolo, uolumus, so the 
imperative of conuorr- may have been conuerre. Still I 
suspect that Plautus wrote conuorre. 

These considerations fully account for the prevalence of 
an e in the perfect, such a form as fe-fac-i being first 
reduced to fefci and then to fed. Precisely in the same 
way I contend that the reduplicated dedisti not unfrequently 
passed through a shortened form dedsti to desti; and dederunt 
to dedrunt, if not to dedrunt. The suppression of the middle 
vowel in dederunt is practically exhibited in those inscrip- 
tions of Pesaro which have dedrot or dedro (or DIIDRO) for 
dederont. See Corssen as above 1. 260. But the metres of 
the Comic poets place the matter pretty well beyond dis- 
pute. Thus with the abbreviated pronunciation of dedisti &c. 
we have all we could wish in the four senarii: 


Trin. 1. 2. 90: Dedistin argentuni? Factuin, neque facti piget. 

1. 2. 92: Dedistin hoc facto gladium qui se occideret. 
Most. 3. 1. 115: Sed arraboni has dedit quadraginta minas. 
Ter. Ad. 3. 4. 54: Is quod ini de hac re dederit consilium, id sequar. 

and so in the five octonarii: 

Cure. 2. 3. 6G : Dedistin argentuni? inquam. Inmio aput tarpessitam 


Men. 4. 3. 18: Ttite ultro ad me detulisti. dedisti earn dono mihi. 
Ainph. 2. 2. 129: Dedisse dono hodie qua te illi donatum'sse dixeras. 
Trin. 4. 2. 57: Abipson istas accepisti? E inanibus dedit mi ipse in 

Rud. 4. 4. 127: Et bulla aureast, pater quam dedit mi natali die. 

As also in the Iambic tetrameter of Terence, Eim. 5. 8. 15: 
Illumne qui mi d'edit consilium ut facerem, an me qui ausiis siem. 

So many examples might well have allayed the doubts of 
the German editor, but in spite of this he refuses all assent 
to the doctrine that these forms are entitled to a shortened 
pronunciation; and accordingly he calls in aid all his in- 
genuity so as to doctor every offending line either by can- 
celling some little word or by transposition, as may be 
seen in the Prolegomena to the Trinummus p. 125 &c. Yet 
occasionally he seems to repent of his rash changes, and 
accordingly the line from the Mostellaria, which he had 
corrected after his fashion in the said Prolegomena (p. 125), 
when he comes to edit the play itself, is allowed to stand 
precisely as the MSS. have it. As I have referred on several 
occasions already to the Romanic languages by way of sup- 
porting what has been stated , so here too it may be noted 
that in Italian dedisti and dcdistis have taken the shape 
desti and deste, and that the tense corresponding to ded 
has throughout compressed the first two syllables into dew-; 
and even dedcrunt besides its ordinary representative diedero 
has in poetry the shorter forms diero and dier. Again the 
Spanish gives us for the tense which corresponds to the 
Latin dedi: di, diste, did; dtmos, ditttes, diero/i; as also du-ra 
for dederam &c., dicsse for dedisscm &c. Similarly in Por- 
tuguese we find what is still nearer our assumed pronunciation 
of the Latin; viz. for the tense dedi &c., <A'/, dexte^ deo; // 
destes, derdo; dera for dederam &c., (A'W for dedissem &c. 


I have read Corssen's explanation of such shortened syl- 
lables in the Latin language, yet I cannot but think that 
his whole theory of 'irrational', that is incommensurable, 
syllables is a groundless refinement. 

I close the paper with a remark, which, though not be- 
longing to the Latin perfect, is yet suggested by what has 
been said above. The doctrine of the perfect has its counter- 
part in the theory that the future should present a form to. 
This preposition so familiar to ourselves had its representa- 
tive in the Latin language , as t have pointed out in a former 
paper. As our own at and to are substantially the same 
word, being both of them abbreviations of an older J?/, 
so the former is undoubtedly represented by the Latin ad. 
It is therefore not improbable that to also may have been 
known to the old Latin, and accordingly I find it in the 
future imperatives scribito, scribitote. Madvig has distinctly 
pointed out that these forms are exclusively used of the 
future, as opposed to the present scribe, scribite. Again 
the Sanskrit kartasmi 'I shall do' has between the base kar 
and the substantive verb asmi a syllable ta, which I should 
be disposed at once to claim for my preposition, but for 
the theory supported by Bopp and others, that this tense is 
formed by prefixing to the said verb 'I am' karta, the 
nominative of the noun kartri 'doer', as proved by the 
third person, which dropping the substantival verb altogether, 
is represented by the three nominatives S. kartd, D. kartarait, 
P. kartaras. Bopp also deduces the Latin participle datum s 
from the sb. dator 'a giver'. After all may not the true 
explanation be consistent with both views. As regards the 
Latin language I long ago contended that the so-called suffix 
tor of agents really contained two suffixes , of which or 
alone represented 'man', being substantially identical with 
the ordinary noun vir 'man'. Thus da-t-or may mean 'a 
man to give'; and assuredly 'I am the man to give' con- 
stitutes a far more intelligible future than 'I am a giver'. 
I would also note that the simple phrase 'to let' is with 
us expressive of a future. 


P. S. To the twenty six verbs quoted above (p. 174) as 
having in the prefix re- an equivalent for our un-, may be 
added some fifteen others, recan- = recanta-, redargu- 'dis- 
prove', rc/'cr/c- (Cic. Brut. 91) 'become cool again", refrena- 
' unbridle', rcliya- (Catul., Lucan.) 'unbind', relin- 'umvax' 
so to say, re-nt- 'unspin", renuda- 'unbare', repect- 'uncomb' 
so to say or 'dishevel', /vW^- 'unbind', restginy- (Plaut. 
Ca|)t.) 'open', resuto- 'unsown", retum- (compared with 
u/>fid'<i-) k uncork, open', reuolu- 'unroll'. 


Probably few students of the English language , who have 
any acquaintance with Logic, would judge it to be very 
unlikely that the adjective dianu-frical and its derivative 
adverb, as they are commonly used, are borrowed from 
the logicians , and in their original sense have exclusive re- 
ference to "contradictory"' propositions. At any rate this 
seems highly probable. f ll dtayatQog (sc. /(>//////) of the 
Greek mathematicians, was not only a certain line in a 
circle or a sphere; but also, and much more commonly, 
the diagonal of a parallelogram. So the term is used by 
Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and others. Now the logicians 
invented a "schema op- 
positionum", in which 
the universal affirmative 
(A) and the particular 
negative (0), and again 
the universal negative 
(E) and the particular 
affirmative (1), were ex- 

hibited at the opposite 
extremities of the (W- 
fitcQoi of a square. Thus 
these "contradictories" 

were ex 

, ex diametro op- 



$ub contra riii 




We have moreover received several other logical terms 
into the language of common life, such ^proposition, maw/a, 
genus, species, definition, category, and many besides. It is 
therefore the less improbable that the term under consider- 
ation may have had this origin. Nor should it be forgotten 
that Logic, with which now-a-days very few seek to make 
themselves .acquainted, was among the school-boy studies 
of those who wrote and spoke in early English. Grammar, 
Rhetoric, and Logic, constituted the trwium which was re- 
garded as the basis and groundwork of education; so that 
with these subjects every well-informed man was of neces- 
sity familiar. They took precedence even of Arithmetic, 
which with Music, Geometry, and Astronomy (sive Astrology) 
constituted the nobler quadrwium. My authority is the 
distich, quoted by Hallam in one of the early notes in the 
first volume of his Literature of Modern Europe, but over- 
looked by some more recent writers on this subject: 

Gram, loquitur; Dia. vera docet; Rhet. verba colorat: 

Mus. canit; Ar. numerat; Geo. ponderat; Ast. colit astra. 

So much then for theory: the question remains, do the 
facts of the case correspond therewith? When does the 
phrase "diametrical opposition", or any of its kin, first 
occur; and is it employed in this logical sense? Perhaps 
indeed it can be shown that the Greek or Latin equivalents 
of these phrases were in use before the logicians invented 
their "schema". If so, Lucian's * diajtsTQov may be un- 
derstood to signify "at opposite poles" of opinion or sen- 
timent; but it would not follow even then that some modern 
writer may not have intended a distinctly logical allusion 
when he introduced the English expression "diametrically 
opp o site " . 

[The following extract from a letter to a lady-friend, was read by our 
President at the Meeting of the Society on April, 1861, merely to 
elicit the opinion, on the first point raised, of some Keltic scholars who 
happened to be present. On being asked for the Paper, that it might 
be sent to press, the Bishop refused to have it printed, saying that it 
was too slight a thing for type, and that he had never intended to print 
it; so I considered the Paper lost to us. But in September Sir Gardner 


Wilkinson wroto to me to ask whether the Paper was printed, and in 
what volume of our Transactions it was to be found. I renewed my 
appeal to the President for his Paper, and he allowed me to send it to 
Sir G. Wilkinson, and then to press, provided that I stated the circum- 
stances under which it was sent. F. J. FURNIVALL, Hon. Sec.'] 



Bishop of St. Davids, President of the Philological Society. 

The question discussed by Sir G. Wilkinson in his Paper 

on 77//- 'Rock I*(i*inx of Cornwall, note 2, p. 21 whether 

HV/.s-// is u national name identical with Gad, Celt, &c., or 

originally signified a foreigner is one of some nicety as 

well as of considerable interest: but on the whole I venture 

to think that the evidence clearly preponderates in favour 

of the last mentioned opinion. 

If we were to look only to our own island, it might be 
difficult to decide the point. It is certain indeed that the 
Saxons brought the word over with them , and in the form 
/m///e. And if to them it then signified simply a foreigner, 
it does not seem to me 'unreasonable', but rather quite 
natural that they should apply it to the Cymry, with whom 
alone for a very long time they had to do, and that it 
should thus have become the English proper name for this 
branch of the Celtic family. Still this proves nothing as 
to the original meaning, and in order to trace it to this, 
we must go over to the continent, And, first, observing 
that the word is common not only to the German but to 
the Scandinavian dialects (Old German walah, Old Norse 
and Swedish wal) in the same sense of foreigner, we must 
ask what ground there is for supposing that it was con- 
nected with the proper names Gael, Gall, Kelt, &c It is 
not alleged, nor could it be proved, or even shewn to be 
probable, that it was adopted by all these Teutonic and 
Scandinavian tribes, because the Celts were the foreigners 
with whom they nil came into collision, so that the name 
of Gael became with them all a general term for II/OA 
It is much easier to suppose that they all brought the word 
with them from their more ancient seats. 


And this supposition is confirmed by the character of the 
word itself, which is essentially different from Gael, Gall, 
&c., and indicates a totally distinct origin. Sir G. Wilkin- 
son's observation, "w for gu is a common mutation in many 
languages", does not seem to me either sufficiently precise, 
or at all applicable to the present question. For here w 
would have been substituted, not for gu, but for g. And 
there is no analogy to lead us to expect that this should 
have taken place in any one instance , much less throughout 
all the Teutonic and Scandinavian tongues, without a single 
vestige having been left in any of them of the supposed 
original g. 

The remark however about the substitution of w for git, 
requires farther qualification, and the examples adduced be- 
long to classes which need to be carefully distinguished 
from one another. The law of the British dialects as is 
observed by Zeuss, Gram, i, p. 148 requires g to be pre- 
fixed to v, so that (not w is substituted for gu, but) gu or 
gw is substituted for the initial v as in g-win , gwynt, girir, 
gwag, &c. &c. If the Cymry had adopted the word val for 
a foreigner, they would have written it gwal. But the cases 
of guard = ward, G waiter = Walter, belong to an entirely 
different class. In them there is no substitution, but the 
initial g has been dropped for facility of pronunciation. It 
was on the same principle that the Latin gnosco became 
nosco, gnavare, navare, &c. It is so that we have dropped 
the initial q in the German quelle = well, while the Scan- 
dinavian dialects have dropped the second consonant, re- 
taining the first (Swedish kalla, Danish Mde pronounced 
kille). Neither of these classes therefore illustrates or con- 
firms the substitution of w for g, which is required on the 
disputed hypothesis. 

But it may be asked, if wal is not Gal, what is it? 
Strictly speaking it might not be necessary to answer this 
question, or to give any farther account of the original 
meaning of the word. But a farther account can be given, 
and it is so satisfactory as to leave hardly room for a doubt. 
Wal not only signifies foreign, but foreign in a particular 


sense, with reference to language. In Mcidinger's Diction- 
Hdiir rvtitjHi/'ctftY </c* langues Teuto-Gothiques, wal is inter- 
preted 'tnmger, incomprehensible. It is exactly equivalent 
to l>(trljru: one of a "stammering tongue"' (Isaiah 33, 13) 
hallmx, in which we have both the meaning and the root, 
as we have most probably both in the Sanskrit name of 
the indigenous race whom the Aryan invaders overpowered, 
Mechch, which was applied by them in exactly the same 
sense. As the Saxons described the Cymry as a people of 
barbarous (i. e. to them unintelligible) speech, so they them- 
selves, in common with the whole Teutonic race, were 
known to the Slavonic tribes by a name signifying the 
8peccJdess (Bohemian nemec. Polish niemiec}. The Anglo- 
suxon u-caUi-stod, a translator, interpreter, explainer, seems 
to shew that they had not forgotten the most proper original 
meaning of -wealh. 

But even if this explanation of the name Welsh should 
appear probable, it leaves a much larger question still open. 
Grimm, in his Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, i. p. 153, 
incidentally drops the general remark: "it is important for 
the explanation of national names, to assume that they were 
given by neighbouring peoples." I understand this to mean, 
not that no people has given a name to itself which would 
be quite untrue , but that it is in every doubtful case im- 
portant to inquire, whether the name of a people is that 
which it chose for itself, or one given to it by others. 

In the former case w r e may be pretty sure that the name 
denoted some quality on which the people prided itself; 
in the latter case that it was meant to be disparaging. To 
the former class of names belong those of the Teutons (icut^ 
', the people par excellence), the Slaves (the glorious 
race, from slmca, glory), the Aryans and (probably) the 
Irish (the heroic people, from ar, (irya, with the intimation 
of a contrast between them and the inferior foreign races), 
the Cymry, from their high antiquity, &c. 

Of the second ease we have already seen some examples. 
And so the question su^vsts itself: to which of these two 
classes are we to refer the names Gael, Gallus, Kelt? But 


here I cannot assent to Sir G. Wilkinson's assertion: "Mere 
is little doubt that Gauls or Gael, Galli, Galatae, and Celt 
(Kelt, Kt-toai) are forms of the same word (properly Gael)/' 
I should be rather glad if this was so nearly certain, as it 
would simplify the question. But since the fact has been 
denied by eminent scholars, it would be premature to take 
it for granted. Holtzmann indeed has endeavoured to shew 
that the Celts did not belong to the same race with the 
Gaels or Gauls, but to the Teutonic. Diefenbach, who ad- 
mits the affinity of race , strongly insists on the etymological 
distinction between the words. Of the three, that which 
seems to admit of the most satisfactory explanation, is Gael, 
properly Gao-dheal. Pictet (de 1'affinite des laugues Cel- 
tiques avec le Sanscrit, p. 165) quoting an old Irish Glos- 
sary of the 9 th century, translates it "Gaodheal, c'est a dire, 
hero8 9 c'est a dire, homme allant par violence (pillage, vol), 
a travers tout pays habite." That is a name which a rude 
people might very well take to itself (as we know from 
the early Greeks, who gloried in piracy and rapine) as a 
title of honour. Pictet however prefers deriving it from 
gaodh, tuer, blesser, so as to give the sense of ivarrior. If 
this was so," there would be a similar derivation in a like 
sense for Gal-Ins. It might be connected in just the same 
way with the Welsh gal, galon, galanas only the original 
idea of martial energy and heroism would have been parted 
from it, and have left only those of enmity and slaughter. 
On the other hand for Cel-t, I am not aware that any more 
probable origin has yet been assigned than the root of cel-u 
conceal, which is connected with coed Cel-yddon and Cal- 
edonia. According to this they would be the people who 
dwelt in the covert of dense forests. That, however, is 
hardly a name which they would have taken to themselves 
in that sense. There is however another aspect of the 
name, which I have never seen noticed, but which seems 
to me worthy of consideration. It suggests the idea, not 
only of physical concealment, but of religious mystery, as 
in the Divine name Celi, and might (like the Greek Sel-li 
not so unlike even in sound) have been originally applied 
to the priesthood, as the stewards of his mysteries. 


In speaking of the names of Deutschen and Slawen (also 
Slowen) 1 ought to have noticed another derivation, accord- 
ing to which the first would come from </iula/i, deitten, to 
explain: the second fromslowo, a word: in each case giving 
the sense of a people speaking an intelligible language, and 
so directly contrasted with icealh, barbarus y neincc, Mlcchch, 
&c. &c. (Caspar Zeuss, die De-utschen, p. G4). 

The conjecture thrown out by Sir G. Wilkinson at p. 26, 
n. 4, "could the Latin aqua have been originally asqua'f" 
appears to me neither needed nor probable. According to 
that great law of the interchange of P and (>, which is at 
h-asl as important and characteristic of the relations between 
Latin and Greek, Welsh and Irish, as that of S and H 
(/-mi would come immediately from the Sanskrit ap, water, 
<>!' v>hich the Persian ab is only a softer form. It is curious, 
and I think corroborative, that, in the Walachian (Romance) 
dialect, ap-u is water as also, though Jice is quinque, four 
is }ntfru, and eight, opto. 

I have also some doubt about the general proposition in 
the same note, that the term 'water' for a river is older 
than the term 'river'. At least it is not confirmed by the 
Persian name for the Punjaub. The Sanskrit, which is 
certainly earlier, is panchanadi, the five rivers-(land) : while 
another Sanskrit name for a river, is apagd = water going 
or running: for it seems more probable that it should be 
so derived, than that it is merely compounded of the verb 
and the preposition apa, in the sense of that which goes 

[When the above letter was written I had not seen Bopp's 
Glnxxaritun $an*critum. He observes (s. v. ap): lat. aqua 
mutala lahiali in gutturalem ; goth. a/m-a tinmen germ. vet. 
aha et a fa in fine comp. v. Graff 1. 159; lith. -uppe Huineii; 
line etiani cum Johannsenio Latdn. \Vortlrililunij p. 41 re- 
torn hit, amni* pro a/>-ni* (apnas aqua in Vedorum dialecto) 
commutata tenni rum nasali ejusdem organi , sirut in xomHitt 
pro xo/i/n/*; hue etiani retuleriin gr. (f(> C.St.D.] 




A manuscript of C. Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus' hexametrical 
paraphrase of the gospels, preserved in the university library 
of Cambridge, marked Ff. 4, 42, and of the eighth or ninth 
century, derives an accidental value from the Old- Welsh glosses 
which it contains, as well as from the verses which occur at 
pp. 48,49,50. Further, on a leaf prefixed, apparently as old 
as any part of the original MS., Lhuyd in the last century, 
and lately the Viscount Hersart de la Villemarque, found nine 
lines, which, with the exception of the two lirst words 
'Omnipotens auctor', are in Old- Welsh. It is greatly to be 
regretted that this portion of the MS. is so abraded as to 
be nearly illegible. There is, however, little doubt that much 
might be made out by the aid of chemical applications. I 
give here the few words I could read with tolerable certainty: 

Line 1 . Omnipotens auctor tidicones adiamor : : 

Line 2 betid hicouid canlon haguid 

Line 3. Dicones pater harinied presen isabruid 


Line 4. dicones Ihu dielimlu pbetid ag . . rdou 

Line 5. gur di[co]nes remedau elbid anguorit anguorair (?) 
niguru gnim molim trint[aut]. 

Line 6. it cluis biban (?) iciman guorsed ceirwiicun 

Line 7. it cluis it humil in harec celmed . . . . ditrintaut gurd 
meint iconidid (?) imolaut 

Line 8. rit ercis c[a\raut inadaut psen piouboi int groisauc 
inungueid guoled trintaut 

Line 9. un hanied napuil heper .... nitguorgnim molim map 

It seems useless to guess at the meaning of the words con- 
tained in the foregoing lines : dicones, 11. 1,5, is perhaps the 
third sg. pret. (Zeuss, 502) of diconi, now digoni: betid , 1. 2, 
is now bedydd 'baptism' : canlon is living and means 'follow' : 
abruid, 1. 3, may be the modern afrwydd 'misfortune': elimlu 


in di-elymlu, 1.4, may perhaps be the modern cly/lu 'op- 
pression": f/nr dicones remcdau Mid, 1. 5, would now be 
gtrr diyoncs rkyfedau elfydd 'the Man that made the won- 
ders of the elements' (cf. Taliesin cited by Pughe s. v. Diyoni, 
A galwwn ar y gwr an diyones 'And let us call on Him 
(lit. on the man) that made us') : yuorsed, 1. 5, is now yorsedd 
(cf. Ir. suide^ Lat. sedes, Gr. tL(o for aidjw, Goth, sitan): 
cluis, 1. (>, now clwys 'an inclosure': ceinmicun, now cein- 
myywn 'we revere' : yurd in line 7 may be for yurth 'against' 
(= Ir./nV/i), for elsewhere in this MS. we find c? written for 
th (compare henoid, pp. 48, 40, 50, for henoith 'to-night', 
now henoeth 0. Ir. in-nocht). So unyueid, 1. 8, may be 
imunyueith, now umvaith 'once' ( O.Ir. oenfecht}: cclmed, 
1.7, glosses 'efticax': meint now maint: yuoled trintaut, 1.8, is 
perhaps the modern yole trindawd 'splendour of (the) Trinity'. 
Almost the only consecutive passages legible are niguru ynim 
(perhaps yunn) molim trinlaut (line 5) "I do not do work: I 
praise (the) Trinity", rit ercis caraut i nadaut presen (line 8) 
'Thee(P) Love demanded in fashioning this world', and nit- 
guorgnim molim map meir (line 9) "It is not much work, I 
praise Mary's Son". In the lirst of these passages guru seems 
= the Cornish guraff\h& old termination -u (= the Latin -o, 
Gr. w) being preserved as in canu, p. 49, 'I sing', and con- 
yroyu, gl. congelo, Zeuss G. C. p. 1097. gnim (= O.Ir. gnim} 
is the modern gnif: molim (== Ir. molaini) 'I praise' (molaut, 1. 7, 
= Ir. molad 'praise'), has the same termination as trcorgtim, 
gl. perforo, Zeuss 498 (cf. O.Ir. trisgataim, Zeuss 431): 
In the second passage rit is perhaps for rith = the prefix 
rOj ry -\- the infixed pronoun of the 2 d pers. sing.: crcis, now 
iii, from erchi 'to demand'; caraut, now carawd = O.Ir. 
'love' (Z. 95, 1065): i nadaut, for in nadaut, the 
latter word seems cognate with the modern naddu 'to work 
or cut into form' (Pughe), and formed like canntt and molaut: 
}>rr*en. seoms from the Lat. praexens } but may possibly be (as 
Pughe says) a derivative from prcs = pracxtux. Guorgnim or 
perhaps Guoryniam, in line 9, seems compounded of guor-, 
now yor- (= Ir./o;--, Gaulish ver-} and gnim, noticed above, 
or gniam = O.Ir. yniu 'facio' (= '/ervcxw 1 ). 
The rest of the front of this leaf contains the following 


Latin notes on the gospels and their respective writers: 
Math[ae]us in Judea in tempore regis [Cali]g[ulae] Romae 
scripsit euangelium. Marcus in Italia in tempore Claudius (xic) 
scripsit. Lucas in Judea in tempore Poli scripsit aevange- 
lium. Johannes in tempore Nefronis] in Assia scripsit euan- 
gelium. Mathaeus ex ore Marcus ex [ore] Petri . Lucas 
ex ore Pauli . Johannes ex apocalipsin (sic). Mathaeus arat. 
Marcus seminat. Lucas irrigat. Johannes incrementum dat. 
Mathaeus mel. Ma[r]cus uinum. Luc[as] lac. Johannes oleum. 
Mathaeus perfectis . Marcus [poenijtentibus . Lucas sseculari- 
bus . Johannes [regulajribus . Tta praedicare dicuntur . Ma- 
thaeus homo . Marfcus] leo . Lucas uitulus. Johannes a[qui]la. 
. . . lumen uitae habetis. 

Then follow explanations of 'protessis' (prothesis), 'apo- 
siopesis', ' epentessis ' (epenthesis), 'paragoge', 'affresis' 
(aphaeresis) , 'sinagope' (syncope) and 'apogope' (apocope). 

Then comes a note explaining why St. Matthew is re- 
presented as a man, St. Mark as a lion, St. Luke as a 
calf, St. John as an eagle. It contains little new but the 
following gloss on vitulus: Id sive enderic (now llo, enderic/'): 
lo = Ir. loey, which seems radically connected with the Gothic 
Mikan 'to spring', O.N. leika, A.S. Idcan. The etymology 
of enderic is obscure. The note also contains the statement 
that John like an eagle "in alto volavit ... usque ad deum 
oculos habens acutos, eo quod ipse narrauit generationem 
Christi lieruid duiutit'\ The last two words are the modern 
herwydd duwdid 'according to (His) Godhead'. With the 
duiu of duiutit cf. Ir. dia^ Lat. deus, Lith. devas, Skr. deva-s 
(root DIV\ and O.N. tivar. 

The rest of this page is occupied with a Latin note in 
which Juvencus, Damasus, and Sedolius (Sedulius) are 

The back of the leaf contains some more Latin notes 
(the first thirteen lines concerning the evangelists) and a 
bad copy of the hymn "0 lux beata Trinitas". 

The body of the MS. consists of 52 leaves. There are 
about 28 lines to a page 1 . The text is in the same hand- 

1 One leaf seems wanting at the end of Book II, and one in Book III, 
after p. 72, 


writing throughout. This is exceedingly bold and free, and 
reminds one of the Schaffhausen codex of Adamnan's Life 
of Columba, a MS. of the end of the eighth, or the be- 
ginning of the ninth, century 1 . The scribe's name was 
Nnudu, as appears from the colophon: 
Expliriunt. quattuor euangelia. 
a iuvenco presbytero deo gratias ago 

pene ad uerbum Translata 

Ar aid dinuadii 

i. e. 'Pray ye for Nuadu' araut is, like the 0. Ir. ordit, from 
the Latin orate. The modern arau-d 'eloquence' is perhaps 
rather from oratto. 

There seem to be three hands (none however later than 
the tenth century) discoverable in the glosses, to the con- 
sideration of which we will now proceed. 
P. 1, line 6. moenia aid .i. mur bethlem: aul (from Lat. 
aula'f) 1 have not met elsewhere with this meaning: 
Tan it be a blunder for guaid, now gwawl, vallum? 
mur 'wall' is, like the Ir. mur, borrowed from the 
Latin mums. 
P. 2. subtrahet igni .i. ddfraud atuis. The context is: 

30 Hoc opus, hoc etenim forsan me subtrahet igni 
Tune cum flammiuoma descendet nube coruscans 
Judex, altithroni genitoris gloria, Christus. 
Here dafraud must be a third person sing, of a 
future active. The root may be ber (Sanskr. bhar, 
Lat. /m>, Gr. <y>*'(>w): of the termination -and (cf. 
the plural wmihaunt deflebunt, infra p. 55), the modern 
-o 2 seems a corruption. Tuis must mean 'fire'. The 
root may be that of the modern twy-m 'warm'; cf. 
Corn, toimder 'warmth". I dare not compare W. te# 
(~ 0. Ir. tea, gen. teso) on account of the shortness 
of the vowel. 
P. 3. restat .i. rtu. The context is: 

et cara tibi mox e conjuge natum 
54 Promittit, grandis rerum eni gloria restat. 

1 See the facsimile in Dr. Reeves' edition. Dublin 1857. 
3 Compare pob llysieuyn a ddybortli-o had "every plant that shall 
bear seed". 


Of the form in -a here exemplified Zeuss observes, 
p. 500: "Verbi exeuntis in A (quam Davies dicit 
communem hujus personae terminationem) exemplurn 
non legi". This however seems an oversight of the 
founder of Celtic philology, for he himself quotes 
arcera at p. 1099 of his Grammatica Celtica. But 
this may be the 3 d sg. of an -conjunctive. 
obsistit .i. gurthdo. resistit: If this be not a pro- 
nominal compound = gwrthaw, Z. 64G, compare the 
modern yurtho 'to withstand'. The context is: 
61 nomine Johannem hunc tu uocitare memento. 
Olli confusa respondit mente sacerdos 
emula promissis obsistit talibus aetas, 
nee senibus foetus poterit contingere fessis. 
70 Nunc ego quern (.i. ismi) dominus, caeli ter- 
raeque repertor, Ante suos uultiis uoluit parere mi- 
nistrum. So at p. 54: 

Crederet et nobis Mosi quern (ismi Christus) scripta 

is mi means 'it is P. 

P. 4. dispendia dificiuou diminutiones. The context is: 
80 Progressus trepide, numen uidisse supermini 

nutibus edocuit miserae dispendia uocis. 
The gloss is now di/ygiau. Should not the last 
line be 

... misera ob dispendia vocis. 

levant scamnliegint , now ysgafndant. The context is : 
82 Inde domum remeat completo ex ordine vatis 
Ofh'cio, amissamque leuant promissa loquelam 
Nee delata diu uenerunt munera prolis. 
Anxia sed l ventris celabat gaudia conjunx 
Donee quinque cavam complerent lumina lunam. 
Compare Cornish scoff 'light', scevens, gl. pulmo (cf. 
the English 'lights') = Breton skevent, Middle Irish 
scamhan. The modern Welsh has ysyyfttint with the 
usual prosthetic y. 
The next gloss 
1 MS, Sed anxia, 



is obscure. It occurs in the margin opposite the 
line 'Nee delata [leg. dilata] diu venenmt munera 
prolis'. Perhaps guotric may be the modern yodrig 

profatur istlinnit .i. loquitur. Nuntius haec contra 
celeri sermone profatur. An interesting form from 
its preserving, apparently, the old dental end- 
ing of the 3 d person singular. So perhaps mereit 
'manet' infra p. 50, crihot, gl. vibrat, Zeuss 1090. 
The initial i of istlinnit is prosthetic, as we see 
from the next gloss but one. 

P. 5. timore (leg. tremore) ocrit. (Et simul exiluit mater 
concussa timore.) o is a preposition = Ir. o, which 
occurs in the next gloss but one, and at p. 51, 
and in combination with the article at p. 25. crit, 
now cryd, is the Irish crith 'trembling' ; Bret, kr id-ten : 
cf. Ohg. rtdon, for hrtdon. 

famine sancto o glanstlinnim. This is a compound 
from ylan 'pure', and stlinnim which must mean 
'speech'. The context is: Divinae uocis completa 
est famine sancto. 

pudore .i. 6 gutted, now yiryledd; compare anguil, 
tfl. pudendas, p. 78; cf. too O.h'.fele, gl. verecundia, 
Zeuss 22, and the Latin vereor. 
ex humili .i. o isel: sic hodie. Ir. iscl. 
P. G. gentern strutiu. The context is: 

en beatam antiquam gentem, cornuque salutis. 
15G erecto, indulget Dauidis origine lumen. 

.i. tribus .i. bemhed 

P. 7. uires nomenque genusque. I do not know whether 
bemhed is the translation of tribus or a gloss on 
<jenux. Anyhow (like the last gloss strutiu) it is 
obscure to me. Perhaps it is a mistake for boned, 
gl. gentem, P. 57. The context is: 

Sed tune forte noui capitum discusio census 


180 Caesaris A[u]gusti jussis per plurima terrae 
Discribebatur, Siriam turn jure regebat 
Cirinus proprio cui tota per oppida fines 
Aedebant populi, vires, nomenque genusque. 
Davida canorum .i. ircentkiliat: It has been con- 
jectured that ir cent-hiliat means literally 'the first 
sower' i. e. 'the ancestor': It seems, however, that 
centhiliat is merely a fuller form of centhliat, gl. 
canorum , vide infra p. 49. The context is : 

Urbs est Judese Bethlem, Davida canorum 
185 Quae genuit, generis censumquae jure petebat. 
P. 8. conabula (leg. cunabula) .i. mapbrith .i. onnou. The 
brith in map-brith is the plural of brath (= Ir. Irati), 
whence brethyn 'cloth', and brat, a common word in 
the west for a child's napkin. What onnou can be I 
know not. A similar gloss is given by Zeuss p. 1086: 
in cunis gl. map brethinnou , where bretliinnou is the 
plural of brethyn. There is probably some mistake 
P. 10. obitus (.i. occassus) .i. funid. The line is: 

Astrorum solers ortusque obitusque notare. 
Compare the Old Irish fuined grene 'sunset', Zeuss 
G.C. 432. How is Welsh / here = Irish /? 
P. 14. pala (a winnowing-shovel ) .i. cruitr. This is the 
Corn, cr oider gl. cribrum thagas kroddre 'to sift 
you' D. 882, Bret, kroner; Ir. criathar 'a sieve', Germ. 
hridder (-/), ridera , Diefenbach. ng. riddle. 
area .i. itldnn O.Ir. ithland 'a threshing-floor', from 
it, now yd, 'corn', and lann (gl. aetra infra P. 15), 
now llan, 'a yard', = Goth, and Eng. land, Fr. 

horrea .i. scipaur* now ysgubawr, 'barn' (Corn, skibor, 
Br. skiber^ from ysgub 'sheaf, Ir. scuab, Gaelic sguab 
'sheaf, all apparently cognate with Lat. scopae, 
which, if it stand for scanpae, may be = A.S. scedf, 
Eng. sheaf. The context in which the last three 
/glosses are found, is: 
378 Illius et manibus ruralis pala tenetur. 


Kt propria ipsius purgabitnr area frugum, 
1/orreaquQ implebit secret! copia farris. 
In the margin of this page, opposite the lines 

.i. trucibue 

iWO Proxiniti roboreis (MS. arboreis) iam iain ra- 

diribus instat 
S.predicatio euangelii 

( 'unetorum ante oculos aciefsque] leuatasecuris 
.i. iiujtii /tc/vfit'i ijiuchritlc .i. nutrient 
Caeduntur siluae stiriles ignemque fouebunt 
stands the following mutilated gloss: 
steria .i. pi 
penn reu 
laun. ca 
d ten dens 
de domu 
sterilis ase 

Hero jHjtcnn (borrowed from the Latin bipennis, spelt 
/n'pinms in Z. 1092) 1 , obviously refers to the securix 
of the text, 
.i. aula celi 
P. lf>. aetra 

.i. Idnn qn. proprium signiticat 
The line is: 
31)2 Scinditur auricolor [MS. auricula] coeli septem- 

plicis aet[h]ra. 

livor daemonis .i. diliu (in marg.). The context is 

... mox livor demonis ater 
Cum terrore rapit meutem, nee defuit aegro 
Temptandi interea Christo uevsutia fallax. 
Pughe's "diliw, a. (lliw) Colourless, s. m. A phan- 
tom"'. Compare liou, gl. nevum, Z. 1099; liu, gl. 
gratia, infra p. 25, and the Cornish ^W/W, gl. dis- 
color. The modern Welsh lliw = Ir. li 'colour. The 

1 Note this early example of that Welsh tendency to say p for b at 
the beginning of a foreign word, which Shakspere has exemplified in 
Fluellen's "Got's ;>lood! up to the preaches, you rascals! will you not 
up to the preaches?" Henry V. Hi, 2. 


Gaulish name Livius is probably connected. And of 
course we may compare Lat. livor, licidus, perhaps, 
too, the Ohg. pit, gen. pliwes 'lead'. 

P. 18. frequens .i. litimaur (the i between t and m is very 
faint). The line is : 486 "Et Judea frequens populis 
Galileaque plebes." This should perhaps be luith- 
maur, from luith = Mid. W. llwyth, ti-lwyth 'a tribe', 
'household', Ir. lucht. But cf. Corn, luyte in the Vocab. 
at leid gl. progenies vel tribus. It would be rash to 
compare with lit or liti the German leute: maur, now 
mawr, is the Ir. mar, mor, Gaulish mdros, which has 
been equated with (.taxgog. 

P. 1 9. quos .i. ishui. The context is : 

... his mox regia caeli 
504 Pandetur. Gaudete, operum qiws ius[t]a tenentes 

Urgebit praeceps stimulis iniuria saeuis. 
hui (Corn, why, Mid. Bret, hui, now c'hoiti) is now 
chwi c vos'. The form svi to which this points, seems 
connected with the Gothic 'izvis from isms. 
517 ... Cunctis genitoris gloria uestri, Laudetur, celsi 
thronus est cui regia caeli , in marg. : issit pddiu 
itdu guldt '(this) is what the kingdom is': issit 
= yssyt Z. 536; padiu, gl. quid? Z.' 1089; itau = 
O.Ir. atd? (Siegfried); gulat, now gwlad, cf. Ir.flaith, 
with which Zeuss and Ebel have compared Goth. 
valdan, Slav, vladiti, Lith. valdau. 

P. 20. 540 'Si[n] offerre voles, uenerans altaria donis'. 
Here, in the margin, is a word the last letters of 
which are relin. 

P. 21. perjuria .i. dnutondu, now anudonau, from an- and 
udon, which is connected with the O.Ir. oeth (Cor- 
mac's Glossary), Gothic diths^ English oath. 

P. 24. factio .i. guerin. The context is: 'Non erugo illos, 
tineaeve 1 , aut horrida furum Factio diripient [leg. 
diripiet]'. Now gwerin, O.Ir. foirenn multitude 
(bad faitig frisin-/o?Vm/w/-sin Z. 608). 

1 MS. erugo teneaeue. 


P. 25. vorais .i. such, now swch aradyr 'a plough-share'. 
This word occurs also among the Oxford glosses 
(Z. 1093 and infra) spelt suh; cf. Mod. Cornish zoh, 
Bret, souc'hj Fr. soc, souche, all from Lat. soccus. 

culmos cdldmcnnou. Compare the modern calaf, ca- 
lufyn 'stalk', 'reed', Corn, /(Wa-gueli, gl. stramentuin 
all probably borrowed from Lat. calamus. 

ligones .i. liunu, plural of liu, which seems borrowed 
from Utjo, the vowel-flanked </ being lost as usual. 

gratia liu: see supra diliu p. 15. 

P. 20. aristam .i. colt/t'/m: colt/n now means 'a sting', a 
beard of corn is col. Br. kolo, Corn, culhu, Ir. coly. 

inonile .i. mind: now mynci 'part of a horse-collar' 
= O.Ir. inuince 'collar', from inuin 'neck' = a Latin 
*moni-s, or *mone, whence nionile. Cf. A. S. mene, 
Ohg. mani, 0. N. men. As to the Galatian fiavictxrjg 
see Diefenbach, Ongines Europaeae, 376, 377. 

liinite levo or cled vin 'from the left ..?'. The con- 
text is: Quam lata et spatiosa uia est quae limite 
leuo Praeruptum conuoluit iter caligine mortis, cled 
is now cledd, Br. kleizi cf. Goth, hleiduma, Ir. cli. 
hin (now 'weather', Ir. shi) should perhaps be -tin, 
which is (as the Rev. R. Williams observes) the 
regular mutation of min, 'edge'. 

scropea [leg. scrupea] cdrnecou. 721 'Uitalis uastis 
stipatur semita saxis, Caelsaque vix paucos ducit per 
scropea uirtus'. Plur. of *carncc, now carney. Cf. 
Bret, karnak 'amas des rochcrs". W. earn 'a heap', 
Ir. car n. 

P. 27. effrenus guichir. This word (here applied to a horse 
"alacer sonipes ruptis eft-ciui* habenis") is spelt 
yuichr in Zeuss 1089, and at p. 69 of our MS., 
where it glosses 'eftera': it is now written gwychr 
'valiant'. If the aspiration here be due to the / 
(as in oc/ir 'corner', 'edge', = ax^oy), compare the 
Irish man's name Fiachra, and fruchre, d. fcritatis, 
Z. 257, 743. 

de tribulis ordrissi 'from the thorns': or is a com- 


bination of the preposition o with the article ir: 
drissi, gl. spinis, p. 56, gl. dumos, p. 87. The modern 
word is drysi 'thorns', 'brambles'; Corn, d-reis, gl. 
vepres; O.Ir. dries ^ gl. vepres, Z. 139 n. 

P. 28. torrentum redtir, now rheieidr, pi. ofrhaiadr 'cataract'. 
In the O.Ir. codex of Milan inriathor glosses torrens. 
We cannot compare yeeO-gov , for this stands for 
GQtFeOQov, and s would have been kept in Irish, 
and v would have been kept (as w) in Welsb. 
As in Welsh always, and in Irish sometimes, a 
vowel-flanked g is lost, we may perhaps assume 
the root of these words to be RIGH which we find 
in the Lat. rigo, Goth, rign, Eng. rain &c. 

P. 30. anhela lobur: (Cujus [scil. Petri] anhela socrus estu, 
febrique jacebat.) lobur gl. debile, p. 94 : now llu-fr 
'timid'; O.Ir. lobur 'infirmus', lobre 'infirmitas' all 
perhaps, as Ebel suggests, connected with Lat. labor , 
labo, lobes. 

[Book II, 1. 2] eaerula <7/as: glas gl. viridis, p. 72, gl. 
glauci, p. 75. O.Ir. glas, probably for glasto-: cf. 
glastum 'woad'. 

pallam lenn, now lien, = Gaulish lenna (Isidor. Orig. 
xix, c. 23), O.Ir. lenn. Is lenna, like Lat. laena, 
connected with Icuva, ylalva for %l.aiya? 
pictam brith. sic hodie, meaning 'motley', 'pied'. 
The context is: 'Jamque dies prono decedens lu- 
mine pontum Inciderat, furuamque super nox caerula 
pallam Sidereis pictam flammis per inane trahebat.' 

P. 31. proram ir breni: compare the Corn, brenniat (gl. pro- 
reta) and the Ir. brumecha (gl. proretas), braine 
4 prow'. 

36 Ille dehinc "quam (paminf) nulla sabest fiducia uo- 
bis!". Pamint is now pafaint, from pa 'what' and 
maint = Corn, myns, O.Ir. met 'greatness'. 

P. 32. ut subigant amal itercludant^ or perhaps iter cludant. 
The line is: 

'Cernis ut immundi subigant haec pascua porci?' 
amal, now fal, = 0. Ir. amml, Lat. similis, Gr. o- 


. It, now yd, the 3 d sing, of the verb sub- 
stantive used pleonastically (Z. 535) : ercludant from 
cr- and clud-, of. cluddtaiu 'to overwhelm' (Pughe): 
the root seems connected with Ir. dodh 'proster- 
nere', A.S. hlutan (hledt, Beovulf 4760). 

The gloss 'hmenem .i. eiecentem yudnV stands over 
the last word of the line 'Ante pedes Christi lecto 
posnere cnbantem'. Guard here seems the modern 
yirard, though I hardly see the meaning. Can it be 
for yitarth, \\Q\igicarth 'reproach'? The context is: 
7<> Kree reuertenti iuvenis torpentia membra, Offi- 
cium quorum' morbus disoluerat acer Ante pedes &c. 

The gloss 'diciens .i. V occurs over compellat in 
the line: 

'Quern miserans animo uerbis compellat lesus'. 
ar, pi. arau, is defined by Pughe 'the faculty of 
speaking', 'the speech'. But this seems one of his 
inventions. Ar in Middle Irish is often used like 
the Latin in quit; and this (like the O.Ir. oZ) is, I 
suspect, a preposition, used adverbially. 

Assit [leg. Adsit] .i. bit. The line is: 

'Assit certa tuae, iuvenis, constantia menti'. 
bit is now bid, byd, the 3 d sing, imperative of bod 
Ho be'. 

P. 35. ilia permedinteredou. So at p. 51 : medullis opcrmed- 
ittfercdou: from permed, now perfedd 'middle' (per- 
medius), and intercdou, which perhaps stands for 
inleiynedou (compare onyucdou gl. exta, Zeuss 860), 
but more likely is the plural of *intered^ a derivative 
from inter; cf. Skr. dntra, Gr. I'vieQov, O.S\n\.j-etro 

Repperit hie populum venalia multa locantem: Pars 
uendebat oves , pars corpora magna juuencum, Pars 
inhians numniis ((in niboth dnbodldioi) artem nume- 
rare uacal>at. unhodluun would now be a^foddlawn 
Minwillin"-'. The rest of the gloss is obscure to me. 
P. 37. obtonso [lc-. ohtuso?] or icu k from the thick". 'Nee 
potes obtonso roniprcliondere talia scnsn?' MONV 



= O.Ir. ting, Z. 1027 (tigiu gl. crassioris, Z. 283), 
Bret. tea, ten, O.N. thjokkr, Swed. $odt*, Eng. /<ic&. 
Lith. mrit (piger). Zeuss' comparison (G.C. 127) 
of tew with Teuto-matus, Teuto-bodiaci , Teutones, is 
accordingly wrong, and we may safely connect these 
words (like Gaulish toutiw, Ir. tuath, O.W. tut, 
Corn, tus, Bret, tud, Lith. Tauta, Osc. fthtfti, Umb. 
fctfo, Goth, piuda) with the root TIL 
Quid? papeth 1 In. 212 "Quid si coelestis [MS. celestes] 
uires conscendere sermo Coeperit, et superas rerum 
comprehendere form as?". Here we have the modern 
pabeth? (from pa 'wha-t', Goth, hva- , Lat. quo-) 
and peth (= Ir. p^?) 'a thing'. 

P. 38. exclusa medebe .i. di 'from': this seems only meant 
as a sign of the case. The context is : Ast ubi dona 
procul fuerint exclusa medelse, Jam propria ipsorum 
mentem damnatio torquet. 

P. 40. urnam cilurnn, now celwrn, Bret, kelorn, Ir. cilornn. 

P. 42. mitia trucarauc, 360 Non ego sacra magis, quain 
mitia pectora quaero now trugarog 'merciful', Bret. 
trugarek. Compare the O.Irish trocaire 'misericordia' 
from trog = Welsh tru, and -caire, a derivative from 
the root CAR, which we find in all the Celtic 
tongues as well as in the Latin earns. 

P. 43. uenae .i. guithennou, pi. of guithenn^ now gwyihen c a 
vein'. Corn, guid (leg. guitJi) gl. vena, Bret, gwazen. 
Cf. Lat. vitta? 

P. 44. praehendere icon : obscure to me : i may be the com- 
mon mutilated form of di (now dy} = Ir. du, do, 
perhaps Lat. du (in-dw-pedio, in-Jw-perator), Eng. to. 
The line is: 'Frigentis dextram dignatus praehendere 
dextram', and perhaps the gloss may mean, some- 
how , that praehendere is to be read prendere. 

P. 45. aceruo odds. Das still lives and means 'heap', 'stack'. 
It is the Ir. dais, A. S. tass, Fr. tas. 

1 Apparently papep, but the last letter must be p, the A.S. th. So in 
gurthait gl. fusam, Z. 1097, which is there wrongly given gurpait. Compare 
the modern gwerthyd 'a spindle' (fusus), O.Slav, vrit-anam (root YART). 


patrii pecoris roenhol del patris. The line is: 

'Pergite quo [leg. qua] patrii pecoris custodia labat'. 
roenhol appears = rcyenaul, which occurs, at p. 57 
(Book III, 1. 10), with the article ir, as a gloss on 
'patris' in the line: 

'Messores patris [leg. patrii] venient per rura 


regenaul or roenhol (~ roenhaul), seems an adjective 
formed from regen , rocn, = Bret, roen 'lord', as an- 
bithaul, P. 61, is formed from anbith. A more 
modern form of regen is Rheen which occurs in the 
following quotations from Cynddelw: 

Awch rhoddes awch rheen 
Wrth awch bodd awch bod yn llawen 
which Pughe translates s. v. Rheen: "To you your 
Lord has granted with contentment of mind that 
you should be glad." 

I'm peryf digardd bwyf dygen geiniad 
I"r inab, ir Mawr-dad rhoddiad fy Rheen 
IT ysbryd uchel OT un echen 
which Pughe translates, s. v. Echen: "To my pure 
great cause may I be a conspicuous singer; to the 
Son, to the great Father, the Giver of my Lord, 
to the supreme Spirit from the one source." With 
this Old- Welsh regen 'lord' I venture to compare 
the Old-Norse regin 'numina', 'dii', and the Old-Saxon 
and Anglosaxon intensive prefix regini-, regin-. But 
perhaps, like the Old-Breton roiant (whence the 
modern Breton ruantelez, regnum) regen is from the 
Lat. r eg ens, as presen from praesens. A Regin rex 
Demetorum occurs in the Annales Cambriae, Cod. A., 
at the year 808. 
P. 49. monimenta .i. hencassou. The line is: 

571 fc hiL-ipit, his ueteris script! monimenta retexens'. 

hencassou, like the O.Irish senchassi, is a derivative 

from the base SANAK, which occurs also in Latin 

(sencc-i) and in Gothic (sincig-i): cf. too Old-Celtic 

'.o 'old' (O.Ir. sen, W. hen} \\iSeno-magus 'Old- 


field' &c. Gr. W/, Skr. sana-, Zend liana, Goth. 
sinista, Ohg. sini-scalc, our s^/ieschal. 
Dauida canorum centhlidt, = centhiliat, supra, a de- 
rivative from the root KAN (Lat. cano, Gr. xava%rj, 
Ohg. hano, now hahn 'cock'). So the O.Ir. cetlaid 
'singer' in salmchetlaid from cetal (for-cetal) = can- 
ta/a, W. ceniad. Bret, tofc lecon, kentelia instruire. 
The context here is: 

Legistis certe in templo Dauida canorum 
Cum populo quondam panes sumpsisse sacratos. 
P. 5 1 . quern hirurin. The context is : 

Oblatusque ibidem [est,] quern demonis horrida 


605 Et lingua, et visu truncatum uiuere poenae, 
Et propriis escam cruciatibus esse uolebat. 
Should this be irhunn, now yr hwnn? The doubling 
of the n prevents us comparing the modern yr-un, 
which is constantly used for the relative. 
fronte duelli or guithlaun tal 'from the furious front'. 
The context is: 
623 Quisque meis aberit discretus miles ab armis, 

Hostis in aduersa consistit fronte duelli. 
guithlaun, now gwythlawn, from gwyth 'wrath' : cf. the 
Gaulish names Con-wVtfo-litavis , Fi'^'-sirana: tal is 
a living word for 'forehead'. 
poterit tantum honit nammui. The context is: 

Sed quicunque hominum fuerit super omnibus 

error , 

Dimitti poterit: tantum ne spiritus unquam 
Uocibus insana laceretur mente profusis. 
honit seems the third sing, of honi 'to manifest'; 
cf. Minn-it, mer-eit. Perhaps however it is the 
modern onyd 'if not'. For nammui (which is clear 
in the MS.) we should perhaps read nammin = the 
modern namyn. Compare, however, the 0. Irish 
nammd 'tantum'. But perhaps nammui may mean 
'nunquam', now na mwy = Corn, na moy. 
P. 52. ad limina .i. ad stebill. The context is : 


Judiciumque illi non est, sed migrat ab atra 
Morte procul, lucisque uigens ad limina tendit. 
xtt-bill. is the plural of an Old-Welsh *stabcll = the 
modern ystafell 'a room 1 , which is of course, like 
the Cornish stcvel gl. triclinium, borrowed from the 
Latin xiabulum, as tafell from tabula. 
P. 55. Sic genus hoc vere [leg. vero ?] mentis cum degenerarit 

Uinc[u]la perpetuis deflebit subsita poenis 
.i. cuinhaunt irruim mcin q det pena eterna super illos. 
Here cuinhaunt is the third plural future act. of a 
verb the modern cwyno 'to complain' (cf. Bret. 
farina, keini, O.Ir. come, Gothic qvainon, O.Norse 
qvcina, Eng. whine'), ir-ruim 'the bond' (rhwym), 
or perhaps 'in a bond' the n of the prep, in being 
assimilated as in Old Irish: mein 'stones', now meini. 
In poetry, according to the Rev. R. Williams, mcin 
is still used. 
P. 56. glebis .i. tuorchennou , now tywarcheni 'sods'. Bret. 


h'la be::u. This gloss is hardly legible. The context is : 
747 Sed quia nulla subest siccis substantia glebis, 

Inserto arescunt radicum fila calore. 
If we read belou cf. perhaps the modern bclys 'ma- 
terial for thatching', belysen 'a bundle of thatch'. 
glebis cjletu (gledu?). In the MS. this word stands 
\\m\QY ylebis in one line and over cui in the following: 

Uberibus vero dantur quae semina glebis, 
754 Ilia ferunt pulchram segetem cui laeta frequentant 

Incrementa sui centeno copia foetu. 
If the word be f/IeJu* we may perhaps compare the 
Modern Welsh yledd 'greensward' (hence Eng. glade?), 
the root of which may be the same as that of 
%1-toQog, Skr. hari for ghari, Lith. :dlic* 'green', 
;<>/<'' b grass". Lat. holu* L (/rceni (Aufrecht). 
aiTil);iii-il>us ,it'tl<(incirt'Jiinnttcu 'from the circiiinveiitions": 
compare circhinn infra }>. 84. 

P. 57. [Book 11 1 1 uvntem boned, now boncdd 'stock', 'pedi- 
gree", Ir. butiad. 


P. 59. lance o disci, now dysgl, from the Latin disculus. 
P. 60. [1. 102] Fluctibus in liquidis, gulip. 

[1. 118] liquefacta (timore) gulip, now gwlyb (Bret, gleb, 
gluV), 'liquid', 'wet', 'moist', = Ir. flinch = vlicvu. 
Is the Latin liqvidus for vliqvidus? 
aequora ir tonnou 'the waves' (Bret, tonnou, Ir. tonna), 

would now be yr tonnau. 
P. 61. rati lestir, now llestr 'a vessel', Bret, lestr, Ir. lestar. 

124 Ascensaeque rati contraria flamina cedunt. 
fervida anbithaul: 127 Transierat tandem sulcans freta 
fervida puppis. In p. 64 occurs inbith gl. rabiem 
(ventorum), = Mod. Welsh ynfyd. 
P. 63. anxia trist, from the Latin tristis. The same form 

occurs in Cornish and Breton. 

P. 64. jejunam diruestiat: 208 Jejunam nolim tantam dimit- 
tere plebem. Cf. the modern dirwest 'a fast' = dir 
-\-gwest, 'a non-entertainment', so to speak. 
P. 65. [1. 246] uaeuurn yuollung L ruid, now gollwng neu rhwydd 
' loose or free '. Guollung is the Bret, goullo. With 
rhwydd (Corn, rid} the Eng. rid, Nhg. retten are 
P. 66. claustrum .i. drus 'a door', now drws. Corn, darat, 

Bret, dor, O.Ir. dorus, tfvQa, fores, Goth. daur. 
283 Coelestisque tibi claves permittere regni 

Est animus (is brut m 1 ) terrisque tuo quae nexa 


Arbitrio coelo pariter no data manebunt. 
brut now bryd, Corn. brys. 
archinn dies 

lam lux adueniet propriis [leg. properis] mihi 

cursilis instans. 

If archinn be meant as a gloss on 'adveniet' cf. 
archynu 'to spring up'. 
P. 67. sibi racdam. The context is: 

Sed si quis uestrum uestigia nostra sequatur, 
Abneget ipse sibi, corpusque animamque re- 

The corresponding form in modern Welsh seems 


rhayddo. In the top margin of this page are two 
lines in extraordinary corrupt Greek and Roman 
characters. I can make nothing of them: 

sel/?eiaia#aks ieixdeis IN ieieiN ie#i#ci Nes ... 

iaeistfitfei? 01^ [di/??] 7 iaiieiN 7 # 

P. 68. instat ardiu. The context is: 

.. mox sevior altcra sedes 
352 En hominis nato trucibus laniatibus instat. 
<ir din for ar duiu 'on God' : the allusion is to Christ. 
P. 70. Sed ne quern (nep} laedam (1.389): nep now neb 

= Ir. neck. 

qui primus em ir cisemic 'he the first'. The context is : 
Haeserit et curuo qui primus acumine piscis 
Hujus pandantur scissi penetralia uentris. 
cm 'he' now ef (= Skr. imam, the ace. sg. masc. of 
ay am ?) : cisemic ' first ' must be connected with cy- 
ttejin, which Pughe explains as 'primary, first or 
primitive'. The s in these forms has not yet been 
satisfactorily explained. 
acumine gilbin: now gylfin 'bill', 'beak': cf. gilb fo- 

ratorium, Z. 156, 160. 
P. 7 1 . nulla rdcenbld. The context is : 

415 Laetitia inventae maior turn nascitur agnae, 

Quam pro cunctarum numero quod nulla residit. 
The rac may be the modern rhag. The rest of the 
gloss is obscure. 
P. 73. fundum ir tir: tir masc. is = Ir. tir 'country', 'land'. 

Osc. teerom. 
P. 76. diffussa Mis. The context is : 

in margine cernit 

655 Stratae, tendentern diffussa umbracula, ficum. 

lais is now llaes 'loose': cf. amlais gl. dimissa, Z. 

1085 ('pallia nimiura dimissa'). L<' is borrowed 

from Lat. lasum. as Sais from Saxo, crocs from cru<r. 

P. 77. uitis yuinlann. Vitis is here put for vinca (ywinllan}. 

693 Talia dicta dedit: uitis mihi portio major 


Semiputata jacet. Sed perge et robure forti 
Nunc scropibus [leg. scrobibus] nunc falce pre- 

mens, vineta retonde. 

guin = Ir. fin (gen. find) , Lat. vinum , Gr. Folvoc, : 
lann is noticed supra, P. 14. 

semiputata anter metetic, 'half-reaped', would now be 
hannerfedcdig : cf. the modern medi, Bret, medi, midiy 
'to reap', Ir. methel 'a party of reapers', lasna 
meithleorai (gl. apud messores) Milan Codex: Lat. 
mctOj messis (from met-tis), and the form etmet infra. 
The prefix anter- is written hanther in the Oxford 
MS. infra p. 237. 

scropibus o crummanliuo (leg. crummanhou), pi. of 
crumman, now cry man (Mod. Cornish crobman), 'a 
reapinghook', from *crumm, now crwm, Bret, kroumm, 
0. Ir. cromb 'curvus'. The A. S. crumb 'curvus', 
Nhg. krumm, must be connected with these Celtic 
words, though the lautversckiebung is absent. 

falce serr, now ser, like Ir. serr, from Latin serra: 
scrr glosses <t uoscera' > in Z. 1093. 

retonde dcet met, leg. acetmet i. e. ac etmet the 
modern ag eclfed 'and reap again', the 2 d sg. imperat. 
active of a verb compounded with the particle et- 
(O.Ir. aith-') corresponding in meaning with the Lat. 
re-. Compare et-binam, gl. lanio, (root BHAN = cptr, 
Goth, ban-ja). 

P. 78. et dolea aceroenhou. 'Sic quidam dives .... In medio 
turrem, ut prelumque et dolea fecit'. Ceroenhou pi. of 
ceroen^ now cerwyn 'a m ashing-tub'. Corn, ceroin gl. cupa, 
Lat. caroenum for caroenaria : a for the fuller form ac. 
In the margin here is the following note : prelum .i. 
cldur guicip. quod n't super faciem torcularis. Here 
claur (pi. cloriou gl. tabellis, Zeuss 1082), now clawr^ 
is the O.Ir. cldr 'tabula'. Guicip 'a wine-press' seems 
a corruption of guincip, from guin 'wine' (see P. 77) 
and dp, from Lat. cupa ' tub ', 'cask'. The modern 
db means 'cup'. 

actores merion (pi. of maerj, now meiri 'stewards'. 


^Actores famulos mittit quis portio sulva Cultorum 
certa ruris mercedc daretur'. Maer is (like the Gaelic 
maer in the title mor-maer') from the Latin major. 
Ultima iam domino natum dimittere mens est (1. 726) 
ixfunrmitL Pughc has anirairdd 'discourse', but the 
meaning does not suit. The context relates the 
parable of the Vineyard and Husbandmen (Matt, 
xxi, 33; Mark xii, 1; Luke xx, 9.) 

P. 78. maculata initoid: extincta initoid. The lines in which 
these words occur, are consecutive: 

Sed contra illorum iam mens maculata cruore, 
Progenie extincta domini, 

The word (or words?) initoid may also be found 
at p. 92, over 'pressus' in the line: 

'Et Judas grauiter turn conscia pectora pressus'. 
Perhaps we should read init old 'initium erat', a 
private note by a commentator or reader. See P. 79. 

P. 79. 'Praecepit proceres conuiuia laeta frequentent'. 


743 Magnificasque dapes, conuiuia laeta parasse. 
At p. 102 fodiud occurs over certatim in the line 
'Praemia militibus certatim magna rependit'. Can 
it have anything to do with ffoddiad 'splendour'? 
P. 80. [Book IV] minimum irmesur: nummismatis (sic) .i. 
delu. The line is: 

10 Inspicite nummum sculptique numismatis aera. 
Here mesur is from the Latin mcnsura, and delu, 
now delw, is the O.Ir. delb (i. e. delv), now dealbh 
'forma', root DHAR , whence Lat. for-nia ? 
maritae .i. Iccces .i. mulieris. Lewes, now lleyyes, is, 
like the O.Ir. laiches 'heroine', a formation from 
the Latin laicus, whence Ir. laech. The fern, ter- 
mination -<>* is from the Latin -is#a, which again 
is borrowed from the Gr. -tooa. 
P. SI. Christus quoin irhinn issid cnst. The line is: 

46 xps, quern cuncti spondent in sjecla profetae! 
This would now be yr hyn 'sydd Crist, lit. 'the this 
(one) who is Christ'. 


56 Abrupta imponunt humeris tarn pondera uestris 

Ipsi que digito saltern contingere nolunt. 
Over 'abrupta' is written irtum, which, I presume, 
must be read ir trum, 'the weight' ; see trumm, p. 88. 
barathri .i. Idtharduc I gennec. 66 'In vobis si quis 
sublimia colla levabit, Decidet, et barathri mergetur 
ad ultima coeno.' Latharauc seems for *letharauc: 
cf. the modern llethr 'a slope' = Ir. leittir, gen. lettrack. 
The expression 'barathri coeno\ however, leads one 
to think that we should read latarauc and compare 
the Ir. latharach 'swamp', laihadh 'to smear with 
mud', loth gl. coenum, Z. 15 (Lat. lutumT): cf. too 
the Modern Welsh Had 'mire'. Gennec is of course 
borrowed from Gehenna. 

P. 82. Ales idr 'hen'. Corn, and Bret. idr. The context is : 
81 Ales uti molli solita est sub corpore pullos 
Ob[j]ice pennarum circum complexa fouere. 
P. 84. 1. 147 Usque sub occiduum coeli bet circhinn irguolleuni 
"as far as the surrounding of the light" : bet 'usque 
ad' (Z. 655), now med in South Wales, Corn, bys, 
Bret, bet-e: circhinn , now cyrchyn, from Lat. cir- 
cinus: guolleuni, now goleuni 'light', 'splendour'. 
P. 85. oliuum aleulinn: aleu (now olew} is borrowed, like 
the Corn, oleu, Ir. ola, Gothic alev. The linn (now 
llyn Ir. linn) 'liquor', 'juice'. 
P. 86. liquidum .i. gloiu. The line is : 

217 'Tune pergunt stultae liquidum [ut] mercentur 

oliuum '. 

gloiu, now gloyw , gloew , ' bright ', ' transparent ' ; cf. 
Breton gloeu in Witem/fo^, Z. 126. Compare, too, 
the Ir. gle. 
poinpae guled. The line is: 

'Dum pergunt, laetae transcurrunt omnia pompae'. 

yided is now gwledd 'a banquet', O.Ir. fled. 

nequitiae cared. 246 'Si nescire meos auderes dicere 

mores Nequitiae, tantse ueniam concedere possem'. 

Corn, cara } Ir. caire (accusatio), cairigud (repre- 


hensio) = Mod.W. ccrydd 'chastisement', if this be 
not for ceryth from corrcctio. 

P. 88. 'Aut sitis aut saeuae famis aegrum agitare labore[m]'. 
Over 'aegrum' stands trumm (now trwin? Ir. tronwi): 
over 'agitare' UdantM. This last gloss is obscure 
to me. The context is: 

His dumnata dehinc respondet factio verbis: 
Haut equidem nostrum meminit te uisere quis- 


Aut sitis, aut saeuae famis aegrum agitare laborem 
Hospita vel fesis errare per oppida rebus 
( 'arceris aut mersum poenis, morbove gravatum, 
Ut tibi sollicito fieret miseratio justa. 
So is plant honnor* which stands over 'fodientur' 
in the line: 

'Aeteruum miseri poena fodientur iniqui'. 
I*. SI), armant .i. nerthheint .i. gaudia. 

327 Lazarus in loetum (lethum) cecidit..sed gaudia 

Hinc ueniunt uestramque tidem mihi fortius 


iici-theint is the 3 d pi. pres. indie, of a verb = the 
modern nerthu 'to make powerful'. The 2 d sing, 
imperative occurs among the Oxford glosses: nerthi-ti 
gl. hortare, Z. 51G, and both these forms seem to 
belong to the la-conjugation. As to the root cf. O.Ir. 
nert, \\. nn-th (Gaulish AVrfo-maros), Gr. u-nJQ, Lat. 

ro, Skr. nr. 
P. TiO. maturato cudll. The line is : 

1 1 ace ait, et Mariam ctirsu niatura sororem 
Interiora petit. 

For matura or perhaps maturato (-to is written to 
the right over the final a of matura) we should 
surely ivnd mntura or monitura; matiira seems here 
to have the meaning of 'speedy". In modern Welsh 
cuall means 'raging', 'fierce'. 

\\T.\ Ilautmora, demonstranl tlciiti mesto(iue sepulcrum 
Kupe sub excissa, lapidis quod pondere clausum 


Ut uidit sanctus multo mox uecte moueri 

Over vecte moveri stands the gloss .i. or mdur 
dluithruim 'from the great lever': or maur is of 
course 'from the great', dluith seems written for 
luith, now llwyth 'a weight': cf. dlonaid, gl. fer- 
tilitas, Zeuss 1096, for lonaith, launaith. "In dl 
antem significatio haberi poterit jam vetusta soni 
proprii II, qui interdum scriptus etiam legitur tld, 
e. gr. in Registr. Caernarv. p. 154 Dynthlayn (man. 
recent. Dinllaen), p. 169 TManrethlon (man. recent. 
llanrillo\ p. 216 Thlanlibyon, p. 2 10 Thlannor, p. 173 
Penthlyn (p. 199 PenUyn)." Zeuss G. C. p. 1096 n. 
Lastly ruim , now rhwyf, is = Lat. remits. 

P. 91. fascia .i. fecidul, 'totum gracilis connectit fascia cor- 
pus', apparently a loan-word; cf. </>*6ioe. 

P. 92. num uescitur dnit drier bit, literally "annon est 
utitur cibo". As num is generally followed by a 
negative answer, I divide emit into a-ni-it, 'an- 
non est?' (compare the Cornish a ny wodhas 'knewest 
thou not?'), and not an-it 1 . The expression arber 
bit, now arfer bwyd, is identical with one in Old 
Irish. Thus: do airbirt biuth inna tiiare-sin 'to use 
food of these aliments'. Airbir biuth gl. utere 2 , 
vino modico, Z. 457; airbirid biuth 'manducate' 
Z. 705. The phrase sometimes signifies 'to indulge 
one's self, thus: arambere biuth 'quo fruaris' Z. 1048: 
huanerbermis biuth gl. ex illo tempore quo degebamus 
in Egipto : ma arberaesiu biuth gl. si tu fueris obtata 
ssecuritate perfuncta. (The last two glosses are from 
the O.Irish codex of Milan.) In Middle-Irish I find 

1 The interrogative particle an occurs in Celtic, as in Gothic and 
Latin. The Old-Irish form is in, Zeuss 707. The Greek uv has a dif- 
ferent signification. 

2 Cf. the adverb indhuadairforthach 'abusive', Zeuss 1011: see pp. 850, 
562. Zeuss erroneously translated do airbirt biuth by 'offerre raundo' 
taking biuth to be the dat. sg. of bith, W. byd, Gaulish bitu, and O'Clery 
renders airbert biuth (he spells it airbheartbilh) by beatha 'food'. 


these instances: Asbert fimien na airbertais bith aid 
coroinnised doib senehasa erend 'F. said that they 
would not eat with him till he told them the his- 
tories of Ireland'. Lebar na hUidre 9 a. 2. Codal 
corrcigach, ise rop oiti erenn ota inis erenn, isann 
airberid bith a dalta forsan mbcinnsin ucut (H. 3. 18, 
p. 010 b. T. C. D.). 'Codal the Round-breasted, it 
was he who was tutor of Eriu, from whom is Inis 
Erenn : it is there he fed his pupil on that hill 
there'. Ar airbert bith don crann urgartha a parthus 
(ibid. p. 442 a) 'against eating of the forbidden tree 
in Paradise'. Riagail .i. irn sen airbirt bith o noin 
do noin (H. 2. 15, p. 61 a) 'Rule i.e. as regards one 
meal from nones to nones'. Arber, now arfer, is 
compounded of the prep, ar (== Gaulish are) and ber 
( beir\ the 3 d sg. pres. indie, of the root ber 
= Skr. bhar, Gr. yey- , Lat. fer-. Bit = the 
biutlij the dat. sg. of biad, gen. biith, = filorog, victus. 

P. WJ. segnem diduc, now diawg 'lazy', Corn, dioc gl. piger, 
Bret. diek. From the negative di and *auc, now 
utrg, 'keenness, ardency, eagerness': cf. Skr. d$u, 
Gr. WXU& Lat. aew-pedius, uxvaaug, odor. 

P. 94. clause .i. pelechi. 514 'Pars strictis gladiis, pars h'dens 
pondere clauae\ Obviously borrowed from Ttilexv^ 
= Skr. para^u. As to the aspiration of the c, com- 
pare bresych from brassica, and llwch from lacux. 
lu the margin of this page occurs the following: 'is 
ira nb in- nomen accepit hoc est ab igne. ur eiiim 
ilannna (MS. slamma) dicitur et ira inflammat'. I 
strongly suspect that this was written by an Irish- 
man, in whose language ur (= HUQ Umb. pir, Ohg. 
jiur with the usual loss of p in anlaut?) meant 
'fire'. The Hebrew ur 'light', from acr, may, 
however, have been in the glosser's mind. 

P. i'S. lauare Unixant. That lacare is here an historical in- 
finitive, appears from the context: 
648 Turn genibus nexi regem dominuna[q]ue salutant 
Jud[ae]ae gentis, faciemque lauare salivis, 
Vertice et in sancto plagis lusere nefandis. 


linisant must be the 3 d plur. pret. active of a verb 
formed from lin, now llijn 'water', 'lake', Ir. linn. 
The modern llynio means 'to form a pool'. 

Having thus set forth the Juvencus-glosses , with the sin- 
cere hope that the many difficulties which I have failed to 
overcome, may be met and vanquished by some learned 
Welshman , I will now print my reading of the famous three 
stanzas, tirst published by Lhuyd in his Archseologia Bri- 
tannica, and recently edited by Viscount Hersart de la 
Villemarque in his Notices des principaux manuscrits des an- 
ciens Bretons, Paris 1856, and in the new edition of his 
Bardes Bretons. These verses occur in the top-margins of 
pp. 48, 49, and 50 of our codex, and thus: 
p. 48. * niguorcosam nemheunaur henoid mitelu nitgurmaur 

mi am franc 2 darn ancalaur 
p. 49. nicanu niguardarn nicusam henoid cet iben med 

nouel mi am franc dam an patel 
p. 50. namereit nii nep leguenid henoid isdisenirr micou- 

eidid dou nam riceus unguetid 3 

The only doubtful readings here are in the third line. 
For nii it is possible to read mi (in no other word of this 
poem, however, is there an accent save over a vowel), and 
isdisenirr seems at first isdisezrr with a long z. Here, how- 
ever, as often in Irish MSS., the n is written perpendicu- 
larly, and the i then added below. And in the Dublin MS. 
Lhuyd observes: mae'r skriven ynbyr debig i honno yn y 
Ihyvrae gwydhelig, 'the writing is quite like that in the 
Irish books'. 

It is obvious that each of these lines consists of a stanza 
containing in one instance two , in the others three rhyming 
lines. These, if we separate the words, will stand thus: 

1 Here, in LhuycTs handwriting is 'Hen Vrythonceg' 1 'Old-British'. 

2 Written above the line : the last two letters now illegible. 

3 Sic in Lhuyd's MS. in the library of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 5. 20, 
No. 11): wrongly printed in his Archceologia Britannica, p. 221, riccur 


1. ni guorcosam nemheunaur henoid 
mi telu nit gurmaur 

mi am franc dam an calaur. 

2. ni canu ni guardam ni cusam henoid 
cet iben med nouel 

mi am franc dam an patel. 
U. na mereit nii nep leguenid henoid 

is disenirr mi coucidid 

dou nam riceus un guetid. 

In stanza 1 ni is the negative particle = 0. Ir. ni: guor- 
cosam has hitherto been rendered as if it were guorcoscam, 
now gorchysgaf. There is however no ground for doing so. 
There is no root cos, and we must accordingly regard yuor- 
cosam as a substantive formed by prefixing the intensive 
particle guor (= Ir./or,. Gaulish ver") to a noun cosuni. This 
would in modern Welsh be cysaf, a compound of cy- 'to- 
gether' and saf 'standing', and meaning probably 'an as- 
sembly', c a company', cf. gurtlwaf 'withstanding: Guor- 
cosam would accordingly mean 'a great company'. The 
verb of the sentence to which it belongs, must be con- 
tained in the form nemhcunaur. A learned friend takes 
this verb to be eunaur, which he regards as the third 
sin"', tut. ftaxxiee of a verb equivalent to the modern nno 
'to unite'. Compare, too, the Cornish cuniou (gl. com- 
niissura), if this be the right reading of the cnniou of the 
MS. No difficulty can of course be raised in respect of the 
then necessity of reading ncmh for nitn, for here the It may 
be added to shew the hardness of the m, as in Icniliaam 
gl. arguo, Z. 1077. But the (to me) insuperable objec- 
tion to connecting cunau-r with uno is that u from oi is 
never, so far as I know, represented by the diphthong 
cu. (Even in this very poem we have un, not eun = 0. 
Lat. oinos.) It has been suggested that we should read 
nemh-eu-n-aur "not to me is now'' where eu for m = the 
modern yw, and 'n-aur the modern yn an-r. But I find 
no sure instance of an O.Welsh eu being = a modern ?///, 
and the aphaeresis of i in *in cntr (now yn ^/'' < / > ), is un- 
likely to have occurred at so early a period. The most 


probable theory is perhaps that the diphthong eu of nemh- 
0wnaur has been produced by the confluence of the terminal 
vowel of the infixed pronoun m with the initial of unaur 
'will be united'. Nem, or nemh, I take to be = nym, 
'not-me' Zeuss 425. Henoid is of course the modern 
lienoeth 'to-night' = 0. Ir. innocht. Mi, now fy, stands 
for mm = Mid. Welsh vyn, Goth, meins, A. S. mm the 
n being lost before the tenuis with which the following 
word begins. Telu, now teulu 'household' from ty = Ir. 
teg 'house' (cf. tsyng, tegere, Ohg. dach) and In = O.Ir. sluag, 
Gaulish *slogos, 'host'. Ni-t 'is not', gur-maur 'very large', 
now gorfawr: mi T = Ir. me (an accusative like em c he'); 
am 'and my' Z. 395; franc, JWW/ranc 'youth'; dam 'around'? 
(compare dam-circhinnucu 'ambages' supra), in the modern 
language only used in composition. An 'our' Z. 389. Calavr, 
now callawr 'cauldron', from Med. Lat. calddria (Corn, colter, 
Bret, kaoter). 

Stanza 2. ni canu 'I sing not': canu, now canaf, is to 
be compared with xctvafyo rather than with Lat. cano = 0. 
Ir. cun in for-chun. If the g in guardam be for cli, we 
may probably read it chuardam, now chwarddaf 'I laugh', 
for the modern gwarthdu 'to asperse' would hardly make 
sense. Cusam 'I kiss', cus 'a kiss', Cornish cussin gl. 
osculum. Possibly borrowed from the Anglosaxon cus, coss, 
Ohg. elms, Nhg. kuss. Get must be 'while 1 or 'since', now 
cyd. Iben is either the 1 st plur. of the present indie, or 
the 1 st sg. of the secondary present of ibet^ now yfed 'to 
drink': the context leads one to think (with Mr. Norris) that 
it is a plural. This verb, like the O.Ir. ibiu, ibimm, when 
compared with the Vedic pibdmi (for pipdmi), Lat. bibo, ap- 
pears to have lost an initial p. Med (gl. sicera, Z. 1095), 
now medd, is Eng. mead, Gr. i-ii3v, Skr. madhu 'honey'. 
Strange is the vocalic auslaut of the Cornish medu, meddou. 
Nouel 'new' is probably borrowed from the Latin novellas. 
Patel, now padell, 'a pan', is from the Latin patella, the 
diminutive of patera. 

Stanza 3. Na mereit nii 'remains not'. The context re- 
quires us to regard this as the indicative, though I confess 


I have only found na used with the imperative (Z. 414), or 
in a dependent or relative sentence (Z. 713). The root of 
mereit seems identical with that of the O.Ir. maraith, mair 
'manet', .marait 'manent'. The termination -cit seems a 
mere variation of the -it in -Mi-unit (gl. loquitur) supra, and 
probably, like -eint in nerthheint gl. armant, belongs to the ia- 
conjugation; nii seems added to intensify the negation. For 
nil Viscount de la Villemarque reads ini 'to me' (Z.384), which 
would make good sense, but cannot be justified by the MS. Nep, 
now neb, O.Ir. nech 'any'. Leguenid has been rightly iden- 
tified by Lhuyd with the modern llawenydd 'gladness', 
'mirth' (cf. Ir. lame 'joy', Idineach 'joyful'), and Zeuss' 
connection (G. C. 123) of llawen with the Gaulish Cata- 
luunii Cob-launon accordingly falls to the ground. Is = 
O.Ir. in, Eng. is, Lat. est, Gr. la-cl, Skr. asti. Disenirr, 
Pughe's disynwyr, means 'senseless', from the negative 
particle di and *8enin tl for senuirr = the modern synicyr 
'sense'. Coueidid for coueithid, now cyiceithydd , explained 
by Pughe 'an auxiliary', 'a multitude'. Quaere 'a fellow- 
worker" from Co- and gweith. Dou seems a compound of the 
preposition di = O.Ir. du 'to', and the suffixed pronoun of 
the 3 d pers. sing. masc. -au (Z. 386). It may perhaps have 
the force of the Irish do, literally 'to him', in the following- 
passages: nibad aoenur do 'ne esset solus ipse': imba im- 
malei do 'num est simul ipse?' Zeuss 892. Nam 'not-to-me', 
like nctn in the first stanza, is an example of infixation here be- 
tween the particle na and the verb riceus. The ri- of this form 
is the re-, ry- which occurs so often as a prefix to the pre- 
terite. The -ceus is probably (as Mr. Edwin Norris suggests) 
identical with the Cornish keus, cows, which seems borrowed 
from the Lat. causari, Fr. causer. Un is the numeral = O.Ir. 
<'n'n, oen, Lat. unus, Old-Lat. oinos. The last word yuetidis ob- 
viously connected with the modern guedyd 'to say', 'to speak*. 
The context shews that it here means 'a word' or 'a saying', 
and not 'a speaker', and the termination -id (now -ydd}, 
though generally denoting a person exercising an art or 

1 For examples of a derivative double r in Old-Celtic, see Zeuss, 742. 


office (Z. 803), is also found in masculine substantives signi- 
fying things. Thus lleveryd 'sermo' Z. 804, now lleferydd. 

The translation of the three stanzas will accordingly be 
as follows: 

1. No great company will be with me to-night. 
My household is not very large, 

I and my boy around our bowl. 

2. I sing not, I laugh not, I kiss not to-night, 
Though (whilst?) we drink new mead, 

I and my boy around our pan. 

3. There remains not to me any mirth to-night. 
My comrade is senseless. 

He to me has not said one word. 

It will be understood that the above version is put forth 
with the utmost deference, and chiefly in order to elicit 
corrections from Welsh scholars. 

In conclusion I desire to acknowledge my great obligations 
to my friend and teacher Dr. Siegfried, Sanskrit-lecturer 
in Trinity College, Dublin. He it was that discovered the 
manuscript of Lhuyd's transcript of the Juvencus-glosses and 
verses, and to his ingenuity and learning are due many of 
the foregoing conjectures and comparisons. I am also deeply 
indebted to Mr. Bradshaw, of King's College, Cambridge, 
for affording me facilities in transcribing from the MS. of 


W. S. 

Bibl. Bodl. Auct. F.4 32.' 

2 H - mergidhaham gl. euanesco. 

in marg. didioulam gl. glisco [omitted by Zeuss]. 
3 a - doguomisuram (MS. doguomisuf) gl. geo. 

1 See Zeuss, Grammallca Celtica, xxxviii, 1076, for a description of 
the MS. and an admirable commentary on these glosses: see too, Ville- 
marque, Notices des principaux ManuscrUs &c. p. 12, where some omissions 
and mistakes made by Zeuss are pointed out. 


scndtiarn gl. screo. 

lemkaam gl. arguo. 

enmetiam gl. innuo. 

yruiam gl. SUO. 

dadlt\i\ gl. curia. 

laranres gl. linea. 

in marg. ctbinam gl. lanio. 

temperam gl. condio. 

becel gl. bulla [read fofc by Zeuss]. 

yuiryiriam gl. hinnio. 

diniam gl. tinnio. 

mnnam gl. partior. 

didanuud gl. elicio .i. uoco. 

taguelcjidliat gl. silicerniura. 

CY^T gl. vehiculum. 

morlran gl. merges. 

e7tow gl. struo. 

doyuoliintiliat gl. inceduus. 

dalolaham gl. lego. 

w<?>-# /. celmed gl. efficax. 

lam mam gl. salio. 

lemenic gl. salax. 

gl. stabulum. 
gl. sedile. 

credam gl. vado. 

r^ gl. vadum. 

cannat gl. vas, vadis. 
6 b - etncoilhaam gl. aspicio auspex. 

^w gl. obiex [leg. obex] 

di/icl gl. deses. 

l>oucs gl. quies. 

/ gl. testrix [omitted by Zeuss]. 
7 a - ladam gl. caedo. 
gl. cacsar. 

7' 1 - ntontot gl. trutina. 

nouitiou gl. iiiiiidinae. 
8 a - /wi'w gl. lixa. 

/wr gl. solus [leg. solum]. 


eunt gl. aequus. 

dacrlon gl. uidus [leg. uvidusj. 
tan gl. focus. 
helabar gl. graecus. 
dadl gl. concio. 

In marg. anguoconam gl. vigilo [cf. A.S. onvacnjan 
vigilare; out of anguoconam Zeuss raade conam 
gl. arguo]. 
8 b - cannot gl. vas, vadis. 

culed gl. macies. 
9 a - clutgued gl. strues. 


37 a< a mem f union gl. vittae tenues [voc. pi.]. 

orgarn gl. medio. 

a hir etem gl. instita longa. 
37 b> irdigatma gl. area. 

o olin gl. rota. 

ioinou gl. frutices. 

guobriach gl. sapientior. 

diaperthou gl. muneribus. 
38 a - ocloriou gl. tabellis. 

eft/* arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus. 

ap[er]thou gl. sacra. 

now irbleuporthetic gl. lanigerae teinpla. 

iwcA gl. juvencae. 

/o gl. ipsa [i. e. vitulus]. 

templa juvencae. 
Multas ilia facit quod fuit ipsa (.i. fo) Jovi. 

datlocou gl. fora. 

in irguorimhetic gl. in arguto. 

datl gl. foro. 

^r emedou gl. aera. 

c?aww gl. cliens. 

helghati gl. venare. 

guaroimaou [sic] gl. theatris. 

termiscelicion gl. solicitos. "Primos solicitos fsecisti 


Romule ludos." This gloss is omitted by Zeuss. 

Cf. the modern terfysgu 'to raise a tumult'. 
ircilchetou gl. vela. 
estid gl. theatro. 
guarai gl. scena. 
38 h - cemmein gl. in gradibus. 

j>ixi>aur tuscois gl. tibicine tusco [leg. pvppour?]. 
coorn gl. in medio plausu. 
lie.p amgnaubot, \cong maubot?] gl. sine mente. 
creaticaul plant gl. genialis praeda [i.e. genialis proles]. 
nepun gl. qua: 'Si qua repugnaret nimium comittem- 

que [sic] repugnat'. Omitted by Zeuss. 
grudou gl. ocellos [lit. malas]. 
guarwou gl. teathra [leg. theatra]. 
dig at ma gl. circus. 
ringuedaulion gl. arcana. 
troi cnmeituou gl. per nutus. 
cared gl. nota. 

3 ( > kacboi gl. excusiendus [leg. excutiendus] erit, pulvis. 
iransceth gl. nullum pulverem. 
amlais gl. dimissa [cf. la-is gl. diffussa, Juv. 76]. 
irdigatmaou gl. circus. 
ircaiauc gl. libellum. 
mortru gl. eheu. 
morliaus gl. quam multos. 
ordometic gl. domito. 
^a arcibrenou gl. sepulti. 
?* cw guodeinmauch gl. non bene passa, signa, ad 

ver burnt non bene sustulistis. 
!5l) h - cenitolaidou gl. natales. 

/ym/> hrctliuiiLOu gl. in cunis. 
////* map tZt -/o6 gl. Jove dignus. 
ocoilou gl. auspiciis [cat/ O.N. /w?t'W auspicium]. 
oguordimituitiii* gl. ab invito. 
gl. Latio. 

gl. consistes [i. e. contra quemvis]. 
nei'thiti gl. hortabere. 
hinc:glinau iiieill gl. Romana pectora. 


budicaul gl. victo [ad v. victorioso]. 

teg guis gl. aureus. 
4O ocorsenn gl. harundine. 

guobri gl. gravis. 

cricked gl. ruga. 

iranamou gl. mendae. 

irtinetic gl. tincta. 

oceenn gl. murice. 

gulan gl. lana. 
40 b ' o guiannuin gl. vere. 

cetinet bronnbreithet gl. cicadae. 
41 a - guoguiih gl. victus. 

padiu gl. quid ['Quid tibi passiue leg. Pasiphae 
formossas sumere uestes?']. 

pui gl. quid. 

yuas marchauc gl. adulter. 

ironguedou gl. exta. 
41 b - malgueretic gl. deceptus. 

diguolouichetic gl. proclitus. 

o caitoir gl. pube. 

^a<? orachmonou gl. inguinibusque. 

aperth gl. victima, 

dwr gl. dira. 
42 a - Aa c-njp gl. pectens [i. e. a pectine]. 

atail gl. vicem. 

anutonou gl. perjuria [an-uton: cf. O.Ir. oeth, 'oath', 
Goth, dith-s]. 


20 a - Nemniuus istas reperit literas uituperante quidam 
(sic) scolastico & saxonici generis quia brittones non 
haberent rudimentum at ipse subito ex machinatione 
mentis suae formauit eas ut uituperationem et hebi- 
tudinem deieceret gentis suae. de h'guris et de no- 
minibus dicens 

a alar . b braut . c cusil . d dexu . e egui . f fich . 
g guichr. h huil. i iechuit. k /cam. 1 louber . m muin. 
n Nihn [cf. Ir. muin 'm', win 'n'] . o or . p parth. 


r rat. s surg . t trans, u uir [Ir. ur]. x icil. y oyr.* 
z zeirc. ae arm. et estiaul. eu ^MI. an aur. ei 
hinc /wtc. ego henc. ecce #fow. uult utl. oe or/?. 


22 b - Duo .u. int dou pimp . In libra .in. u . // tri .u. IN 
libra mellis .i. tredn cant mel . semper sex .i. u. hint 
tri pimp . in sextario .i. hi hestdur mel .i. is xxx lid 
guorennieu . guotig .iiii. u. ir petguar pimp ad libram 
olei .i. if hestoriou olcu . is trimuceint tiestaur mel uerbi- 
gratia uas . in quo mensurantur xx wnciae de oleo us- 
que dum plenum fuerit . In ipso iterum remensurantur 
xxx unciae mellis usque dum plenum fuerit seel distat 
in grauitate et in multitudine unciarum quamvis 2 si 
melle uas impleat non tertia pars numeri sextariorum 
olei in mellis sextaris continetur . 

Pondeus idem est et depondeus .i. duo semper et 
semis et inde pondeo iiunt . Notandurn cum lucas 
dicit nonne .u. passeres depondeo ueniunt unusquis- 
que passer obello comparatur. Nee huic matheus con- 
tradicit dicendo nonne duo passeres ab asse ueniunt. 
as enim unus scrip ulus est qui dua liter diuisus bis 
obellum redit quibus duobus obellis .ii. passeres 
conparantur . Dou punt petguar hanther scribl prinit 
hinnoid .iiii. aues et .u. qui adicit lucam [leg. quia 
dicit Lucas?] ni choildm hinnoid amser iscihun [?] 
argant agit eterin illud. irpimphet eterin diguormechis 
lucas hegit hunnoid in prethun benedictionis hoid hoitou 
hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn rl. Matheus uero dou 
eterinn cant hunnoid di assa .i. assc biclian. unus 
scripted est partire et fiunt duo demedii et pretium 
duorum auium:. 

Cum dicitur Ix librae uticae tallentum hie ali(iuid 
contrarium uidetur superius enim (\i\it tallentum pondo 
Ixxx hoc est miciae dcccc Ix hie uero cum Ix libras 

1 The Irish name for oi is oir. 

'* MS. fjuam uis, Zeuss has 'quam uir'. 


ad supplementum adscribsit non dcccc Ix unc. sed 
dec xx unc. tallentum continet et ideo mains minus- 
que tallentum fieri estimamus a libra atica et grecin 
quae mna nominatur maior est quam libra latina. 
libra enirn grecia xui habet uncias latina uero .xii. 
Notandum <\uod cum dicitur gomor qui[n]ce uncias 
habet decimo, pars efti esse cumq%<? qnadrisextium et 
nimmina et semis xc. ui. uncias efticiunt hoc est de- 
cimam effi et desunt .iiii. unciae de se nichoildm im- 
mit eel irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer vel maior 
est gomor ebreornm quae habet imvias quam aticorum 
quorum sunt hii numeri 

23 a - tertia pars unciae pollicis teir petguared part unc. 
mensura pollicis ir bis bichan A. amcibret [amcobret?] 
irmdut biheit hcitham ir eguin kittoi ir Idunc wit pet- 
guared pard guoifrit nun . hohinnoid guotan amumb [?] 
palma quadras .i. bos ugreret[?] irbis hihi erguid si 
unc. pollicis xx et demedium unc. hor elm cihutim 
hitorr usque ad artum pugni bes est houboit cihitun 
ceng iresceir ismoi hinnoid .uiiii unciae. 

Bodl. 572. l 

[fo. 41b.] S [the rest of the line is illegible] 
die surgis." "Surgam etiam: da mihi meum uestimentum 
et postea surgarn." 

U 0stende mihi ubi est uestimentum tuum." 

"Est super pedaneum q. est ad pedes meos vel iuxta te 
posui .... habetur. Da mihi meum dobeum, ut induam me. 
Da mihi ficones meos ut sint in ambulatione circa pedes 

meos. Da mihi baculum meum q ut fiat in 

manu mea." 

"Audite pueri vel scolastici! ite ad fluuium vel ad fontem, 

1 See Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica, xxxix, 1091: Yillemarque , Notices 
des principaux manuscrits des anciens Bretons, Paris 1856, p. 16: Lhuyd, 
ArchcBologia Britannica, 226, 


vel ad p ute urn (/><"^ 1 ), et deportate aquam limpidam ut 
dealauam manus meas et oculos meos et totam facieni meam 
(ham hoi encp) , quia non lauaui ................. ris meis h" 

adhuc hodie" 

"Audi, puer! 2 uade et custodi equos meos vel tuos ..... cv, 
vel in campo , vel in prato (.i. guertlatuT) , vel in crouitorio 
(.i. edolT) 3 , no fures veni ................ os diligenter." 

"Ub ........ pastor .................. et custodiat ones .... 

......... dens facit ..... suis ne lupi [venejrint .......... 

pastor qui custodit ........... ne extranei venerint." 

"Audi puer!" 

"quid uis, domine mi?" 

"uolo ut ut [sic] exeas ad equos meos, et defer nobis 
duos equos, unum mihi et altemm tibi, ut equitamus in 
proximam uillam in qua habetur celea" (.i. ceruisa). 

"Ecce, eduxi equos sicut iusisti, vel dixisti, vel imperasti." 

"bonum est: constringe [fo. 42 a.] maxillas eorum frenis, 
et pone saliuaria in ore eorum, et sterne cos duabus sellis." 
sella (.i. stnitu[r]giiar} [uiro] sambulla autem mulieri pertinet. 

"Audi fili! sede in meum conclauium (.i. spatula) donee 
reuertamus in pace si deus uoluerit, et custodi uestimenta 
mea et aurum et argentum et auricalcum (orubimnit) 4 et 
aes [et] tus et ferrum et stagnum [sic] et plumbum et totam 
pecuniam meam et precipue scolam et bibliothicas libronim 
usque dum p<?rveniam iterum de mea necessitate." 

"faciam domine mi sicut pr^cipisti mihi , et custodiam di- 
ligenter secundum potestatem meam usque dum reuerteris 

"Ubi est abbas huius podi vel princeps huius loci?" 

"ad epulam pe/Texit suum, ad conuiuium, aut ad pran- 
dium vel ad csenam c[u<r proparat[a] est ei in domo unius uiil 
de senioribus loci illius." 

"Quot sunt qui perrexerunt cum eo?" 

1 The three last letters are very doubtful. Cf. the modern jtydeir, Ir. 

* In manu recentiore. 

3 This and the three preceding glosses are omitted by Zeuss. 

4 Zeuss gives cmbimnit. 


"non dificile (heuei[th]) : tota familia monasterii illius se- 
niores et sacerdotes et prespiteri et minimi pueri com omni- 
bus stibiectis, excepto uno coco vel pistore cum portatorio, 
et exceptis pastoribus qui custodiunt greges ouium, capra- 
rum, suum equorumque et omnium armentorum .,. " 

"Lsetificate nunc in aduentu nostro: pr#?parate nobis ci- 
bum ad manducandum , et ponite super mensam, et date 
[leg. state?] ante nos, et implete mensas de omnibus dapi- 
bus, ut sint plenae ante nos." 

"Quse sunt cibaria quae cubis? die tantum nomina quae 
tibi sunt placida.." 

"Non dificile: date nobis panem triticum et ordinatium 
loleum Secalium, spleticum, millicum, butirum, lardum vel 
larda atque lac et colomaticus (.i. bar-r) et iterum cipus (.i. 
cenniri) galmula, lucania (.i. selsic), spumaticum (.i. bloleit). 
Fordalium (.i. lefet), pultum (iot), lacocula (laidver), ca- 
seum, babtuta, (.i. emmeni\ colestrum, ius (.i. iotum)" 

"Audi pincerna! da nobis potum de celea (.i. ceruisa) 
uinum, siccera, medus, mulsum (.i. toacaut), vel melli- 

"A[u]di princeps [fo. 42 b] vel episcope vel doctor aeclesiae!" 

"audio te: quid tu uis hodie? Quse est tua necesitas? 
pro qua causa hue uenisti?" 

"Hsec est necesitas mea: cupio librum legere tecum." 

"quern libmim uis legere?" 

"uolo legere canonicum librum, vel euangelium vel libruni 
gramaticum .i. donaticum.,." 

"Amice, habebis ilium mecum, et docebo tibi secundum 
meam potestatem, et nihil dubium vel obscurum in illo re- 

"Bonum est quod tii dicis si impleueris, quia sufficit mihi 
quod potes. Sed imam rem queso a te, et propter clemen- 
tiam tuam ne me oprimes in obscvris locis vel in dubiis 
dificillimis uerbis : quia scio potentiam tuam, et fortitudinem 
et sagacitatem intellectus tui in lectione, quia non sustinet 
inbicillitas mea, quia rudis sum et infantulus adhuc in lege 
latinitatis, nisi quod dediceris et intellegeris." 

"Gratulor tibi, carissimi [sic] lector, quod cum benigni- 


tate et caritate salutas me. Retribuet tibi deus hie et in 

"Et ego fidus discipulus et humilis films ero secundum 
potestatem meam, si deus uoluerit." 

u Prius mi, quomodo disponitur hoc testimonium, et quis 
t'st sensus eius? deduc mihi hue ut ostendam tibi diligenter, 
nil obscurum erit in illo libro, deo adiuuante, si ante 
meam peruenerit, quia fades sapientis inanil'eslat 
ignota vel obseura. De beneficiis. incipit.,. 

Securis bahell . lignismus (.i. uiidimin)' 1 secularia (.i. 
laitlad) . capsus (.i. ochcul) . pipinnis (dinaut) .i. ascia 
(.i. nedim) . fosarium ( .i. cep) . sartum (.i. rascl) . lapi- 
daria (.i. ccmccid}. scapa (.i. tarater) vel rostrum (.i. fora- 
torium) foratorium (.i. c/ilb) .i. onnpresen.* ungulum (.i. v// ////>) 
.i. rostrum (.i. cpill) vel clauum dolabra (.i. gebel} metallum 
(.i. -mats) vel cloiumn . incudo (.i. enniaii}. malleus (.i. ord). 
seta (.i. inni'thol) . rosarium (.i. louhi) baxus (.i. cremnn^. 
ferruin uoscera (.i. scrr). cultrum (.i. cultir). uomer (.i. suit). 
a rat rum (.i. ara). raster (.i. ocet). iugum (.i. iou'j. buris (.i. 
cilidtt). stij>a (.i. edil) uir[ga]e 3 (gerthi) stimulus (.i. 
artuum (.i. cidtel) .i. cellecll (culter) nouacula (.i. 
forceps (.i. c/uilUhim} .i. gcptio (.i. crat) . graticula (.i. gra- 
tell) sartago (.i. lami). acus (.i. notnid) [fo. 43 a.] calligaris. 
cos .i. ocohiiu. pecten. calcar. laueta. ansa. 4 etansa. ichnllnn. 
cuspis (.i. artitud). 

"Avdi frater! ueni hiic." 

"quid uis? carissime, indica mihi.'' 

"Ego uolo te salutare." 

"Audi, princeps! da mihi potum de li(|uore qui in maim 
tua i-si." 

"Audi pistor vel cocus! da mihi cibum ex colina-tua (vel 
ex cella tua)." 

"Audi frater carissime! ueni iuxta me, et sede in pace." 

1 /enss has uur/ifiun. 
3 Zeuss has onpresen. 

3 Oiuitted by /ouss. 

4 Top margin cut; this and the two preceding words were glossed; 
the gloss on ansa ended with g. 


"Audi uxor pulcherrima ! , ueni hue cito et osculare me, 
et pone manus tua[s] circa collum meum." 

"0 puella optima! da mihi osculum." 

"6 iuuencula! laua uestimenta mea hodie, laua caput- 
meum et faciem simul cum barba;" 

"0 frater! ueni mecum ad meam nescessitatem" 

"non ibo, frater, quia non facile est mihi, quia aliud 
opus ocupauit me." 

"audi amice, noli stare inter me et lucem." 

"Vbi est custos equorum?" 

"ecce. hie ego sum." 

"uade ad equos et defer equum meum meum giluuin .i. 
melin, et pone frenum (.i. fruinn) super caput eius, et sel- 
lam similiter super dorsum eius, et paglum (.i. fruinn}. ca- 
mum (.i. cepister} antella (.i. postoloin) . corbum (cor bum} 
femorale partuncul. bullo .i. Ironnced. appetitorium (.i. gur- 
tharet} uentris lora (.i. torciyel) puluilus . fibula .i. fual (facto) 
corigium .i. corruui. sudaris (.i. guapeli) 1 , sambuca (.i. strotur 
gurehic) et ultia 2 (guopele} quse pertinet mulieri armella (.i. 
armel) glomerariuin (hloimol) cauteriurn compes 3 (.i. fual) de 
ferro factum." 

"A[u]di sacerdos vel prespiter! tinge cimbalum, quia hora 
medium noctis adest vel galli[ci]nium vel gallicantum rl. con- 
tinium vel matituna [sic] vel prima hora vel tertia vel me- 
ridies vel nona vel crepusculum vel uesperum. Eamus ad 
aecletiam, quia oportet nos leuitici vel clerici orare in ea 
deum semper et deprecare." 

"0 frater! quid uis? quicquid queris? quid aspicis? quid 
cupis? quid optas? quid properas? [fo. 43 b.] quid cogitas?" 

ait ille "volo necesitate loqui ad te: quero beneficium .i. 
bin/ic* accipere a te: aspicio homines ambulantes, equites 
equitantes , canes currentes atque latrantes. luuenes ludentes 
et poculas (poculum pro po). Nunc cupio accipere a te, 
quia propero ire in aliam uillam : cogito bonum facere omni- 

1 Zeuss has guapel. 

2 Omitted by Zeuss. 

3 Zeuss has compa. 

4 Omitted by Zeuss. Corn, benfys is from the French or English, 


bus diebus uifce m[e]se, et deum orare semper diebus ac 
ratibus horis.,.'' 

"0 clarissiine princeps! audi nos." 

"aiuliam: dicite quid uobis necesse est."' 

magna est necesitas nostra vel mea, quia pcrigrimis sum 
in [i]sta prouincia, vel in ista patria, vel in [ijsta regione, 
vel in ista insola*' 

ait princeps: "ubi fuisti?" 

"antefui ante ea in Ibernia vel in Britannia vel in Francia 
nulritus vel fotus fui, et reliqui vel deserui vel dimisi totam 
substantiam meam et familiam meam et satilites meos .i. 
caftc/oordj et omne quod habui, et patrem et matrein et auus 
(.i. hcrnlaf) et habita (.i. henmam) et fratres mei, et uxor 
mea, et filia mea, et filii mei, et matertere m[e]ae .i. mo- 
d/rpedy et totos amicos meos, et omne genus ineum vel 
nostrum, et miser factus in ista patria vel regione." 

"Audite mine pontifi ces ! facite nobis elimosinam pro anima 
uostra. Date nobis cibum potum et uestimentum et calcia- 
mentum et postea estendite [leg. ostendite] nobis uiam rec- 
tum que nos ducit ad aliam ciuitatem vel aliam uillain an 
ad sanctam seclesiam sancti Petri .. Tu autem, postquam 
ostenderis nobis uiarn, reuerte in pace ad tuam domum. 

Et obsecro uos, fratres carissimi, quia unam rern peto 
uobis, si perrexeritis sani ad podum sancti Petri .i. ad Uo- 
mam, ut decantatis uestraui orationein in meam commemo- 
rationoin, et ego similiter canam." 

et peiTexeru/zt [fo. 44 a.] ad seclesiam sancti Petri , et dixit 
princeps "domino prespiter! aperi seclesiam ante me quia 
uolo orare illuc." 

et ait prespiter: "ueui, et ego. et ego [sic] aperiam tibi 
seclesiam, quia facile est illam aperire, quia non est sera 
.i. dch'hid . super ualiiam" .i. dor. 

et ait princeps prespitero: "faciamus commercium, ego 
et [t]u de cibo et de potti/' 

"quid uis a me?" 

"da milii cibum [et] panem , et pulpa et ius .i. intum. 
sis .i. si uis, et ego dabo tibi soltum .i. argeutum et aurimi 
et aes et omuia quae tibi ueccessaria erint." 


et ait presbiter: "Deus tibi recldet, et hoc mihi placet, 
et ego dabo tibi propter hoc pocula .i. potuus .i. uinum .i. 
yuin. sicera .i. med. melligratum brachaut. et oleum et lac. 1 ' 

et ait prespitero. "Da mihi benedictionem." 

"benedicat tibi deus pater qui benedixit omnia.,." 

"0 puer! construe lectum meum in dormitatorio , et pone 
super ilium tapiseta .i. cilcet puluinare .i. plumauc. ceruical 
(.i. gubennid). cubile .i. gueli liein .i. saga .i. lenn. staptum 
.i. tits, stratorium .i. cilcet. ,. Concute fenum vel ecute vel 
quasa: adiuua lectum meum vel nostrum diligenter, ut in 
eo dormiam in hac nocte, etiam quacunque nocte, si deus 
uoluerit, et si conseserit mihi." 

"0 uiri! silete, et dormite omnes, et requiescite, quia 
tempus adest [MS. ad. est] doRmiendi, et nolite excitare 
nos uel euigilare de somno." 

et ait prespiter: "ubi est abbas?" et dic[it] pistori [leg. 
pistor] .i. coc. "in suo lectulo perrexit, et mmc dormit in 
tali hora . expectate interim usque excitauerit vel euigilauerit 
de somno.,." 

"Audi puer! surge et fac nobis, et accinge .i. ballenuni 
vel lauacrum, et accipe securim ut ligna secabilis [leg. se- 
caveris] vel abscidas: de ilia accende nobis ignem [vel] 
focum, et construe uelociter, quia fesus vel fatigatus sum 
de labore iteneris [fo. 44 b.] vel ambulationis de itenere lon- 
gissimo et immundissimo, et palu[de]s .i. lichou l et stercora 
.i. halou* in eo habunda[n]t, et molestissimum et psessi- 
mum iter, nisi propter unam rem, quia cumque [leg. qui- 
cunque] perrexit ad domum sancti Petri, et bene uiuat, 
non morietur in geternum. quid est illi bene uiuere? .i. orare 
[sine] intermissione et non in multiloquio [ ] et 

elimosinam dare. Et sciat unusquisque qui pergit ad istarn 
uiam quod non ualde [leg. valet] pridem ei illic ire et iterum 
male uiuere, sed similis est in euangelio quasi canis reuer- 
tens ad uomitum suum." 

1 MS. laichou. The dot under the a indicates omission. Lichou is 
now written llychau. the plural of Ihcch from Lat. lacus. 

3 With halou cf. the modern halawg - Ir. salach gl. sordidus; Fr. sale, 
Ital. saldvo, which Diez brings from Ohg. salo, salawer. 


"Ueni domine ad ballneum vel lauacrum quod tibi prae- 
paratum est." 

at ille ait: "ibo etiam vel utique earn: ueni amice! et 
conde et rade faciem mearn de rasnrio vel de nouacula, et 
caput meum tonde de forfice, quia prolixi sunt cappilli ca- 
pitis mei.,. iilamina vel crines mei." 

"eo vel ibo , domine . acua mihi nouaculam super cotern 
( I uia non est acuta.,. 

iuuenis vel iuvencuhi vel puella vel mulier! ueni cito, 
laua oaput meum de sapuna, [et] elique [leg. eliqua] .i. lac 
diylniiihit, lixam .i. //W// quandiu fuero in ballenio, et postea 
date nobis ignem et stellam et plectrum, stella (.i.) scirenn vel 
plectrum, ut calefaciamus , et interim incende lichinum .i. 
cannuill 1 vel cantela vel teda vel papmum, ut sit lucida 
domus vel edifpciuui]. Donee ignis consurget vel arserit, 
date aquam calidam [vel] limpidam pedibus nostris, lie 
illotis pededibus [sic] dormiamus. Ignem [excude] ex 
ignifero lapide vel ex silice, et exeant alii ut deportent 
ligna: super foco vel super ignem ponant fornilium .i. munu- 
tolau , et g'remium saltim de uicinis locis col- [fo. 45 a.] 
ligent, lampadam accendant, ut fugantur tenebre et ut tota 
domus repleatur lumine.,." 

"Nunc reficiendi tempus adest: surge, divisor, et diuide 
escas .i. cibum vel uictum." 

et ait diuisor "et diuidam etiam si deus uoluerit, neque 
ullus eis erit expers (.i. didaul) .i. sine parte. Sed habebit 
unus quisque suain p/wdam vel climam .i. partem." 

"Surgat pincerna, et pocula nobis ministrat." poculum 
.i. potum vel cupanum. 

"faciam, si deus uoluerit." 

et dicit episcopus: "Fratres mei, nunc saturati [sumus] 
.i. de cibo et de potu , et nunc gratulamur propter nostrum 
cibum", et inceperunt gratias agere deo. 

& ait prespiter: "Domine, iube benedicere." 

Et ait episcopus: "Omnipotens [MS. omps] domiims noster 
Ihesus Cliristus, qni henedixit nos in omni beuedictione spi- 
rit[u]ali, in ca i lestibus ipse beuedicat tibi: l)enedicat deus 

1 MS. lichinum. icamiuill. Omitted by Zei. 


hanc familiam et pri[n]ceps [leg. principem] istius domui, 
qui nos tanta sescarum habundantia clementer p[ar]auit: 
prolongatus [sit] dies eius in prosperis: uitae nullum damp- 
num sentential [sic], prospera omnia reperiat", et hi oranes 
dicunt. "Amen". 

"Benedictus sit minister qui diligenter ministrauit nobis 
quia hilaris .i. guilat et mittis et lenis fuit. reddet illi deus 
hie et in future", et dicunt omnes "amen". 

Et dicit princeps ad suum proposition (.i. mair) "colligite 
fracmenta nequitiam [leg. ne quatiam?] per iucuriam omnia 
vassa seruare debetisque a ministris adsignata uobis. Sunt 
[leg. Nunc] surgant iuuenes, sternant lectula, mollificant stra- 
mina, sagaque uilosa vel dormitatoRia superponant lectulis." 

"Nunc enim tempus adest dormiendi: surgite, [fo. 45 b.] 
uigilate et orate dominion deum coeli : quia ipse est dominus 
deus noster: surgite, amici, et expergescemini de somno 
solito uos: succingite cingula et a mane exeamus uiam: 
uia enim prolixa et dies est breuis . interrogat aliquis 
uestrum per quam uiam ingrediamur, et dicit aliquis: "ego 
sum peritus, uenite post me, quia ego scio uiam in com- 
pendio: non est necesse ut aliquis interrogetur. Haec est 
uia uestra, tamen interrogate si compendiosorem atque rec- 
tiorem inuenietis uiam." 

"6 frater! si peritus es, ostende nobis uiam per quam 
pergere debemus." 

et dicit peritus: "in quanam parte uultis vie?" 

"uolumus ad regis palatiuin, uel ad ciuitatem, uel ad 
podum beati Martini, vel qua ducit Romam." 

et ait peritus: "ite per hanc partem, et decimate ad 
dexteram uiam vel ad sinistram : non fallit uos , sed ducet 
uos usque ad ciuitatem in pace.,. 

"Numquid audistis si sint malificatores sum [leg. sive] 
latrones in nostra uia per quam ibimus?" 

et ille peritus dixit: "non sunt, et perrexeritis ad poduui 
in pace" 

et dicit princeps istius podi "amice, bonus tuus aduentus est." 

"pax tibi, amice, et tibi simili fiat vel uiuas." 

"quo tempore peruenisti ad istam prouinciain, vel pa- 


triam, vel ad istam genelogiam vel ad istam regionem? 
quas fabulas. avdistis quae nos ignoremus vel quedam ad- 
uersa nostis, qu* ab auditoribus relatu nuntiantur?" 

et ille dixit: "nullnm malum fore nouimus, nee contingit 
nobis: nullus [leg. nullas] fabulas audiuimus hodie. Sed 
tamen ut 11011 dixeris nos esse imperiti leuitici, audi- [fo. 
46 a.] uimus aliquos uiros enuntiantes non bene ueraciter 
factum fuisse inter regein Britonum et regeui Saxonum 1 bel- 
luni im'ens, et dedit deus uictoriam Britonibus, ideo quiu 
humiles sunt, necnon et pauperes, et in deo confiderunt, 
et confessi sunt, et corpus Christi acceperimt antequani me- 
tridaticum vel duellum inierimt: Saxones autera superbi sunt, 
et propter superbiam eorum humiliauit eos deus. Quia 
fcecit deus ut dictum est 'deus superbis resistit, humilibus 
autein dat gratiam vel uictoriam: cladis .i. hair magna facta 
est, et de Saxouibus percusi sunt multi, de Britonibus autem 
niri, tamen euassit s<-x et centum illo[rum]. decanus .i. prin- 
ceps .x. uirorum et tribunus .i. princeps duarum uillarum. 
et commes .i. qui dominatur super unam eiuitatem. et dux 
.i. qui dominatur super xii. ciuitates, et patricius qui sedit 
iuxta regem in sede .i. luiikdni, et quando fiunt multi pa- 
trici nominantur . et nullus aliter euassit de sua familia nee 
de suis satilitibus, neque de suis pr<?possitus [sic] pr^poss- 
itus .i. mair . ue illis quia forti fuerunt .i. nutriti quia per 
superbiam caeciderimt, et in duellio .i. in bello omnes peri- 
erunt et regnum dei posside ite [leg. possidere] non uale- 
bunt et Britones euassserunt in pace et dedus [declus?] vel 
obsidis vel assa vel pignus illis cum deduxerunt. Et iterum 
audiuimus uastationes magna et metridatica vel duellia vel 
pugna[s] vel bella consurgere in istis diebus inter Romanes 
et Grecos, et inultas congrvegationesque [sic] unius inter 
eos fieri, in quibus plurimi uiri interfecti esse narrantur, sed 
dedit deus uictoriam Romanis, et quod detenus est audiui- 

1 " Le roi des Bretons dont il est ici question est Rhodri, le dernier 
(jiii porta ce titre; le roi des Saxons est Aethelbert. D'apres les An- 

nales Cambriennes le combat cut lieu eu Cornouailles, en 1'anneo 

722." Villemaniiu 1 ' , Xotice* <fcc., 18. "Rotri rex Brittonuni moritur", 
Annales Cambriae, A.D. 754. 


mus mulieres jugular! , et infantes necari, similique modo 
leuiti .i. clerici, si cut laid, et martyri interimuntur, et gradus 
nullus defendit, etiam si episcopus fuisset. Non est qui non 
uiderit mortem : deus mi- [fo. 46 b.] sereatur illis ! amen." 

et dicit episcopus ad ilium.,. 

"Quomodo fertilitis [sic] frui dlonaid. istius anni habetus 
[leg. habetur] uobiscum in uestris prouinciis?" 

"gratulamur deo, in isto anno data est nobis fertilitas 
niagna .i. frumentum et uinum et lac et oleum et mel ha- 
bundanter. Concessa sunt uniuersis hominibus simili modo: 
si de uiris insignibus prouinci^e nostrse nuper aliquis mor- 
tuum nescimus nee audiuimus, sed sani sunt omnes." 

et episcopus dicit ad principem sacerdotum "an habes la- 
tinam linguam?" 

"etiam vel utique , non tarn bene sapio , quia non multum 
legi, sed tamen fui inter scolasticos, et audiui lectores do- 
centesqwe predicantesque , atque illam mirabiliter die et nocte 
meditantes atque dicentes et obsonium facientes. Unde et 
ego ex illis aliquid quanquam sum paruus ingenio. linguam 
tamen meditatione pauca fona .i. uoces vel uerba recognosco, 
sed etiam haec regulariter respondere non possum. Ignos[c]o 
enim regulas gramaticorum nee [scio] exempla poetarum'' 

et dixit ille clericus ad episcopum "magister aue .i. dn- 
biic yuell, et animaduerte quod canonicus sermo regulis gra- 
maticorum non seruit neque exemplis poetarum/' 

"Amice, nunc illam tibi habunde .i. habundanter effundam, 
quia sicut infans dedicit suam linguam a rnatre .,. Ita et ego 
dedici canonici historian! 


"Tempus est nobis ire de hoc loco in quo fuimus et 
uicina habitacula uisitare in quibus uictum et uestimentum 
assum[s]i[m]us, et postulauimus. Eamus amice, et uicina 
loca uisitemus, ut in ipsis epul[ati]onem et sedem vel maxi- 
nitionem queramus: petite nobis escas curiosa possesores 
pulsate. 6 pueri utrum inueuistis nobis uictum?" at hi 
aiester [leg. "0 magister!] inuenimus etiam vel utique": 
at ille prespiter ait "bene habene [sic] habeat hsec familia 
ad quern exiuistis, quia satis et benigne habundeque tri- 


huit [fo. 47 a.] nobis omnia bona .i. uictum et omnia be- 
neficia: bene habeant leuitici .i. clerici, leuiticus .i. clericus 
istius podi vel monasterii vel loci: bene habeant prespi- 
teri ut nobis ualde dicent: serui subiecti estote, et ite pro- 
pere ad opus uestrum, et facite illud .i. euni assidue vel 

et dicit unus de seruis vel captiuis ad conseruos suos: 
"adiunate [leg. udjuvate] me, conserui mei, de meo opere." 

et hi dicunt: "tii solus fac, quia mercedem accipies per- 
petuo labore, et nos expertes erimus" expers .i. didauL 

"Audi, clarissimus [sic] lector!"' dicit unus ex discipulis, 
"veni et ostende mihi meum accepturium 1 .i. meam lectionem, 
({iiia ego non possum intelligere sine doctore, quia infirmus 
sum in lectione'' 

"ad hu[n]c tuum librum ut uideam quantam fuscationem, 
.i. obscuritatem, habes in illo, et docebo te de omnibus 
gliphis, .i. obscuris, ut pla[cet tibi]. 

(two lines erased) 

in Cott. Vesp. A. XIV (Mus. Brit.) fo. 11 a. 

cof.i. memorie [O.Ir. cuman, Corn, coven in covenek, root MAN]. 
echitrauc [leg. escithrauc] .i. cum dentibus [i. e. dentatus, now 


bradouc .i. insidiosi [now bradawg]. 
coscoruaur .i. magne familie [cf. den coscor gl. cliens Corn. 

hen .i. uettus. 

hai-mb truck .i. truncate barbe [now barf dncch]. 
flu. niger [tr. dubh]. 
tal. frons. 
hijch. bos [Skr. itMan^ Eng. ox~\. 

1 Compare "Libelhim quemdam habes, qni non est major acceplorio 
duarum seplimanaruoi, quern ego legere volo." Ep S. Bonifacii Hognnt. 
Archiepiscopi cited by Ducange s. v. Acceptorius. 



The epithet o/?(u/uog is explained in the Etymologicon 
Magnum, p. 613. 23, as follows, "Oftyiuog: 3 
valog, a7iikr}Tixdg, fivrcrcog. flaya TO BPl e 
(.IOQIOV , (drjhouv TO ayav , ij TO (.leyalwg xai IO%VQLO$,) yl- 
VSTCU f3Qi(.wg' xccl 7ikeovao(,tf> TOV 0, o/?(U/t0g' xai bpQi- 
bg, b (.isyaloig egyoig STiiTittsinevog, xcti ia%vQa dia- 
"Consentit Schol. Oppian. Halieut. I. 360", 
Blomfield adds in his Glossary to JEsch. Sept. c. Theb., 
v. 795. Photius's laconic account of the word is '0/ty^oc: 
io%v()6g. The Scholiasts on Homer almost always interpret 
this term by io%vQog, and in this view the lexicographers 
ancient and modern seem universally to acquiesce. Validus, 
pnevalidus, robustus, strong, mighty, such are the ex- 
planations of Stephanus, Scapula, Hederic, Donnegan, Lid- 
dell and Scott, &c. &c. 

Damm however in his Lexicon Homericum et Pindaricum 
(Duncan's edition) explains the term thus: "fortis, gravis, 
vehemens, stark von kraften, stark von an/all, schwer etiam 
in sensu physico , et est a fiQidsiv, prsefixo o , quod et aliis 
vocibus prsefigitur otiose." The object of the present paper 
is to show that the notion really conveyed by this epithet 
in Homer is that, not of strength, but of WEIGHT IN MOTION, 

I. In the first place the idea conveyed by tbe root BPl 
in other words where it can be clearly distinguished, is 
that of weight, not that of strength. 

1. BQI&VS indisputably signifies "heavy", as a body 
cannot but be which is both //;' xcti GTipaQov, "large 
and dense". For it is, I believe, only in this connexion 
that this epithet occurs in Homer, viz. in II. E. 746, #. 390, 
n. HI, 802, T. 388, and Odyss. a. 100. In all these pas- 
sages the ofipctQov seems to have been intended to indicate 
the compression or density, and therefore weight, of the 
material-, and the pQidv, that of the spear as a whole. The 
notion of weight also is very manifestly contained in (tqi- 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 251 

and fiyiOvvoog, though these are not Homeric 


2. From pQiDvg (or a supposable by-form /ty^oc) comes 
the abstract noun ftQi&oovvrj. In II. e. 839, 

ifn <T 

it is manifestly with the weight of the goddess that the 
oaken axle creaks, and so the Scholiast explains. In //. 
460, it was by virtue of its weight that the huge stone 
hurled by Hector forced its way through the gate of the 
Grecian camp. 

3. Of the verb /ty/'lw the general meaning is apparently 
undisputed: "to be heavy", "to be heavy laden", and so 
on, always conveying the idea of weight either in the literal 
or in the metaphorical sense of the term. The transitive 
is explained in the Etym. Mag. as TO enel&slv fla- 
'EnipQi&co in like manner signifies either literally 
or figuratively to weigh down, to weigh heavily upon, as 
in oV IntflQiafi ding 0/t/fyogj II. e. 91, and fttfaoi* sm- 
ft^loi] Tr.olsftog, II. ??. 343. So also in II. //. 414, the Lycians, 
dreading the reprimand of their chief Sarpedon, pressed 
on the retiring Greeks, 

4. BQiO-og, though not an Homeric word, is another in- 
stance of a derivative from the same root bearing the same 

it J' tan ; uttCov fimtto? % nnoot^ t/ii : 

(Eur. Tro. 1050) is rendered by Mr. Paley, "What is the 
matter? Has she greater weight than before?" Etym. Man. 
has (s. v. ft?/()oc), pQittoc;, TO ftaont:. 

:>. Jioi"~t>) is evidently "to be weighed down with sleep". 
Nor does it, I venture to think, suggest the thought of 
sleep as refreshing "Tired Nature's sweet restorer": but 
of sleep as stupefying, of sleep as torpor induced by fatigue 
or long watching, or free indulgence in the pleasures of 
the table, so wriidiinu; the eyelids down, and steeping the 
"senses in forgetfulness". Thus we see PQILW used in the 
Iliad, where it occurs only in d. 223. 


"Then far from drowsy wouldst thou have seen the godlike 
Agamemnon". In jEsch. Agam. 266, Clytaemnestra says, 

"I would not accept the fancies of a mind overpowered 
by sleep". And so figuratively in Cho. 266, PQI&I /(> 
al(.ia, i. e. "the curse of blood that has hitherto tracked 
my steps, is at last overcome by weariness, and slumbers". 
Lucretius illustrates this word by his "abit in somnum 
gravis", 3. 1079; and xctQ^pctQEw conveys a very similar 
idea, though not precisely the same, as for instance where 
Quintus Smyrnseus, Posth. 6. 266, speaking of Heracles and 
Cerberus, says, 

$sTa JV (jiiv z//o? vibe, vno n^rjyy 


6. Equally clear with the meaning of pQifroavvy in II. 
e. 839, above quoted, is that of /^/^ in the Homeric Hymn 
to Athene, v. 10, 

dttvov VTIO figifj.?! rkKV%(6ni<5o<;' tt[A(f>l Jf yctut 


The goddess had just sprung fully armed from the head of 
Zeus, brandishing a keen-pointed javelin; "and vast Olympus 
trembled beneath the weight of the goddess of the fierce 
blue eyes ; and fearfully all around the land resounded, and 
the sea too heaved tumultuous with its dusky billows". It 
seems strange that Liddell and Scott should give "strength, 
bulk", as the meaning here: doubtless the idea of the 
towering stature of Athene is suggested as a concomitant 
idea by this description, but the result produced is pro- 
duced by virtue not of her strength, but of her weight 1 . 
The Etymol. Mag. explains]: -Y\ iv%vg. But the au- 
thority the anonymous lexicographer proceeds to quote, is 
of late date, and the derivation which he gives, refers the 
noun to pQL&toj which we have above discussed, and to 

1 Compare Apoll. Ehod., Arg. 2. 539, quoted below (on BtiitcQos, p. 278). 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 253 

which he himself elsewhere (s. v. Bytoevg) gives TO 

as equivalent. Under fty/ny he writes (Gaisford's edition), 

nir)Jtt't]<; fiofur) Tin), ixj nu('.zov. 

TO I1PI nfriTioxf fifjuct fini'Od)' o f^"t.).(nv , fin taw 
7/XOJ' VVOUtt nffir}. 

7. Boi^idouat , fioiftoouai , pQifid^w , and pQifjaiva), all 
of which are by some derived from ft>/'w> ma J much more 
naturally be referred to /?(>//</;, and are very easily ex- 
plicable by aid of the familiar phrases PCIQWG yiytiv, fta- 
()<og ccxovetv, and the corresponding Latin idioms graviter 

. yraviter (iccipere, and such like. Of pQifiaivw the 
Etym. Mag. says, naya TO BPI, TO vnb o^r/rjg frtoi'- 

8. The true sense of ($Qiaia, which is used both transi- 
tively and intransitively, is apparently to flourish or in- 
crease, or to cause to flourish or increase. The notion of 
strength no doubt might suit Hes. Op. 5 very well 

tjf'n (.ifv 3'ttu flqttift) of'ce Jf ftnu'fot'ict yd^imti^ 

but is quite out of place in Theog. 447. There the poet is 
speaking of Hecate 

fiovxoMcts T' nyekcri; if xal a fat oh tit irlittj ettytoy, 
no(fj,vas i* elgonoxto* o'/wv, Ou/uno y* tS&tvott, 
t oMy&y poictti) xcu Is. //oAAwf /utioru ttfjztr. 

Nothing can be plainer than that here augmentation and 
fulness is signified. It is the flocks and herds collectively 
that the goddess poidei, i. e. increases, not the individual 
oxen and sheep that she strengthens; the idea being close 
akin to that of the "graves pavonum greges", in Varr. ap. 
Non. 314. 31. 

( ,K To pQidat intrans., if the above explanation is correct, 
fiyvw is very nearly equivalent. See for instance II. (>. 56, 
fyvos pQvei avttei fevxffi , and Aristoph. Nub. 40, fllo$ 
... fiqvutv jucAerrcrrg %ul nQofiaTOtg xai oTeurfvloig, pas- 
sages from which the idea of strength is sufficiently remote. 
And that the root BPY is but another form of BPI, though 
this interchange of vowels is scarcely recognized in the 
dictionaries, may be shown not merely by doubtful etymo- 


logies, such as would connect vne^ialog with 
and -D-laoog with Ovio, but by a comparison of (firvw with 
cpvievco, of TQtfia) with TQICO, of BQi.yeg with Wyvytg, of 
BioavTirog with BvZdv-nov , of Mvtdqvatwv (as on the 
coins) with Mtrvlipauov , and of f'A/; with s^m; and by 
the fact that the pronunciation of t> and i between which 
the modern Greeks make no distinction was so nearly the 
same even at the period of the Persian war. Every one 
remembers the oracle (Her. 8. 96), 

10. And fix$vQ is only one short step more remote; nor 
is there any doubt as to its meaning. But whether the 
identity of the BPI and BAPY is or is not admitted, light 
is thrown on the meaning of the former by comparing 

8 with ftnQVx4cpa'kr>$ , ft$i&vvoog with flapi'&vpbg, 
with Homer's al'vy (le/iaQyfoeG (as well as with 
already alluded to), pQi^nvog with ft&Qiv(p9oyfo$ t 
, (fapvifar^, payvfl()i.ttr t g, &c., as in the Etym. 
Mag. it is explained by pGQVcpcoyog, PCCQV fiowv, and, it 
might be added, by comparing pQia()oy v i() with Homer's 

>; , xca in (tQyvQfy x&tnn n^^Os ^tTott ftttftftcfa'. 

But further consideration of pQiaQog must be postponed for 
the present. 

11. Passing on from the etymology of opgitiog, I would 
next observe that the idea of strength is quite inappropriate 
at least in some passages where this epithet is employed, 
and that in all of them that of weight is perfectly appropriate. 

But first it may be useful to give a list of these passages. 
The following is, I believe, complete. II. y. 357; d. 453, 
529; e. 790, 845; ?;. 251; #. 473; *. 200; A. 347, 435, 456; 
7.294,444,519,521,532; 44,451,498; o. 112; n. 613; 
(). 529; T. 408; v. 259, 267; and Odyss. i. 233, 241, 305. 

1. If then we turn to Odyss. /. 233, we find Ulysses and 
his comrades are awaiting the return of the Cyclops to his 
cave. At last he came, 

'ivn ol noinloomov tl'rj. 

In what sense is this vast faggot of dry wood strong? We 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 255 

have not here the fable of the old man teaching his sons 
that unity is strength. Shall we absurdly take the adjective 
to mean strong in bowing the back of the sturdy giant? 
That the faggot could only be by virtue of its weight. 
Surely the true sense is given by Pope: 

"Near half a forest on his back he bore, 
And cast the ponderous burden at the door." 

2. In Odyss. i. 241 we read 

UVJOQ fm-n* nf}r)%t Ouotov ttf'yni' vipdo* ettfQttC] 

' or* uv roV ;' Jrru xra tfxoa' auct^ni 
, Tt70('<xrx).oi , KTi'orJfo? o/ 

Here again, in what sense is the &VQBOS strong? Is it 
strong as being incapable of being snapped in two? But 
frvQsog is not fioy^oc. Or strong inasmuch as it could not 
be burst through? But the thought of breaking through it 
appears nowhere in the passage. The endeavour would 
have been to remove it, but that it was clearly impossible 
on account of its weight to move "so vast a hill of rock". 
The emphatic position of opQifinv seems to indicate that 
that was the word which the remainder of the sentence was in- 
tended to illustrate; and evidently if any thing is to be 
conveyed away on two and twenty four-wheeled wains, it 
must be its weight that renders the tugging oxen unable to 
stir it. 

3. The epithet is used to describe the same object in 
the third passage from the same book, 1. 305 

Here too it is obviously because of its weight that they 
would not have been able to remove it. It is only in these 
three places that oftQi[to$ is found in the Odyssey, and it 
will be noticed that in them it seems to contain the simple 
notion of weight, not combined with that of rapid motion, 
or indeed of motion at all. We shall find it otherwise 
when we turn to the Iliad. 

4. Here the first passage we will examine is d. 453, where 
we read 

'256 ON THE HOMERIC EPITHET ofl()l[.log, 

MS (T 0/6 ytiunonoi noictfiol xen' OQtOtyt ytoi'it; 
t$ itiayuy/.ttuv ovufiu/.i.tiov O/fflifjQV idtao 
xoovi'uiv % fieyaJLtHtf } ^o/'A^j 'vrooOs 
KOV tit rs rrj^oaf dovnov tv ovntGtv txkue 
w? i<7)V juiff^ojUEfO)? yti'Ero 1(t/fi TS (poftos if. 

Here it is certain that the idea implied is not that of 
strength, that is, firmness of material; and if we substitute 
the idea of force for that of strength, it is manifest that 
the force of the falling water, whether exerted to overcome 
any resistance or to produce a "mighty uproar" like the 
Cataract which Southey celebrates, depends wholly upon 
its weight and velocity. We may translate the epithet by 
"forceful" or "impetuous", or it equally suits the passage 
to render thus : "and as when in winter the torrents flowing 
down from the mountain hurl at once their vast weight of 
waters into the waters-meet, &c." 

5. But the notion of strength and firmness of material 
does seem particularly appropriate when the tough ashen 
spear is the subject of discourse, and o{3()i(.wv syxS ac- 
cordingly is usually rendered in some such way. The 
phrase occurs in II. /. 357, r\. 251, and A. 435 in the line 

J/ (ilv dont(5o$ tjkQ-f yaiivijq ofigiftOV 

Other passages are 

(?. 529. 
xttvov yao tJtidtOctv o^o 

f. 790. danldoq 

A. 456, 

v. 294. 

8C Miiov J" opgifitov y%o$ j to/tv. 
v. 519, |. 451. 

Jtnvfivoto pQttxfovos oflQipov fy%os. 
r. 532. 

i'tfj ovv n^.r t xt y.uot] , hi J" ofin 

tV iv 0<f\)Ci).U~i. 

i~. 498. 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 257 

......... Iv titivfi oaxt* ijlaotv o 

v. 209. 

r. 267. 

But the epithet implies more than mere strength here. In 
one of these places indeed we find the weapon simply 
fetched from the tent, and in another as regarded with 
terror by surrounding enemies, especially as it is in the 
hands of Achilles; but in all the others the "ponderous 
spear" is either thundering on the shield, or forcing its 
way through the tough bull-hide, or holding on its course 
resistless through the pierced flesh; or it has just done its 
work, and the warrior is tearing it again out of the body 
of his wounded foe, or it still sticks in the eye, and with 
the lopped head falls heavily on the ground. 

It need hardly be pointed out that the efficacy of a spear 
as of a bullet sent with a given velocity, depends mainly 
on its weight; and would Homer not know this? Or is it- 
conceivable that the poet who so largely employs epithets 
so varied and appropriate, should nowhere apply to the 
most important missile which he names and constantly re- 
fers to, any epithet expressive of its most important quality? 
(He uses the epithet pyitivc; six times; but it is pointed 
out below that this term is not equivalent to ofoxiiog, and 
that it does not indicate that utility in the missile which 
o'.tfo/iiog appears to me to imply.) By the adjective ^eilivo^ 
he informs his hearers that the spear of his heroes was 
made of ash; by xaAx^tyg, %ri).%en. and xtxoQV&n&os 
(with or without #ax<), that it was headed with bronze; 
by apqtiyuog , apparently, that it was also shod with bronze; 
by oj<v and nSvotis, that it was keen-pointed; by (m/?or(>o, 
that its several parts were firmly put together; by doli- 
xw/x/oi; and /mxpoV, that it was long: why is its weight so 
commonly passed over in silence? 

It may be urged that strength and stoutness of shaft is 
at least of equal importance in a spear. Doubtless: but 
that Homer has not forgotten. The /.*////* *;7s is familial- 


to every reader of the Iliad. And here is a point worth 
noting. If I throw a heavy missile, its weight assists my 
purpose: "heavy" is a laudatory epithet. On the other 
hand , if I walk with a heavy staff, it incommodes and hin- 
ders me: "heavy" expresses dispraise: what I want is not 
weight but strength. We have seen how oftyitinc; is used: 
now let us look at abutting as employed in the same con- 
nexion. In y. 135 we have 

nlno J' ttlxijuov fy%o<; aXa^p^fOV o^f't %).zo~, 
fi?l J' i^i'ca xtiiCi Vfj(; y.ik. 

Nestor doubtless leaned on his stout spear as he marched 
down the line of ships, and we feel that the epithet used 
is quite in its place. But the weapon is not here thrown. 
Turn to I. 43; 

Agamemnon is preparing to go forth to the light, and takes 
two stout spears in his hand. In o. 482 we have the same 
line as if. 135, followed also by /?// c5 J lemi. l\ 338, . 12, 
TT. 139, Odyss. a. 99, o. 550, Q. 4, v. 127, qn. 34, 7. 125, are 
all passages of the same description. If then akxtftot; and 
0jfyi/uo<; both signify strong and are also metrically equiva- 
lent, be it observed can any reason possibly be assigned 
why in such passages as these ofigtiiog is never used, nor 
Ax//(og ever employed when the spear is spoken of as 
actually thrown or as having been thrown? 

6. But again we find o^Qifiog as an epithet of persons; 
of Ares in II. f. 845, r. 444, 521, o. 112, n. 613, and (>. 529; 
of Hector in #. 473, x. 200, L 347, . 44; and of Achilles 
in T. 408. And is not the epithet as significant of weight 
quite appropriate? First mark the more than colossal bulk 
of Ares. 

kma (T t;i 

II. (f>. 407. 

He was doubtless very heavy. Then again Hector was a 
tall man, as is shown by the oft repeated phrase (.te'/ctg 
xoQv9alohog c 'E%WQ', and his breadth of shoulders is speci- 
ally alluded to in II. n. 360, where he is described as 

RY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 259 

Nor was Achilles a little man. 

off a Of f';*', oio'f rf (tfoint yuo Vi 

II w. 630. 

\Vc know in modern times to say nothing of our IKM\\ 
ravalry how the weight of a foot-soldier tells in his favour 
in the charge; nor can it have been otherwise in the earlier 
ages of which Homer sung. 

111. A further argument in favour of rendering o/ty/jiog 
not "strong" but "ponderous" (or "impetuous",) is found 
in the fact that it is never applied to an object which pos- 
sesses Nti-emith without ireiyht, or in which it is evident that 
weight would not be a quality likely to be noted by the 
poet. It has been already shown that a spear when used 
as a staff may be Slxiftovj but is not oflqifiov: let us look 
at a few other cases. 

It would be hard to see why the shoulders of Achilles 
should be described as heavy; but we should be little sur- 
prised to find strength predicated of them. Hence Homer 
does not use O/JQIIIOQ, but fyltiftog. So we can understand 
the head being firmly set on a warrior's brawny neck; but 
to speak of his heavy head would provoke a smile. There- 
fore we find lcp&ln<p xocal t-.ceDqxe yvvtijv (II. y. 336, and 
elsewhere). "0/9(>/,og is not the epithet chosen. In like 
manner QJtflctQQ$, uo(,ofi()t{iog . is a fitting epithet for ///,'*' 
and fi()(t%iot'es. 

If again a warrior hurls a spear, though the weight of 
the spear is important, it avails little that he should be a 
heavy man. Therefore we never find o^Qiuog cdyji^ii^. 
but y.(>c(t()og alxu^itjg. 'ThQ weight of a bo\v is a dis- 
advantage to the archer: its strength merits praise. There- 
fore we meet with no ?'/fyu^o xoSnv in Homer, but 

i(i$oi> f</io xouTtnou Ti)(i')(av uktzovia r/ (<).ayy(;. 

II. &. 279. 

Race-horses should be strong, but not heavy: they are 
therefore not opQifioi, but Agamemnon is willing to give 
to Achilles, with other gifts 

Jcutfcxa innovs 

mayors, #Aoy oooi', oV A9>1( noaolv i<oovro. 

II. /. 124. 


A house or a ship may be strongly-built (flVr^xrog), and 
so a chariot (xoM/yzog or tu nmvxaotievog); a door may 
be firmly put together (nvxtv6g)\ a rope may be strongly 
plaited of thongs of ox-hide (wniexiog)] a breast-plate may 
be strong to protect its wearer (xQaTaiyvaJiog) ; and a shield 
in like manner (which is then otifiapog or xaprspoc,'); fire 
may be resistless to destroy, the Chimera mighty to de- 
fend itself from attack; both love and destiny may be power- 
ful to subdue: but to none of these is the epithet opgmos 
applied. This is readily intelligible if we suppose this ad- 
jective to signify not "strong" but "heavy". 

IV. But again, it may be noticed that we never find 
o/fyi/tog used with any other epithet expressive of weight. 
Accustomed as Homer is to heap epithets on epithets, three, 
four, five together, we nowhere find pQiVvg and o/ty/^og, 
or ftaQvg and ofiQi^iog used together. See for instance II. 
n. 801, where five epithets are used to describe the spear 
of Patroclus, 

flpt&v, /uf'yct, 

Why do we never find oflQifioif z*/%og closing a line, as 
usual, and followed by the favourite phrase, {JQI!>I>, iitya, 
GTiftaQov, at the beginning of the next, as doii%oaxio}> is 
here, and 5A#^ww in some other places? Or why not in 
such a position as alxtuov in Odyss. a. 99, where again 
there are five epithets, besides a relative clause? 

fill-to cT alxifjiQV f'y/o$, uxn/ufror of\ /nlxy 
ftotSi-'t lityrt, OT//5orooi', TOJ dilpvrim on'xai; i\t>($QMV. 

The question is of course satisfactorily answered if it is 
shown that the meanings of opQi(.io$ and pQt&vs are so 
nearly identical, that to substitute o/fyt/tog for a^xi^tog in 
such places would involve a tautology. Bgid-vg is an epithet 
of a spear in at least six passages, and in none of these 
is accompanied by o/?i/tQff. 

V. But it may be asked, if these two adjectives both 
signify "heavy", are they fully equivalent to one another, 
and interchangeable, or is there any distinction between 
them? This distinction seems to exist, that in almost all 


instances where oft()i/.iog is used, the idea of rapid motion 
(as already intimated) as well as of weight is more or less 
distinctly suggested; this not being the case with pQi&ug. 
Boi!)v moreover seems to convey the notion of weight as 
inconvenient and oppressive; oftyiftoc; of weight as aiilimj 
tnit-ftntx an effect that is to be produced. If we find, as in 
II. e. 746, 

we notice that the spear is not here thrown, and the epithet 
suggests, not so much the effect that the weapon would 
have if thrown, as the difficulty, or it might be impossi- 
bility, of a man's carrying it, if the goddess should place 
it in his hands. Where on the contrary the spear is de- 
scribed as having been, being, or being about to be in 
motion , oftQinog is the epithet preferred. 

It may be asked, how does this distinction arise? The 
initial vowel of oftQtuog seems incapable of giving the word 
its distinctive force; can this be derived from the termina- 
tion -i/og? The latter we find also in xvdifiog, 
cuoniog . aly.iiuog, tpaidifiog , v6fj.ifiog 3 TQocpiuoQ, 
Idtodtjitog, yvcjQtf.iog, v^dviiog, ^njtVfiog f vooiifnog, 
Ttooiiing, and many others, besides those that end in -oi t uog 
and -Af,og; and all of these are used bono sensu, most of 
them expressing "capability for the action of the verb" 
(Donaldson), or adaptation to some end. And this is just 
the case with oftQiftog, as above shown. 

If then npQtfiog conveys the idea not merely of weight, 
but usually of weight in motion, and in rapid motion, it 
is obvious how readily it will then pass from its primary 
into its later meanings. Primarily from the combination 
of these two elements of weight and velocity results the 
notion of physical impetus or momentum a notion which 
is probably conveyed in all the above-quoted cases where 
the epithet is applied to a missile, and also in those pas- 
sages where a warrior- some ^t'ulmineiis Miu-stlieus" as 
Virgil would say is seen char-iim ^aovftsvcog, or contem- 
plated as able In rharuv with ureat effect, into the ranks 


of the foe. In such a case as this, "impetuous" is perhaps 
the best rendering for the word as applied- to persons, or 
in some cases "violent"; and "forceful" or "impetuous" 
as applied to a spear. The impetuosity of Ares is indicated 
also by the occasional epithet ftovyog. This word, as de- 
rived from 0-sco, primarily indicates one element in momen- 
tum, as opyifiiog connected with (jQl&a) primarily indicates 
the other; and in their secondary and usual sense these 
adjectives seem to meet, each of them passing from its own 
simple idea to the compound notion which then belongs to 
them in common. Nor was Hector of the glancing helm 
wanting in that swiftness of foot which was essential to im- 
petuosity in light, if at least the term xoyvdaMog implies 
that his plume was now to be seen in one part of the field, 
and now darting off to another. The swiftness of Achilles 
is marked again and again by the well-known phrase nodag 
wxvg *d%Mevg, or the epithet nodwxrjg or nodaQxyg. 

But as in a large number of other words, so there may 
be here a transition of meaning from the physical to the 
metaphysical or moral. This transition effected, our epithet 
would come to indicate the ardour and vehemence with 
which some men seek to gain the objects that they desire. 
This is possibly (but by no means necessarily) the meaning 
of the word in some cases where Homer applies it to 
persons. In such cases it may be still rendered by "im- 
petuous", an adjective which we use not only in the physi- 
cal, but also, and perhaps more commonly, in the moral 
sense. We shall touch on this point again presently when 
naming the compounds of offqmQS which Homer employs. 

But before proceeding to them, let us observe how readily, 
on the supposition that o@Qii.iog implies rapid motion com- 
bined with weight in other words momentum or impetus, 
we can understand its adoption in course of time of its 
later meaning of "strong". But no lengthy explanation is 
needed. Where there is momentum there is force , and the 
distinction between force and strength is very easily lost 
sight of, whether that strength signifies the ability to exert 
force, as it would if predicated of Hector, or the ability 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 263 

to resist force, as when predicated of that which is liable 
to be broken. 

Lastly we can also now understand why o/fyi/tog is never 
used to express some of the meanings of grams where the 
steady pressure of weight is signified. Bapug signifies this, 
as in the common phrase Pamela %dQ, and so in its trans- 
ferred use this adjective is equivalent to "grave", "grievous", 
"oppressive", "stern", as when it is an epithet of 
y.axocrjg, I'gtg, and in many of its compounds, 
for example , which is by no means synonymous with o 

VI. I have already remarked that it is by no means ne- 
cessary to understand opQipog in Homer as signifying im- 
petuous in disposition. This becomes the more evident if 
we notice that both the compounds of opQifiog (there are 
but two) which Homer employs, are expressive of a physi- 
cal property. The words are o^Qi^iosQyog and o^Q^ionaTQij. 
The former occurs in II. e. 403, where Dione, having de- 
scribed to Aphrodite the outrages committed by Heracles 
in wounding with his arrows both Hera and on another oc- 
casion Aides, exclaims: 

Off logniOlV fXTjtif #Ol/ Of "OAfjU770J> f/QVGl. 

And in %. 418, where Priam, unable to endure the sight of 
Hectors body dragged behind the chariot of Achilles, be- 
sought the Trojans to suffer him to go forth as a suppliant 
to the victor. 

Ma a wit* nvtoa TOVTOV T'a#>lo>, ofi 
yv Titos tjiixfrjv M^aafi/ , jjcT 

Now in both these passages the epithet is applied to per- 
sons who were of great bodily stature and weight, well 
capable of deeds of violence, so that the epithet bestowed 
on them may very well signify that they displayed this 
physical quality in their actions. No doubt it is possible 
also that it was against the headlong and violent audacity 
of Heracles that Dione was inveighing, and that Priam re- 
ferred to the impetuous temper of the son of Peleus; but 



"impetuous of deed" seems an ill-chosen epithet to convey 
this sense. 

^OpQinonaTQi'i is an epithet applied to Pallas Athene in 
II. e. 747, #. 391, and Odyss. a. 101, in lines descriptive of 
the spear which she has just grasped: 

Also in Odyss. y. 135 Nestor says of the Achseans, 

And in co. 539, 

%c5 d" tntotv n 

Wherein then does the pfij)i(J.6Tfl of Zeus consist? If the 
term were applied by an enraged Hera, we might suppose 
she referred to some moral quality which excited her dis- 
pleasure; but neither the poet speaking in his proper charac- 
ter, nor the aged Nestor, would be likely to characterize 
the "father alike of gods and men" as headstrong and im- 
petuous of soul; so that we may perhaps conclude and 
the last quotation especially seems to sanction the inference 
that he is here regarded rather as Zsvg TQ7iixtQavvn< : ;, 
as the god of the air, ruler of the lightning and the tempest, 

fiunvonav aitooniiv y.tnc<.vv(Jijf is noviaviv, 

as Pindar says (Pyth. 6. 24). The dread crash of the thun- 
derbolt, and all the fury of the whirlwind and the storm, 
are brought before the mind by Homer's epithet, if the 
view here taken of it is correct; and to the translator this 
becomes one of the most difficult words in all Homer, un- 
less he generalizes it into "daughter of the almighty sire", 
returning to the common rendering of opgtfios, or, which 
seems preferable, uses an expression of narrower significa- 
tion, such as "the Thunderer's daughter". 

VII. It is the meaning of pflgmog as an Homeric epithet 
that it is the main object of this paper to ascertain; but it 
may be worth while briefly to discuss the use of the same 
adjective in later writers. 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 265 

Let us then turn to Hesiod 1 . In Theog. 148 we find the 
three hundred-handed giants designated as neycdol TE xai 
uuflQiiiru, and the epithet may have been intended to con- 
vey the same notion of physical (or moral) impetuosity and 
violence, as in Homer attaches to his Ares and Hector and 
Achilles, or may have alluded to the three hundred pon- 
derous rocks which they could hurl in one volley on the 
Titans; or again the oupQiitni may have been used simply 
in the sense of ia%vQoi. In 1. 839 we read how Zeus 
as Hesiod has it in Sc. Here. 318 axlrj- 
xcd of.ipQif.iov. This is not Homeric: Homer 
never applies the word to mere sound. In Sc. Here. 135 
we have, 

Homer, as we have seen, would have written Ax/oj> e 
where the spear is merely taken in the hand, not thrown. 
In Op. et Di. we are told how Zeus made the brazen race 
of men, 

x jUtJUffl' fciXOX TS xnl o/LtfiQiflOV oiotv 
toy' tLitle cnovoti'itt zed vjoifs xrA. 

Nearly Homeric. Ibid. 619 we have 

tvi* nv UJiij'uxdss o&tvog o/4/?t/40? ' 
(ffvyovacu xiK. 

This very nearly approaches Homer's usage, at least if we 
take aOivns ^Qiwvog to be a parallel expression to the 
familiar ply 'Hgaxtfjos (or c HQaxlrjelfj) , so that opfiQiftov 
will refer not to the abstract oOerog, but to Orion himself. 
-The compounds o^QiftosgyGg, Theog. 996, oupQi^iorr^ro^, 
Theog. 587, and &^Qift60vftos\ Theog. 140, are used much 
as the first two of them arc in Homer; yet the conclusion 
after examining these passages of Hesiod's poems must be 
lhat the epithet we are discussing was beginning to lose 
its original signification. 

1 In treating of the Iliad and <M\ssey, I have cited, I believe, all 
the instances d' oppifAos and its coinpouiuls that are found in thoo 
poeins. Hesiod and later author*, including the- Homeric Hymns, 1 have 
not examined with e^ual care, and cannot promise that the lists, taken 
chiefly from the dictionaries and glossaries, will be complete. 

266 ON THE HOMERIC EPITHET o/tyt/tog, 

As to the compounds, it is worthy of remark that the 
moral impetuosity, the ardour and vehemence of character, 
which is rarely, and perhaps never, signified by o^i^uog 
or its derivatives in Homer, comes out very clearly in the 
o^Qi^i6^ which the later poets use. But the very 
existence of this compound confirms the suspicion that the 
simple epithet without the mention of #U/MO, would not 
convey the idea of a moral quality. 

Coming now to the Homeric Hymns, the author of the 
Batrachomyomachia has kept very close to the precedent 
in the Odyssey in describing the ponderous stone, U&ov 
ofiQig.iov, with which the valiant Crum-snatcher assails Mud- 
treader; though not in his employment of the phrase, a 

y dt re %iQl 

ino yovvmct. 

Batrach. 1. 243. 

So also in 1. 284, 

...... Kanavrja yMitxtaviS) o^()i/noy ciyd^a, 

the epithet may be used in the Homeric sense. But the 
imitation is wholly in sound in the Hymn to Hermes, 1. 519, 

AyL' ft /uoi -[kairjs yt dtuv ptyav OQXOV 6 t u6oorti , 
rj xf</)aA?j vevacts, ^ tnl Zivyoq opQijuov t'Jwp, 

where the opQijuov clearly refers to the dread power of the 
Styx in rendering oaths binding: 

...... TO y.KTfi^ofj.tvov 2ivy6g vdwo, os T6 /ufyioiog 

opxoff, dtivoimog is n&ei /uccxocQfoai &toioi. 

The main feature in this small river is no doubt the lofty 
but slender waterfall again and again distinctly alluded to 
or described by both Homer and Hesiod; but neither is it 
true in fact of these Mavraneria that a great bulk of water 
"thunders impetuous down", nor certainly do these old 
poets so represent the case. The poet therefore has bor- 
rowed the expression but by no means the sense of II. d. 
453. Indeed scarcely any word would imply a lighter, 
gentler, and less impetuous fall than the xaTBifofttifo* of 
the lines just quoted from II. o. 37; if at least we may 
judge from 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 267 

Odyss. f. 152, 

(/ il.tiifehfa xdro) Jwxou* tlfto^.4vr\- 

Soph. Ant. 525. 

Our conclusion then is that the author of this Hymn to 
Hermes mistook the meaning of the term he used, mistook, 
inasmuch as he supposed himself to be writing in pure 
Homeric language. 

But even when a word and especially an obsolescent 
word is losing its original meaning, that meaning will yet 
be retained (at least occasionally) by men of greater learn- 
ing or of more accurate perceptions , and at times acciden- 
tally by others. Thus Tyrtaeus, like the bard who sung of 
Frogs and Mice, copies pretty closely his great exemplar: 
at least we may give him credit for having done so, though 
it is not certain that he did not mean "the strong spear" 
and "deeds of might", instead of "the ponderous (or force- 
ful) spear" and "deeds of impetuous valour". The lines 

de AO</>OJ> Sttvov VTJ^Q 

Fr. 8. 11. 25-28. 

There is similar doubt with regard to Pindar, who writes, 

tUi', w KQQVOV 7?r, os Alivav /'?, 

ITIQV nve/Lioeaoctv lxmoyxftj(ttct TvffMVos o^^ntfiov 

01. 4. 7, ' 
and Uovn ..... uufiotptp ____ 7rA/'o/av, Pyth. 9. 27. 

But there is an incongruity in the notion of rushing pon- 
derous on as connected with Typhon when crushed under 
the roots of ./Etna, or the lion, not making a spring, but 
struggling with the undaunted Gyrene. 

/Eschylus, there can be little doubt, has used oflQipbg in 
the true Homeric sense in Sept. c. Th. 795, where the mes- 
senger seeks to reassure the Chorus of Theban maidens by 
the announcement 


Here Blomfield interprets by "violent". So Blackie: 

The city hath 'scaped the yoke; the insolent boasts 

Of violent men have fallen. 

To render the adjective by "mighty" would be to make it 
a mere "epithet of chalk". 

"Oh! it is excellent 

To have a giant's strength, but it is tyrannous 
To use it like a giant." 

The precise meaning in Agam. 1384 of the language ad- 
dressed by the Chorus to Clytsemnestra 

is not easy to determine. Blackie translates: 

...... "thou shalt be 

From the city of the free 

Thyself a cast-off: justly hated 

With staunch hatred unabated." 

The true sense is probably "object of violent hatred", using 
"violent" in that secondary meaning which seems not to 
belong to Homer's o^Qifiog. 

In those plays of Sophocles which remain to us, ofiQtpog 
does not, I believe, occur. In Euripides we have it in Ion 
213, and Or. 1453. The former passage is: 

XO. '. ii yuQ; xeQavvlv 

dfA(f>7ivQOV opoiftov Iv 

XO. ??'. OQhj v.t\. 

Here at the first glance one might say that the poet had 
applied the epithet as Homer might have done, if we have 
rightly interpreted his fytym&TidTQr] } and that the thunder- 
bolt of Zeus might well be described as "forceful" or "im- 
petuous". But here the chorus are gazing on the sculptures 
or paintings of the proscenium, which is supposed to re- 
present the temple at Delphi, and among them they behold 
the majestic form of Zeus, not however hurling the dread 
bolt, but simply holding it in his hand. It is not therefore 
opQmos in the Homeric sense, whatever the tragedian meant 
by the word. So in the Orestes, 


VJWtt f.lC(TQ, 

oft of LI n , it ^ of (i , XT). . , 

we may safely render, "0 mighty, mighty mother, Idaean 
mother!" Not Homeric. 

Let us now turn to the later epic poets. In some of 
these Apollonius Rhodius, Musaeus, Coluthus, and others 
n^()i(.iog, so far as I can iind, does not occur; but at 
least Quintus Smyrn<eus has done something to make amends 
to the neglected epithet for this unworthy treatment. It is 
a great favourite with him. In the Posthomerica, book VI, 
lines 208 seqq. our adjective comes four times in 45 lines, 
and elsewhere three times in eleven lines. It is curious 
however to notice how different this opQijuog is from Homers. 
Not only is it applied to heroes to whom Homer has not 
judged it suitable Antilochus, Neoptolemus, Memnon, Eu- 
neus, Ajax Oileus, and the Atreidje Quintus bestows it on 
all the Achaeans. He does so too in places where, if we 
understand the word aright, the effect of its employment 
is sufficiently ludicrous. The Greeks are o/jfptpot when 
merry-making in their tents: 

ot iv V l 


Posth. 2. 3. 

They are O^QILLOL when they wail in chorus over the dead 
body of Antilochus: fnif lany^vanvio Tintj' yotJii' EMrjOTioviQV) 

A' nyi'vutrof TtfQi J* tarevov oftgifidt viig 

ib. 3. 5. 

Nay, they will be oftQifiot if even they display their dis 
cretion rather than their valour: 

vl'i' J' o'/tti (j ti'i;to!}i \-f^ 

ib. 4. 28. 

g r/;o is a phrase unknown to Homer, but common 
in Quintus; so are o/fyi/tog 

rlt(, opQtfiOV /''>(>, e.g., 

I f/tv i' itu J^Tof, tnit on ol < ton 

rnii.i7tc(V it]v iaqviQr. ib. 7. 584. 


g occurs, but Quintus has no hesitation about 
using this phrase not of the personal Ares , but in a trans- 
ferred sense , much as Pliny writes "terribili Marte ululare". 
His words are, Posth. 1. 343, 

ofiqtfAov tv aitovoiaiv uvunviCovrts "dorja. 

The wooden horse is opQmog in Posth. 12. 443, and again 
in Tryphiodorus's Capture of Troy, v. 384, but neither in 
these passages nor anywhere else is this huge machine 
imagined as being put, or as capable of being put into 
rapid motion. "O^Qi^iov syxS occurs once, Posth. 2. 258, 

Tuijjev i>7T6n /un^oTo' (T/j^afff J" ofiniinov 

but this is noticeable as the only passage throughout the 
fourteen books of the Posthomerica, where the minor Smyr- 
nsean bard has strictly followed the precedent of his great 
exemplar. But again, Quintus further defines this epithet 
at times by the addition of al^v (6. 253), or uses it in 
agreement with Ax/J (14. 86) ; in each case departing from 
Homeric usage. Homer also never uses o/% ( og as a pre- 
dicate: it is so employed by Quintus, 

ujg ol laav noMoC ie xal opQipoi. Posth. 2. 200. 

And lastly, Homer almost everywhere puts opqmog in the 
fifth foot: once only (Odyss. i. 241) it is in the first place, 
and once (Odyss. i. 305) in the fourth. Quintus often puts 
it in the fourth place, and still more frequently in the 

I care not to discuss minutely in what sense Quintus 
Smyrnseus used the epithet under consideration. The general 
idea conveyed is obviously that of strength ; but the numerous 
points of difference above pointed out between his usage 
and Homer's are, to say the least, perfectly consistent with 
the supposition that he and Homer used one and the same 
word with different meanings. Other late writers, as Tzetzes 
with his Tihqyrjv oftQii-ioeaoav , and Antipater, who writes 

oftgifiov axapatov au'/ov tuvtavv 'Avupnxoio, 

we may pass over without further comment. 

VIII. It may indeed be objected that these later poets, 
men not only of cultivated taste, but of learning, were not 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 271 

likely to have been ignorant of the true meaning of Homer's 
language. But even the old grammarians recognized the 
fact that some words were used differently in Homer and 
in the later writers ; and Buttmann, Maiden, and others have 
shown this to be the case with more. Instances are ayi- 
Qco^og, ciQxiog, tieovdrfg, nQo&e^v^vog , and I will venture 
to add a few besides. 

Jivr>ig, according to the analogy of other adjectives in 
-/g derived from nouns, signifies in Homer "abounding in 
eddies", and is an epithet only of rivers : it does not signify 
that the thing itself so described, eddies or revolves. Quintus 
Smyrnaeus makes it an epithet of the slow- turning axle of 
a waggon: 

fi^Sti itTQiyuTctv vn' ftovi Siv^vit. Posth. 6. 109. 

In like manner, 

...... T^JVXTO Jf 1ll()ttt TinVtU 

OTiTiooct divritvict xca* OVQUVQV dtKf'Uf.tyovim. Posth. 5. 10. 

In Mosch. 2. 55 the same adjective signifies "rounded". 

'OxQiotig too, "rugged", is applied by Homer to a large 
stone or mass of rock covered with sharp points: Quintus 
uses it most inappropriately of a spear. 

iov J' '(> Alqoioftjs yi'' fy/t'i oxytofvit 

Posth. 6. 553. 

, "unscathed", "uninjured", is in Homer used 
only of persons. In Apollonius Rhodius it is connected 
with voorog, "a safe return": 

------ ft J' iii' ontaao) 

yaTav lg Alpovlriv c\oxt]0^ct voaiov OTjiiaai]. Argon. 2. 690. 

^Qj]g in Homer, besides being a personal name, is used 
as an abstract noun for "war" and "battle", but it does 
not assume fully the character of a common noun, nor is 
it therefore ever used in the plural. But in the Ante- 
homerica of John Tzetzes we read (v. 25), 

ttQtttf cttuctiotvias tn ' AAi;Ao/ff TjQoqtnovocu. 

Tzetzes also uses a?a??of as an epithet of snow; speaks 
of the yvoQtrj of the valiant Penthesileia 

ie xtcl 


Posth. 203; makes aTiraMw intransitive, in the sense of 
"grow up"; and so on. 

But to return to writers more worthy of notice. In Homer, 
though commonly explained by nobilis , xaia ytvo$ 
and so on, appears rather to mean "free from re- 
proach", and especially "free from personal blemish", "hand- 
some", "beautiful", as in the lines , II. /?. 674 , 

NiQEvg, oq xi'dkiajos y/}o VTIO "fkiov 
Ttoi' /J.wj> davctMV /Ltii* af.iv/uoyct 

And again 

NctvfioMdriq #', of liotoros tr\v tidos it 

nnviLov <l>aiii%a)V ,w6i' ajuvjuovcc ^4ctodc([.icti>Ta. Odyss. 0. 117. 

So personal beauty is predicated of Glaucus, Teucer, Bel- 
lerophon (to whom the gods had given xaAAog TS xal rp>o- 
ytrjv tQctTsivijv , II. . 156), Menelaus, ^gisthus, &c. ; also 
of Andromache, Penelope, and Nausicaa; and, in the boast- 
ful language of Alcinous, of all the Phseacians. L^ui'/<wi> 
indeed appears in Homer to be equivalent to Hesiod's tldog 
a(.iio(.ioq (Theog. 259), or, with yvvri, to af-tw^iog in the 
lines by Musaeus the grammarian in his truly beautiful little 
poem on Hero and Leander, v. 92 seq., 

xa/Uoff yctQ ndQinvorov cl^ico/u^Toio yvvatxbs 
6%vitoov jiieoontaoi nfktt 7iio6ti>TO$ o'ioiov. 

But the epithet is not limited to persons. "We came to a 
beautiful island", says Ulysses, Odyss. f.t. 261, eg a^ivfiova 
vrjaov. So Menelaus pleads for desisting from war, for "of 
every thing there may be satiety of sleep, and love, of 
music 'with its voluptuous swell', and of the graceful dance", 
afivf-iovo^ oQ%rft[.ioio , II. r. 637. Seven women "skilled in 
working beautiful embroidery", &ftvfiova egya IdvlaL, ac- 
company the fair-cheeked Briseis when she is brought back 
to Achilles. So the ulyav xai aftvf-tova tvpftov (xeua^er^ 
Odyss. w. 80, signifies probably, as rendered by Damm, 
"monumentum sepulcrale magnum et pulchrum". In many 
instances perhaps apvptav signifies "blameless", "irreproach- 
able", a(.uo(.ii]Tog xai qifjoyog,, as it is in the Etym. Magnum 
in other respects than that of personal beauty, as when 
this epithet is applied to a priest as Calchas, 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 273')v , or a physician as Machaon, a^vficav IrjriJQ, and in 
such a passage as Odyss. T. 332, 

of J" *<v ufivfiotv (ivtos ttj u/Liufiova t'J/J, 

(though possibly we might rightly render this, "He that 
both handsome is and handsome does"); but when the 
epithet is coupled with another which clearly implies a 
physical characteristic, the afii^uuv too comes most probably 
under the same category. This is the case in the oft-re- 
peated phrase caivnova ve XQ(XTQOV re. To take the first 
adjective as "noble", and the second as "strong", "robust", 
"athletic", would be a syllepsis better suited to the style 
of Tacitus than that of Homer. If Thetis mourns that she 
will soon lose her "high-born" son what epithet can be 
feebler and more jejune? But if a Greek poet represents 
her as grieving over a son "stalwart and beautiful", we feel 
this to be appropriate and forcible, and know it to be con- 
sonant with the prevailing sentiment of the Greek nation. 
-Now compare Quintus, when he makes Ulysses entreat 
the Grecian chiefs 

rvi* uot lt).Jou{v(> L ) tlXfiyQUii oi'ut'ti tare 
txnayltoz xormpoi xcu KfiVfiOVfS, Posth. 12. 222. 

Comment is unnecessary. 

1^7>t;0 too, in the scholia and dictionaries is usually ex- 
plained to mean "noble"; but the sense to which the ety- 
mology points, if the word is indeed connected with ;Wc>, 
rarm/c. ;'/;.'Aiw, Sanskr. garw, Lat. yaudeo, Engl. gay, &c., 
will suit every passage where the epithet occurs. Indeed 
in many instances "blithe", "light-hearted", "cheerful", 
shading off into "dauntless", will be found to be a far more 
appropriate rendering than "high-born" or "illustrious". 
Why for instance should the nameless attendants on Achilles 
(II. T. 281) be described as "high-born"? Why are the 
equally unnamed heralds in II. 7. 208 "high-born"? No doubt 
many of the chiefs to whom the epithet is applied, were 
of most illustrious descent, as Achilles, Tydeus, Telainon, 
Idoineneus, Nestor, and the suitors of Penelope; but it is 
strange to read of Nolens as the "highest-born of living 
men" ayctv6i;aio$ ^woviuv. Nor less strange is it to find 


a whole nation styled "high-born", as the Trojans, II. ?/. 
386, the Phsenicians, Odyss. v. 272, the Phseacians, Odyss. 
v. 304 ; and even the wild hordes of the mare-milking Scy- 
thians bear the name dyavwv I l7i7i^ioly(jjv. That gaiety and 
vivacity should be a national characteristic is far less sur- 
prising. And why of all the gods and goddesses of Olympus 
or the lower world should Persephone alone be "high-born" ? 
Surely the merry days of her maidenhood when she gathered 
flowers with Artemis and Athene the legend was not ne- 
cessarily unknown to Homer because he has not mentioned 
it in his poems are alluded to in the expression ayavt] 
n()0rpovict' unless indeed we would take this to be a 
euphemistic appellation for the queen of the dead, of the 
same class with the name Eumenides. If this view then of 
the meaning of ayavos is correct, we have another example 
of the original sense of Homeric epithets being lost sight 
of in course of time; for a warrior after he has fallen in 
battle can scarcely be "light-hearted" and "blithe". Quintus 
Smyrnseus writes, 

M' ouJ' o)f a^uf'Ajjtff JfJofTZ&'rof dv<$Q6<; ilyavov. 

Posth. 6. 439. 

And in Posth. 5. 311 the comparative, never used by Homer, 
appears in the sense simply of superior. Ulysses compares 
himself with Ajax, and claims to be 

r\ XK\ 

Again it is well known that xdiiva was used by Homer 
in the sense of "to make by hard toil" ; e. g. 

Zci)fia IE xcu /UTQI], ii]V ^Ax^ff zdjuov itvdQfg, II. $. 187, 
AvictQ tntl Jiuvd* D/rAtt xlvros 'Au(ptyvr)ei<;. II. G. 613. 

And many more instances might be cited. But the word 
lost this meaning after Homer's time, though destined to 
regain it in part (namely without the idea of hard toil) in 
the language of the modern Greeks. 

1 If this suggestion as to the true meaning of dyavos is disapproved, 
I have no wish to throw off the responsibility for the error; but if it 
meets approval, the credit is, I believe, due to the instructive lectures 
of my friend and former tutor, Professor Maiden. Colonel Mure renders 
this adjective by "magnificent", Vol.1, p. 511. 

BY R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M. A. 275 

It can scarcely have been from mere caprice that Homer 
never used %Qaiaiieio except in negative, or virtually nega- 
tive, sentences. It is difficult, perhaps impossible, to de- 
fine the precise shade of meaning which this verb bore, 
and to which this restriction in its use must be ascribed; 
but a real, though slight, modification of meaning is evident 
when the restriction is disregarded, as in xai (> 
Zsv$ %( i ai , Qu. Sm., Posth. 10. 41. 

And lastly, as the true meaning of ofiqinog (Md 
QO^) was lost sight of by the later epics, so even 
though not a word in Homer has a plainer meaning, is not 
always "heavy" in Quintus. In Posth. 3. 540, Athene, 
mourning over the dead body of Achilles, bedews it with 
ambrosia, so that it appears to live again; the eye once 
more gleams and the brow contracts as with rage for his 
friend Patroclus slain; 

fiqi&vi&QW t)' ttQct y-rjxe Jf'uftf xcu uouov tth'n!)i. 

That the goddess should make the body seem "heavier" is 
wholly inconsistent with the notion of her imparting to it 
the semblance of life: the meaning clearly is that she en- 
dowed it so it appeared with greater strength and vigour 
than the awe-struck Myrmidous had ever seen even the 
living Achilles display. 

But such changes of signification in some of the words 
used by Homer will not be deemed surprising by any one 
who reflects on the numerous examples of like change which 
our own language supplies. Take, for instance, these few 
throw j buxom, knight , honest , uncouth, treacle, nice, craft; 
no one of which is now used by us in the sense it bore 
800 or it may be 200 years ago. But it is unnecessary to 
enlarge on this point, or to adduce further arguments to 
prove it possible that the idea conveyed by opgiiiog was 
that of strength five hundred years after Christ, or indeed, 
five hundred years before Christ, while 300 or 400 years 
earlier still, it may have been that of weight in motion, and 
imf^.tus, passing into that of physical (and thence perhaps 
into that of moral) impetuosity, and violence. 



Some of the arguments that have been employed in the 
preceding article in the attempt to determine the true mean- 
ing of o(t()i[io(; will equally avail towards ascertaining that 
of pQiaQog. This adjective too is commonly explained as 
equivalent to IOXVQOS, "strong", "mighty". In the Etymol. 
Magnum we read as follows, BQICCQOS: ( ia%vQog- xcd 
@QiaoLOTQog. TlaQcc TI]V ftiav , /SictQog* xai nheo 
TOV P, ftQictQog' I'vfrev Boiaoewg , o exaToy%i()og 
*H TraQa TO PQUO , f/)' ov xal polda) xai ft(n3og, TO ftdoog. 
The former remarkable derivation need not detain us. As 
to the meaning assigned, it agrees with the old Scholia on 
Homer, and is accepted by the modern lexicographers al- 
most without exception. Liddell and Scott give "strong". 
Yet, as shown in dealing with HpQiftog, the prevailing idea 
in all the derivatives and compounds of BPI is that, not 
of strength, but of weight. The object of the present brief 
paper is to show that the true meaning of this word is 
"heavy", "ponderous", but without the accessory idea of 
motion. Damm is not far wrong in rendering it by "gravis, 
ponderosus, firmus, robustus", and therefore making the 
(XOQV&O) ftQictQVjV = lo%VQav xal fiaoelav. 

The passages in which pQiaQoo, occurs in Homer are the 
following: II. L 375; n. 413, 579; a. 610; T. 381; v. 162; 
and 7. 112; in all of which it is an epithet of a helmet. 
In the Odyssey the word is not found. 

In the first of the passages named , while Paris is aiming 
an arrow atDiomed, the latter is engaged in stripping the 
slain Agastrophus of his high-wrought cuirass, his shield, 
and his xoyvda (JQiaQfo. The Scholiast of course explains 
by loyvQav. But it is by no means easy to discern any 
satisfactory reason for giving up the meaning to which the 
etymology so evidently points, in favour of one so little 
appropriate. If the helmet was "heavy", the victorious 
warrior had the greater difficulty in possessing himself of 
the spoil, with which he was about to proceed encumbered 


to his tent. But to call it "strong", adds sound, not sense, 
to the passage. If Diomed were in the act of striking with 
his sword, or hurling his opQipov t;'/og at the head of his 
foe, and the helmet withstood the blow, to call it strong 
would be most fitting; or if it had already rendered its 
owner that service. But Agastrophus is prostrate on the 
ground, and his mortal wound was in the hip. 

And strangely inappropriate is "strong"' as descriptive, 
in the second passage, of the helmet of Eurylaus, which 
when struck by a huge stone from the hand of Patroclus, 
was not strong enough to protect its wearer from the force 
of the blow. 

Intoavptvov fic'de 
77 <?' avdt%a naoct 
ir v.oou&i POIKO?!. II. -n. 413. 

And the same may be said of the next place where the 
word is found (jr. 579), where the blow struck and the 
effect produced are precisely similar. 

When Hephaestus makes a new helmet for Achilles, and 
it is described (a. 610) as XOQV&CC pQiaQr'v, it is impossible 
to say for certain, as from this passage alone, whether the 
idea of weight or of strength was intended to be conveyed. 
But when we find him (r. 381) lifting his helmet to place 
it on his head, an added epithet would more naturally 
signify weight: 

7I(H J IQVlfClktlKV (tt(()Cl$ 

xocai ftfTO /JomojjV. 

The sixth passage where PQUXQOS occurs is r. H'.-J. where 
./Eneas is described as coming to meet Achilles 
and the seventh is 7. 112, 

xal y.uovQa fioinoyv, Jdou J^ nobs iii/0* 

and so on; in both of which the epithet, if significant of 
weight, is particularly forcible; if significant of strength, 
not at all so. In the former passage the thought suggested 
is that the hero seems to nod from the very pressure of 
the ponderous casque ; in the latter, the relief that the weary 
Hector would find in laying aside his arms. 


The less stress can be laid on the argument that this 
epithet is applied to none but heavy objects, inasmuch as 
it is applied, as we have seen, to helmets only. Nor may 
we here, as in dealing with r>'/?(w/<o, insist much on the 
fact that pQiaQog is never found accompanied by other ad- 
jectives significant of weight, as there is but one passage, 
a. 610, where it is accompanied by any other epithets. To 
this extent however the argument holds good. The lines 

iti'% 3s oi y.uQvOa /?(>/ojjr, X07'r/>o/ PtQaQvTnv , 
jfA?}r, daiduktriv Inl Jf yovaiov kdyov fjxs. 

Of later epics, Apollonius Rhodius, in the only passage 
(I believe) in which he has the word, has used it evidently 
in the sense of "heavy". He is speaking of Athene: 

CtVllXK J' tffOVft^VtOf Vt(f>A.rjS $7Jt{3{iaK TlodfGOt 
XOV(ft]g, t] X (f^QQl (JIV CCffCCQ, fi(HCtOr]V 7760 tovOCCV, 

Of VKT' iptv noviordf. Argon. 2. 539. 

The lines much resemble those quoted above (on "Ojfyi/<og, 
p. 252) from the Homeric Hymn to Athene, v. 10; and the 
opposition implied by the particle TCSQ makes it additionally 
clear that the true sense is "mounting the light misty cloud, 
which, vast as was her weight, at once upbore her, &c." 

Coluthus employs this epithet once in the Rape of Helen, 
where he most probably meant "heavy": 

xctl fi()ictQr]V TQicptt^dav ano XQOTCKfOto [Jt&itact 

is ya^ov w/jdQjrjae yd/mov adiJaxTOs 'jt&yvij* v. 32. 

In the Posthomerica of Quintus Smyrnseus, flgiaQog oc- 
curs occasionally, and in some passages it clearly bears the 
later meaning of "strong"; for instance, 

QictQOiaiv Korjnoios ctf-Hfl /utfaaaiv, (2.465), 
TOV J' andrfQfttv ofuws Joot xdnnEns JUCCXQCI) 
v ano fiQictpoTo xtxofJtfiivri aogi ^vygia 

x*tg, (ii. 71), 

and nooaiv vno pQiotQolaiv (12. 425). In other places, as 
1. 225, 5. Ill, 7. 598, 617, 14. 453, the meaning is doubtful. 



The Morte Arthur , as edited by (or for) Thomas Ponton 
for the Roxburghe Club, being one of the poems that I 
have undertaken to read for the Society's Dictionary, I 
have availed myself of a recent visit to London to compare 
the printed copy of this poem with the original MS. in the 
British Museum, Harl. 2252. The comparison was very 
cursory, but some of the results may be worth noting, for 
the benefit of other Members of our Society who may 
possess the printed poem. 9 

Ponton's remark that he has given the text "without an 
attempt at any other correction than punctuation," must 
not be taken to imply that there is a punctuation, though 
faulty, in the MS., for there are in fact no stops whatever 
in the MS. from beginning to end. 

The confusion, throughout the printed text, of p with y, 
is probably owing to a difficulty in procuring suitable type. 
It is however much to be regretted. Even the facsimile 
given by Ponton exhibits the distinction between these let- 
ters which is everywhere observed in Old English Manuscripts, 
and in this one among the rest , that the first stroke of the 
body of the letter is prolonged to form the />, this tail 
curving to the left; and the second, with a curve off to the 
riylit, to form the y. 

Of other misprints it will be satisfactory to know that 
there is but a small number, and most of them of little im- 
portance. On p. 3, 1. 22, for "where riche atyre" read 
"there riche atyre". P. 9, 1. 25, for "be syde hym came" 
read "be syde hym come". The u and v are occasionally 
confounded, and in some instances the printer has put y 
forp, as "ylay" (p. 26, last line) for "play"; "shaye" 
(p. 42, fourth line from the bottom) for "shape"; p. 89, 
"yassyd" for "passyd"; and p. 117, "hoyyd" for "hopyd". 
P. -21), 1. 26, for "triache" read "triacle". P. 37, last line 
but one, for "which" read "whith" = with. P. 47, last line 
but one, for "wyiste" read "wyste". P. 48, 1. 2, for "hymd" 



read "hym". P. 50, last line but two , for "Za" read "3>a". 
P. 60, 1. 24, 

A yenste hym nas stronge to holde, 

for "nas" read "was", to. the great improvement of the 
sense. P. 69, sixth line from the bottom, for "Zenyth" 
read "Seuyth". P. 85, seventh line from the bottom, for 
"ouer" read "euer". P. 91, 1. 12, 

Than \vylle A pve w fc myght and mayne, 

for "A" read "I" >. P. 97, for "flooe" read "flood". P. 102, 
1. 18, for "M 1 " which looks so temptingly like the A.S. 
mid and the German mitwe have in the MS. itself "W 1 ". 
P. 109, 1.8, in "nyghtV the MS. knows nothing of the 

To these must be added one passage where there is per- 
haps room to doubt whether the editor is right or wrong. 
In p. 53, 1. 20, we read 

And sythen and hym nod by stode, 

Many a lande wolde w l hym holde. 

That is: "and moreover, if need pressed on him &c." If 
"nod" is here the true reading, we have in it a form very 
closely resembling the German noth; and the interchange 
of o and e is again exhibited in the German roth as com- 
pared with the English red (which in Old English had the 
vowel long, commonly rhyming with such words as need\ 
as well as in reed. Germ, rohr, greve = grove, smete smote, fleet 
= float, &c. But in the MS. these two letters are made 
much alike; and as the writer at first omitted the word, 
and then inserted it between the lines in small and indistinct 
characters, one can hardly affirm positively which vowel it 
exhibits. My own belief is that ned was the word intended 
(with the e long), as in p. 64 also we have "whan hem 
nede by stode". At least the existence of such a form as 
nod = need , requires to be established by further evidence. 
Of places where there is clearly an error in the text, 
but where the fault lies with the scribe and not with the 
printer, there is a great number. Such are "chidis play" 

1 I unfortunately omitted to note where in "pve" the MS. had not 
the tail of the p crossed (P). 


for "childis play", p. 1 1 ; "I dighte" repeated, p. 33, where 
most probably the latter should be "Aplight"; "thought tha 
he be" for "though that he be", p. 46; "knytht" for "knyght", 
p. 48; "lemyn", p. 107, 

They lemyd lyght As Any lemyn, 

to rhyme with "neuyn", "seuyn", and "heuyn", where the 
rhyme and the sense alike demand " leuyn " = levin , light- 
ning; in p. 116 also 

They lemyd lyght as Any leme, 

where the rhymes are the same as in the stanza last quoted; 
p. 119, "beche" for "beseche"; and very numerous other 
passages which readily admit of conjectural, and in most 
instances certain, emendation. 


In a paper on Sister families of languages published by 
Dr. Lottner in a late No. of our Transactions (Pt. I. 1860) 
he alludes to the supposition of a family relationship be- 
tween the Finnish and Arian classes of language, and as- 
serts very confidently that "except the numerous early loans, 
which are what we must expect among neighbouring nations, 
both grammar and dictionary are altogether different" in 
the two classes. By what test he tries the question, fre- 
quently a very thorny one , whether a form common to two 
classes of language is directly borrowed by one of them, 
or whether it may be part of a common inheritance, he 
does not inform us, but he seems to be mainly led by the 
a priori conviction that where the early^numerals are wholly 
different, there can be no radical identity in the body of 
the language. Now it is certainly not easy to imagine how 
an entire difference of numerals could arise among tribes 
descended from a common stock, in which the gift of speech 
was so fully developed as to leave traces of common forms 


clearly to be recognised in each of the descendants; but 
surely the early history of language is a subject on which 
we are far too ignorant to allow us to lay down any posi- 
tive canons as to the limits of possible divergence. We 
must keep our mind open to the light through whatever 
cracks it may shine upon us, and try the question of a 
common descent by the intrinsic probabilities of the case 
to which the evidence applies, irrespective of the difficulties 
arising in other classes of phenomena. 

In arguing with Dr. Lottner a preliminary difficulty oc- 
curs to persons who, like myself, believe that all words 
originally sprung from the attempt to represent natural 
sounds. Now Dr. Lottner seems to hold that as natural 
sounds are everywhere the same , the resemblance of words 
in different languages framed in imitation of those sounds 
can afford no argument for the family relation of the lan- 
guages in which they appear. He accordingly rejects in a 
summary manner the evidence of every word tainted with 
a suspicion of onomatopeia, and practically rules that the 
question is one which those who believe in the imitative 
origin of language, are, by the very nature of their belief, 
precluded from examining. He fails to observe that the 
same objection would apply, whatever be the principle in 
which language is supposed to have originated, short of a 
miraculous gift of the Creator. So long as language is 
supposed to arise from natural causes in the mental and 
physical constitution of man, it must be a not improbable 
supposition, that the same causes acting on a like nature 
should occasionally give rise to words which , although really 
formed independant of each other, might have the same 
kind of resemblance as if descended from a common stock. 
So long therefore as the natural origin of language is ad- 
mitted, however vague may be our conception of the prin- 
ciples in which it has taken its birth, the same reasons 
which render it impossible (in Dr. Lottner' s opinion) to 
argue for the family relationship of languages from the re- 
semblance of any forms in which we can detect an imitative 
origin, would apply with equal force to cases where we 


have no specific theory for the derivation of the resembling 
forms , and the question would be wholly removed from all 
possibility of elucidation by intrinsic evidence. In like 
manner the principle of Dr. Lottner would remove a large 
share of grammar from the field of possible comparison. 
Being convinced, from an extensive survey of language, 
that the widespread use of M and T as the radicals of the 
pronouns of the first and second persons respectively arises 
from causes common to the race of man, he pays little at- 
tention to inflections marked by those characteristics, and 
broadly asserts that there is no coincidence in the grammar 
of the Finnic and Indo-Germanic tongues beyond some 
similarity in the personal endings of the verbs arising from 
the cause above-mentioned. But surely the analogies pointed 
out by Professor Key (Philolog. Proceedings II. 181) amount 
to a good deal more than this. Compare the first and 
second persons plural of the Greek and Latin verb, TVTITO- 
[.lev, ^v7l^^ov, regimus, regitis, with the dual and plural 
imperfect of the Lap etset, to love: 

etsimen etsime regimus 

etsiten etsite regitis, (Imperative regite) 

etsika etsin regunt 

The Fin minim, sinun, of me, of thee (Gr. at'), also mine, 
thine, shew a far closer relation to mine and thine, G. 
meiner and deiner, than that of a common dependance on 
the radicals m and s (or t) respectively. The remarkable 
agreement (pointed out in the same place by Professor Key) 
between the Lap formation of the superlative in umus (cinek, 
short; dnekub, shorter; dnekumus, shortest) and the Latin 
in umus, imus, as in postumus, infimus^ has perhaps lost 
weight from the agreement being so exact. The same may 
probably be said of Lap. mocum, tocum, socum, with the 
signification of Lat. mecum, tecum, secum, where we may 
also observe that the place of the preposition cum, with, 
(identical in the two languages) is an anomaly in the Latin 
grammar, while it accords with the regular order of the 
Finnish languages. 

The enclitic ek or ke gives emphasis to the Lap demon- 


stratives exactly as ce in Latin. Mon, I; monnek, I indeed; 
tat, this; tatek, hicce, this here. The same element seems 
to have already been appended to the simple pronominal 
root in hie, accus. hunc, in the latter of which it follows 
n for m, the proper characteristic of the accusative. In 
like manner tune would be the emphatic form of turn, then, 
originally an accusative of the demonstrative root ta, and 
would thus correspond to Lap tabke (for tamke) , the accu- 
sative of tatek. In Fiellstrom's way of spelling, the accu- 
sative duom or duob of duot, that, comes still closer to 
Lat. turn. 

The union of the enclitic ke with kd, who, gives kdke, 
some one, corresponding to Lat. quisque, every one; leading 
to the inference that the enclitics ce and que are fundamen- 
tally the same. The agreement is equally striking between 
Fin. kukaan (ku, who?), any one, and Lat. quisquam; Magy. 
kij who; kiki, every one, with Lat. quis, quisquis. Fin 
itse, self, may be compared with Lat. ipse; the same equi- 
valence of ps and ts being seen in Esthon. laps or lats, a 
child. Lap. ima, yes, certainly, is almost identical with 
Lat. imo of the same meaning, while Lap. jam, therefore, 
then, is used in a way very similar to Lat. jam, now. Pate 
jam, come then; mi le jam tat, what then is this? 

In the general vocabulary no one doubts that a multitude 
of words has been directly borrowed from the Scandinavian 
nations to which the Finnish race was subject, but, inde- 
pendant of these undisputed adoptions, a mere survey of 
the dictionaries shews numerous agreements with the lan- 
guages not only of their immediate neighbours of Scandi- 
navian and Slavonic race, but with the Celtic, Teutonic, 
and in a remarkable manner with Latin and Greek. To 
assert that all these agreements are the result of early loans, 
without a shadow of evidence from the nature of the words 
compared, is simply to beg the question in favour of a 
foregone conclusion. If the family relationship of languages 
can ever be established by agreements in vocabulary in the 
face of a wide difference in grammatical structure, it must 
be by a series of examples such as those I have collected 


in a paper published in our Transactions for 1856. From 
these I propose to select a few instances and to add others 
in which any presumption of borrowing on the part of the 
Finnish dialects is prima facie rebutted by the fact, that 
the Finnish forms afford an explanation of those with which 
they are compared in the Indo-Germanic languages, and 
which are without derivation in their own domain. 

The A.S. u>g t in composition, signifies ever, all; wghuca, 
every who, (rykmitlier, u-yther, every one of two, each, 
either; and it was in early English also used with ordinary 
nouns. " Yif ei man other ei immmon misseith ow'', If any 
man or any woman speak ill of you Ancren Riwle 124. 
The Finnish tongues use iyg&, ikka, in the same way; 
Esthon. iyya-mees, igga-uks, every man, every one; Lap. 
ikke kd (the exact equivalent of A.S. ceghwa), whoever, 
ikke mi, whatever, ikke kus, wherever. Moreover, the ele- 
ment which appears only as a timeworn fragment in A.S. 
tt>y or in Swed. e (c/w, whoever; ehuru, however &c.) is 
in the Finnish languages a substantive word; Fin. ika, Esthon. 
iyyd, Lap. hayya, signifying lifetime, age, endurance, and 
giving rise to numerous derivatives, among which may be 
mentioned Esthon. -ik, ikka, ever, iggaw, Fin. ikdicd, as ex- 
plaining A.S. ece, everlasting. Nor can the Finnish forms 
above mentioned have been borrowed from Goth, aics, Lat. 
wi'uni, Sansk. ayus, lifetime, age, although there can be 
little doubt that they are radically identical with them. 

It is so obvious a metaphor to speak of a ship ploughing 
the sea and leaving behind it a shortlived furrow, known as 
the wake of the ship, that we do not hesitate to identify 
E. wake with Esthon. wayyo, Fin. u-ako, a furrow, although 
the metaphorical use of the term does not seem to be known 
in those languages. The Fr. sillon, a furrow, is the regular 
term for the wake of a ship. 

The E. icickedj which is without connections in the Ger- 
manic or Romance languages, finds its explanation in Lap. 
irikkf, fault, blame, icikkaUtfy, guilty; Fin. n-ika, bodily defect; 
moral fault, guilt. We trace the conception to the original 
image in Esthon. wigga, a spot, blot, failing, defect, injury. 


If we form a conjecture as to the sensible image which 
has given rise to Goth, gamotjan, to meet; O.N. mot, a 
meeting, opposite; E. meet, no more probable derivation 
could be suggested than from a word signifying face. To 
meet, to face, to confront, come face to face, are syno- 
nymous expressions. Now the meaning thus required for 
the derivation of meet is found in Lap. muoto, face, coun- 
tenance, likeness, image. The idea is further developed 
in Fin. muoto, appearance, form, mode or manner, where 
we see that the same radical image explains another sense 
of O.N. mot, which also signifies type, model, mode or 
manner, and thus the Finnish etymon at the same time 
furnishes a clue to the origin of Lat. modus. Fin. monella 
muotoa or muodolla, in many manners; samalla muotoa, in 
the same manner. Here mom, many, and sama, same, might 
be suspected of being borrowed, but samalla, in what is 
called the adessive case, or samassa in the inessive, are 
elliptically used to signify at the same moment, together, 
giving a striking explanation of Lat. simul, which like so 
many of the adverbs has no obvious meaning in the lan- 
guage itself. 

The name of the eel, the common type of slipperiness, 
may be plausibly explained from Esthon. ilia, spittle, slime, 
Fin. ilja, slimy, slippery, in accordance with the analogy 
of W. llyswen, an eel, from llysw, slime; although the name 
for eel is not formed from that root in the Finnish lan- 
guages. Perhaps the Sw. hal, Bav. hdl, slippery (to which 
eel is referred by Serenius) , may be the same word. Com- 
pare Sw. hicka, Esthon. ikkitama , to sob ; Lap. haletet, aletet, 
to fly. 

The G. hund, E. hound, can hardly be a really different 
word from Esthon. hunt or hundi, a wolf, the derivation of 
which is preserved in the verb hundama, to howl. 

Fin. karsta, soot, and thence dirt, refuse, explains G. 
garstig, nasty, filthy; Lap. aletet, to fly, Lat. ales (alit-), 
a bird; Fin. kalkkata, to clang, Gr. ^a/txog, brass, "sound- 
ing brass 1 '. Fin. lentad, to fly, Unto, a bird, lento-orawa, 
a flying squirrel, shew the origin of G. lind-wurm, a dragon 


or serpent, supposed to be furnished with wings and to 
grow to an enormous size Kiittner. 

Equivalents of Lat. mufo, to change, are found in many of 
the cognate languages; O.K. G. muzon, Gael, mtit/i, to change, 
W. mudo, to change place or remove. It would be a strik- 
ing coincidence if these were unconnected with Esthon. 
mudama, muudma, to change; Fin. muutaa, to change place 
or form, to move, to alter, verbs of which the native origin 
is manifest in Fin. muu, Esthon. mu, other, according to 
the analogy of G. andern, Gr. aA/ortraw, to alter, from G. 
ander and Gr. aAAog, other. Magy. mas, other; mdsit, to 

G. war/-, a buffoon or person who makes sport in order 
make others laugh, a laughingstock, a fool, finds its ex- 
planation in Fin. nauraa, to laugh, to deride ; Esthon. naarma, 
to laugh; naratama, to smile; narus pannema (to put to 
laughter), to deride; nar, a fool, buffoon. 

The agreement of Gr. (.itoxoq, mock, mockery, with the 
English word shews that the origin of the expression may 
be sought at a very distant period in the history of lan- 
guage. Now the instinctive type of mockery may be seen 
in the child pulling faces or making mouths at those who 
are obnoxious to him, and we might therefore expect the 
word to be derived from a depreciatory term for a mouth, 
such as we find in Esthon. mok^ snout, mouth, lips. 

The probability of true relationship between forms in 
widely separated dialects is greatly increased when we find 
that a root in one of the stocks compared explains a va- 
riety of forms, apparently unrelated among themselves, in 
the other, as in the case of Lap. muoto above mentioned. 
Another case of the same kind is seen in Fin. palata, to 
roll, to return, whence is formed Lap. pale, in the sense 
of It. volta, a turn, a time, from volgere, Lat. volvere, to 
roll. Lap. akta palen^ once, at one time; tatte palest, from 
that time; peiwe palen, in the day time; mo palen, in my 
presence, when turned towards me. Hence may be ex- 
plained Lat. palam, openly, in the presence of all, while 
Fin. palata, to return, would afford the most natural deri- 


vation of Gr. naliv , again. But in addition to these the 
Lap. tai pali, literally, those times, is used in the sense of 
formerly, agreeing in a remarkable manner with Gr. nakai, 
and at the same time corroborating the ordinary derivation 
of Lat. olim from ole or olle for ille; in illo tempore Voss. 
The only difference would be an ellipse of one half of the 
expression in the Latin and of the other in the Greek. 

If any one is inclined to regard all these coincidences as 
matter of pure chance, he would do well to compare the 
amount of agreement in vocabulary between the Finnish 
dialects and Latin and Greek apparent on a mere inspection 
of the dictionaries, with the whole body of analogies which 
have yet been pointed out between the Lido-Germanic and 
Semitic tongues. 

XXVII. CAMBRICA, see p. 204 et seq. 

P. 204. tidicones adiamor. Here, as Dr. Siegfried thinks, 
ti may be 'thy', dicones a substantive meaning 
'power', or 'satisfaction', and adiamor the 1 pers. 
plural pres. indie, of a deponent verb = the 
modern addiaw 'to strive after'. 

P. 205. i nadaut may be "in which was formed" taking 
the verb to be 3 d sg. pret. passive. 

P. 206. enderic (gl. vitulus). Pughe derives enderig from 
terig 'ardent'. Heruid is in M. Breton heruez. The 
suffix in duiu-tit is the Latin -tut, Goth. -dups. 

P. 207. dafraud atuis (gl. subtrahet igni). The a here is 
the Cornish and Breton a 'from'. Welsh has 
only o. 

arta (gl. restat) seems identical with the 0. Ir. 
artda (superest) Z. 477 , ar-un-taa (superest no- 
bis) Z. 495, 577, from the prep, ar and the verb 
subs. td. See the note on itau in the next page. 


P. 208. gurthdo clearly means here ' against them ' ( sell. 

promissa), and is the old form of the Cornish 

worto 'versus eas', P. 168, 2, or orto, P. 100, 3. The 

M.Welsh form is wrthunt. 

difidou (gl. dispendia) must be connected with 

Lat. deficio, W. difygio. Corn, dyfygy. 
scOnmhegint (gl. levant). The Middle- Welsh form 

of ysgy faint is esceveint (Laws 1. 10. 8). 
P. 210. itlann (gl. area). Cf. Corn, /ift-aduer (gl. messis). 

sdpaur (gl. horrea), cf. Nhg. scheure. 

P. 212, 1. 23, ytau seems = the Cornish yta, 'is', which oc- 
curs in Jordan's Creation, pp. 28, 40, 84, 90, 114, 

P. 213. mind (gl. monile). The Welsh for 'neck' is mivn. 
or cled Am not vin (gl. limite levo). 
guichir (gl. effrenus), cf. perhaps Nhg. wacker. 
P. 214. brith (gl. pictam). Brith comes from *britto, *britti, 
or *brittU) and the word ^PictC may be a literal 
translation of the cognate name Brittones. 
amal it ercludant (gl. ut subigant). Even in the 
Book of Llandaff we find mal, the contracted 
form of amal, Corn, avel, Bret, evcl 

P. 215. penned-interedou (gl. ilia), permed is also in Corn. 
aberveth (-- a + perveth). With inter edou cf. the 
Platt-deutsch inster 'entrails of cows'. 
an niboth an bodlaun (gl. nummis). I now suspect 
(with Dr. Siegfried) that we should compare the 
Cornish glosses bat[h] ', numisma, and bathor, 
trapezeta vel numularius. The meaning would 
be: 'whether bullion or coin'. 
I have omitted an obscure gloss found at p. 36 of 
the MS., viz. Nocte sub obscuni (.i. iudeoit) cselso 
sublatus honore. 

or ten (gl. obtuso). The final u and the umlaut 
in the Ir. ting, shew that we have here an ad- 
jectival u-stem, like fliuch 'moist', lau 'little" 
= f -/.//V,' fo 'good' = vasu. 
P. 210. papeth (gl. quid). Cf. Breton pebez, Buh. 58. 


P. 217. I doubt now whether roenhol and regenaul have 
anything to do with each other. Delete the com- 
parison of the Teutonic regin, regini-, regin-. 
With regenaul (gl. patrii) cf. the modern Welsh 
rhieni) 'parents', 'ancestry'. 

P. 218. centUiat (gl. canorum). Here and in centhiliat, 
Juv. p. 7, th is written for , as m'inbith, Juv. 
p. 64, latharauC) Juv. p. 81, and hanther in the 
Bodleian article on Weights and Measures. The 
Middle-Breton form of kentel is quentel, Buh. 58. 

hirunn (gl. quern). Most likely yr un, notwith- 
standing the double n. 

lionit nammui was certainly intended to gloss 'tan- 
turn ne unquam', and has nothing to do with 
'poterit'. The modern onid (not onyd} na mwy 
literally 'if not never' is the proper rendering. 

stebill (gl. lirnina). The Middle-Welsh forms are 

ystavell, pi. estevyll, Z. 296. 

P. 219. Delete line 14 and the first half of line 15. Of 
mem 'stones' the Cornish form is meyn. 

damcirchinnucu (gl. ambagibus), the plural of *dam- 
circhinn. Compare for the plur. ending -ucu, 
datlocou (gl. fora), the plur. of datl, and the 
Cornish tivul-g-ou (gl. tenebrae), the plural of 
tivul = Ir. temel. 
P. 220. gulip (gl. liquefacta). Comp. Corn, glibor (gl. humor). 

anbithaul (gl. fervida). It is hard to say whether 
this be the modern enbydawl 'tending to endanger' 
(from pyd} or ynfydawl 'tending to madness'. 

ruid (gl. vacuum). The form ruid occurs also in 
the Cornish gur-rwVZ (gl. mas vel masculum). 
Might we compare the Old Latin loebesum ('li- 
berum'), which Dr. Buhler thinks may be de- 
rived from a neuter as-stem, *loebes from a root 
LIDH? The gunation is regular, as well as the 
addition of the secondary affix. 

brut (gl. animus). The same form in Mid. Breton. 
The contraction m l stands for 'mihi'. 


racdam (gl. sibi) = Corn, ragthe, Bret, razhan, Mid. 

Welsh racdau, Z. 386. 

P. 221. cisemic (gl. primus). The Cornish quesevin (gl. 
primas), as I read the corrupt guesheuin, of the 
MS., is identical with the Welsh cysefin. Cisemic, 
cysefin, seem for cintsemic, cyntsefin, tint 'first', 
Gaulish cintu, Ir. cet, and sem from the root stem, 
-STAM 'to stand'. 

racentrid (gl. nulla residit). The gloss merely means 
'propter mundum' : enbid = enbit (gl. mundus vel 
cosmus), Vocab., where en is the common in- 
tensive prefix. 

tif (gl. fundum) = Corn, tir (gl. tellus). 
P. 222. (k)antermetetic (gl. semiputata). harder occurs in 
Cornish, D. 1401. With metetic cf. Corn, midil 
(gl. messor). 

merion (gl. actores). Cf. Corn, mair (gl. praepo- 

situs), maer buit (gl. dispensator). 

P. 223. isamraud (gl. domino ... mens est). Here perhaps 
m is written for v, the infected b of brand, as 
sometimes in Old Irish (see mrechtraid, mrechtrud, 
Z. 822): is a mraud would then be 'it is his 
command, (brand 0. W. brant, Ir. brdth, Gaulish 

fodeud, fodeut (gl. laeta). Compare perhaps ffodiawg, 
Corn, fodic (gl. felix). 

mesur (gl. nummum) = Bret, musur, Buh. G8. Corn. 

musury 'measure thou', 0. 393. 

P. 224. latharauc (gl. barathri coeno). Delete the com- 
parison with llethr. The word is clearly latarauc. 

cared (gl. nequitiae). Bret, carez 'reproche', Buh. 50. 
P. 225. itdarnesti (gl. agitare). The it- is perhaps 'in thy' 
and the -ti the suffix of the second pers. sg. The 
(htrnes remains obscure. 

plant honnor (gl. fodientur) should probably be read 
planthonnor = *plantontor, a 3 d plural future pas- 
sive of a verb = the Bret, planta , Corn. plan*c, 
W. planu, 'to plant'. For the change of nt iii 


inlaut into nn, compare chwant 'desire', chwennych 
'to wish'. 

P. 226. anit arber bit (gl. num vescitur). anit is now onid. 
To note 2 add: 'Offerre mundo' would be in Old 
Irish do edbairt (W. aperth) do biuth. Airbert 
is certainly 'to use'. The 2 d sg. conjunctive 
cerbara 'utaris' occurs in Z. 455. 

P. 230, line?: Goth, mein-s should be represented by a 
British mun (from moino, as un 'one' from oino) ; 
and this indeed is found in a Pictish gloss mun- 
yhu 'my dear' (= Ir. mo-choi), the name, in his 
paterna lingua, of S. Kyentyern (Cenntigern). See 
Pinkerton's Vitae Antt. Sanctorum, London 1789, 
pp. 207, 208. The form muin (= meno) is said 
by Cormac to have "been used by S. Patrick, 
who was a Briton of Strath Clyde, in the phrase 
muin duiu braut 'my God of Judgment', 
line 19. Head 'canu, now canaf, like congrogu 
(gl. congelo) and guru, preserves the final u 
the o of Latin cano\ 

P. 231, 1. 10. With leguenid cf. the Breton leuenez, Buh. 

46, and Corn, lowene, R. 2365. 
1. 5 infra, with guetid cf. Goth, .qwthan, Zend vat. 

P. 232, 1. 5, read 'will be united with me to-night'. 

P. 233, 1. 5, read dadl-t[ig]. 

1. 9, from becel perhaps Eng. buckle. 
1. 14, cf. Corn, tewel, D. 1320. 
gueig (gl. testrix). Cf. guiat (gl. tela), Yocab., and 
as to the termination cf. gwraig, and see Zeuss 

P. 234. anguoconam (gl. vigilo). The root VOC (= Goth. 
VAC, vacan, Lat. VIG) is also found in the 
Irish diuchtrad 'vigilatio' Z. 822, which is = do- 
(f)oc-t-rad, diu arising regularly from do-o, see 
Zeuss 856. Lith. vikrus 'munter', vaktuti, vektuti 

P. 235 , 1. 2. Cf. Ir. tairmescc (perturbatio) , Z. 78. 
hacboi (gl. excusiendus) ; cf. piouboi, p. 204. 



coilou (gl. auspiciis). Another trace of the similarity 
of Celtic and Teutonic superstition is afforded by 
the M.Welsh hut 'magic' (Corn, hus), which is 
= Old- Norse seidr. 
P. 236, 1.6. Cf. Ir. amim. 
P. 238, 1. 6 from bottom, read 'Da': 1. 4 from bottom, for 

'vel' read 'siue'. 

P. 239. enep (gl. faciem). The Welsh form is gwynel. But 
enep 'face' occurs in Breton: voar ma enep 'on 
my face', Buh. 124. Cf. too enel (gl. paginam) 
in the Vocab. and the Ir. einech 'face'. 
1. 3, read 'membris meis'. 
1. 6, guertland (gl. pratum); cf. guirt (gl. viridis), 


1. 8, read 'exeat et custodiat'. 
1. 21, read 'reuertamur'. 

P. 240, 1. 9, read 'no's': 1. 7 from bottom, read 'quero'. 
P. 242, 1. 19, for c/uopcle read guopell. 
\\ 243, 1. 13, read 'fratres mei et sorores et uxor &c.' 
P. 245, 1. lo, for ' edif [icium] ' read 'edis [leg. aedes]'. 

1. 19, munutolau (gl. fornilia), from Lat. minutus, 
whence Corn, menys 'Fornilia dicitur de minu- 
tioribus lignis' with the regressive assimilation 
found in the Welsh swmwl from stimulus and the 
Breton musur from mensura. 

P. 246, . 5, read 'dicant': 1. 9, read 'pra^positus'. 
P. 248, . 2, for 'et martyri' read 'vel martyri'. 

6. The MS. has 'habetur uobiscum in uestris 

P. 249, 


. 7 from bottom, read 'uel postulauimus'. 
I The MS. has 'adiuuate'. 

11. 9, 10, for 'perpetuo' read 'pro tuo'. 
June 19, 1862. 

W. S. 



ADAMS, Dr. E. ; on the Names of 

CELTIC and LATIN continued. 

the Wood-louse, 8; on the Names 

cruor, Ap. 90. plenus, Ap. 78. 

of Caterplllers, Snails and Slugs, 

dens, 206, Ap. 

quando, Ap.80. 

'a-dimng\ 'en dinanl' 1 ; explana- 


qui, 216. 

tion of phrases, 181, 182. 

deus, Ap. 90. 

Are'; Norse origin of, 63. 

domo, Ap. 80. 

ngo, 214. 
ripa, Ap. 97. 

BARHAM, T. F., M.B., CANTAB.; on 
Metrical Time, or the Rhythm 
of Verse, Ancient and Modern, 

et, tn, 172. 

fero, 227, Ap. 

o r\ 

sagitta, Ap. 97. 
scopae, 210. 
secus, Ap. 95. 

Batrachoinyomachia; passage in 
Baumeister's edition emended, 


gena, Ap. 99. 

sedeo, 205, Ap. 

CATHAY /f/r> O1 ft 

Berber language; a sisterfamily of 
the Semitic, 112. 

gigno, Ap. 93. 
gnosco, Ap.94. 

>t/IJ c Aj C * '/) & i. O. 

silva, Ap. 78. 
similis, 214. 

r, _i \ ~ n^r 

fioiKQos; on its meaning in Homer, 

Eng. to, 216. 

SOJ, Ap. 97. 

sudor, Ap. 89. 

British Alphabet, 236. 
Burney, Dr.; his views on the 

inter, *'T*OO>', 

tego, 230, Ap. 

Rhythm of the Ancients contro- 
verted, 56. 

juvencus, Ap. 

temere, tene- 
brae, Ap. 92. 

Cambrica: (1) The Welsh Glosses 
and Verses in the Cambridge 
Codex of Juvencus, 204; (2) The 
. Old Welsh Glosses at Oxford, 232 ; 

Igpna, 214. 
livor, 212. 

tenuis, Ap. 98. 
tenus, Ap. 89. 
tepeo, Ap. 89. 
toto (Umbrian), 

(3) Middle-Welsh Glosses, 249; 

memini, 249. 

216, Ap. 81. 

Addenda et Corrigenda, 288. 

meto, uiessis, 

unus, 231. 

Caterpillers; on the names of, 89. 


urina, urna, 

Celtic: Analogies and Comparisons 

misceo, A p. 85. 


between Celtic and other Indo- 

morior, A p. 80. 

Gerrnanic words: l 

ventus, Ap.96. 

nubes, A p. 81. 

vermis, Ap. 92. 


nurnerus , Ap. 

ve>per, A p. 98. 

an, 226. cano, >://?. 


vigilo, 292. 


vinum, 222. 

bibo, Ap. 88. cams, 216. 

-oinreg-o, 205. 

vir, Ap. 90. 

circo, Ap. 85. l! ocior, 227. 

vitta, 216. 

1 In this list a Latin or Greek analogue is given in preference to 
others, where suggested by Mr. Stokes. 




ENGLISH continued. 

ftj'/j0j 225. 

xuwi', Ap. 97. 

thick, 216. wood, Ap. 84. 

nnrrjn, 97. 

Jlo/of, Ap. 94. 

Celtic: List of Latin words oc- 

/?iofO, 227. 

curring in their Celtic forms in 

fidi'xokos , Ap. 

i/wxooff, 212. 

the Middle-Cornish Poem printed 


pfdu. 230. 

in the Appendix, and in the 

Welsh Glosses pp. 204-249, and 

i$&)egv t Ap. 97. 

I'txi'ff, Ap. 95. 


J*e>ff, Ap. 95. 

f;-;'tff, Ap. 84. 
jJ.u/i-s, 289. 

ovopa, Ap. 80. 
TftJiotm Ap. 95. 

basium, Ap.90. 
calamus, 213. 

inensura, 223. 
minutus, 293. 
murus, 207. 

l4o,u', Ap.83. 

fon, 231. 

TtlttTii;. Ap.98. 
nvQi 227. 

caldaria, 230. 
caminus, Ap. 

negotium, Ap. 

MS Ap. 88. 

of/ v(iov } Ap.95. 

causari, 231. 

novellus, 230. 

f'mtfitay Ap 

circinus, 224. 

1 . ci "j "" 


7A*To' 7f- 



Joff, Ap. 92. 


oratio, 207. 

,9 (), 220. 

rof/w, Ap. 88. 

crux, 221. 

cupa, 222. 

pagus, Ap. 84. 

x//rj, Ap.92. 
x'i'w, 230. 

r/tr-, 222. 

disculus, 220. 

patella, 230. 
pensus, Ap.83. 

xfu,'/o>, Ap.93! 

/oo70?, Ap.93. 
y/tuooc. 219. 

fallo, Ap. 88. 

peto, Ap. 78. 
pretium, A p. 

humilis, Ap. 




212, 236. 

naqvaths, Eng. 
naked, Ap. 


-issa, -man, 
Ap. 86. 

regens, 217. 
remus, 226. 

laikan, A. S. la- 
can, 206. 


qvainon , Eng. 
whine, 219. 

lac us, 244. 
laicus, 223. 
laxus, 221. 

serra, 222. 
siccus, Ap. 94. 

lithus, O.Eng. 
lith, Ap. 92. 

viltheis, Eng. 
wild, Ap.96. 

loculus, Ap.98. 
magis, Ap. 92. 

soccus, 213. 
solum, Ap. 92. 
stabulum, 219. 


major, 223. 
malum, Ap.96. 

tabula, 219. 

nuind, Ap. 93. 

salo (O.H.G.), 

medianus, Ap. 

tristis, 2-20. 

Fr. sale, 244. 82. 

mensa, Ap. 88. 1 vesper, Ap. 98. 

crumb, 222. 

headb, Ap. 90. ! ch an earlier form than dg in (e. g.) 

ens, Eng. kiss, 

cartouch, cartridge, <fcc., 77. 


volken, Eng. /".'<?> ancient form of ^#/(>, 179. 
welkin, A[>. ! Chinese; on certain peculiar and 

flor, Eng. floor, 

88. advantageous properties of the 

Ap. 96. 

written language, 1. 


Chinese Roots ; ideographical charac- 
ter of, 2. 

beggar, A p. 87. 

nx. 249. 

CoLKiaixiK, HKUUKRT, ESQ.; on the 

word C'tt/oriw, 27. 

gar (Scotch), 

rid, 220. 

: on the exclusion of cer- 

gear, A p. 82. 

riddle, 210. 

tain words from a Dictionary, 37. 




ENGLISH continued. 

vations on the Plan of the So- 
ciety's Proposed New English 


riddle, 210. 

Dictionary, 152. 


search, Ap. 80. 

Comparative Syntax; Notes on, 1G8. 
Cornish; on the third pers. sing. 

(Prov.), 108. 

seneschal, 218. 
slow, slug, sly, 

imperat. act. in, 171. 

lug, laggard, 9. 

9, 111. 


DAVIS, SIR JOHN F., BART.; on cer- 
tain peculiar and advantageous 
properties of the Written Lan- 
Juage of China, 1. 
isti, dederunt; how scanned, 194. 

(Prov.), 98. 
(Prov.), 98. 
inascal, muskel 

o r> 

(O.E.), 106. 
snail, 106. 
snake, sneak, 

Derivations of Words, directly or 
incidentally discussed: 

(Prov.), 99. 
meet, 286. 

sniggle (Prov.), 


mock, 287. 

sue, Ap. 97. 

at, to, 196,216. fix (to), 143. 
fool, Ap. 84. 

mole, moll, 98. 
muff, muffle, 

Sunday, 187. 
Swanage, 78. 

baffle, 31. fudge, 148. 


thick, 216. 

beggar, Ap. 87. fumble, 32. 

oath, 212, 236. 


bereave, 88. 
boggle, 33. 
brat (Prov .), 

gala, 147. 
gambison ( 0. 

oozling (Prov.), 
oubit (Sc.), 92. 

(Prov.), 17. 
Tuesday, 80. 


E.), 35. 

Oxford, 187. 

wake of a ship, 

buckle, 292. 



whelk, 17. 
wicked, 285. 

cals (Prov.), 

gauntlet (run 
the), 150. 

place, piazza, 

wild, Ap. 96. 
witwal, wittol, 

Ap. 83. 

gear, Ap. 82. 

pony, Ap. 94. 


canker, cancer, 

geason, geize, 
gizzen (Sc.), 

pot-sherd, 145. 


caterpiller, 89. 
cherbug (wood- 

glade, 219. 

rebuke, Ap. 79. 
red-start (a 

17, 93. 

wood, Ap. 84. 

louse), 16. 
cheslip (wood- 

goal, 147. 
gog, goggle, 

bird), 11. 
rid, 220. 

world, Ap. 90. 

louse), 12. 


cheslop = ren- 
net, 12. 

(Prov.}, 108. 


cockle, 108. 

hamper, 32. 

alit-, 286. 

eruca, 102. 

conk, conker 

hansel, 36. 

antenna, 101. 

(Prov.), 109. 


aqua, 199, 203. 

faber, Ap. 93. 
forma, 223. 


harridan, 145. 

balbus, barba- 

hem, 32. 

rus, 201. 

gaesum, Ap.97. 

dim, Ap. 92. 

hobble, baffle 

glastuin, Ap. 

dodman (O.E.), 

(Prov.), 32. 

cochlear, 110. 


dout = fear (0. 

(O.E.), 108. 

concilio, 175. 


E.), Ap. 96. 

hound, 286. 

Davus, 190. 

dover, 147. 

Jack of Dover, 

delicatus, deli- 
ciae, dulcis, 

ignosco, 175. 
inconcilio, 175. 

eel, 286. 



dumus, 185. 

laena, 214. 

ferret, 149. 

lobster, 11. 

larva, 100. 



LATIN continual. 

FRENCH continued. 

ligurio, 151. 

palam, 287. 

hanse, hanser, 

sale, 244. 

limax, 104. 


soc, souche, 

liijimlus, 220. 

scopae, 210. 

hurbec, 101. 


livor, Livius, 

siccus, Ap. 94. 
silva, Ap. 78. 

issue, 190. 

tas, 216. 

lutum, 224. 

simul, 286. 

reussir, 190. 

tissu, 190. 

modus, 286. 

temere, tene- 


monile, 213. brae, Ap.92. 

gatter, 147. 

narr, 287. 

muto, 287. 

-to, -tote (imp. 

glied, 92. 

naschen, 151. 

mood), 196. 

Nero, 225. 
nidus, Ap. 96. 

vel, 194. 

hahn, 218. 
hahnrei, 35. 

pfrunde, 91. 

nudus, Ap. 92. 

hammeln, 32. 

schussel, 88. 

hanseln, 37. 



himd, 286. 



Esunertos, Ap. 





Atecotti, Ap. 

Exomnus, Ap. 


wamms, 35. 





Geneva, Ap.91. 

spg-, ece, 285. 

wealh, 200. 

Ap. 93. 


grime, 99. 

Caturiges, Ap. 
Catuslogi, Ap. 

225, Ap. 93. 



beffa, 31. 




vis, 218. 


caracol, 110. 

Ap. 82. 

Dialectic words, English and Scotch; 

GREEK, their claim to be admitted in the 

y/U-xi'j, 151. opnino;, 250, Society's Dictionary, 163. 

'Diametrically opposed'- a query 

ril'S, 17. 

7i).fn ,, on the phrase, 

197, 300. 


Dictionary; on the exclusion of 

/,)./ i],:'.oy/.K(c, 


certain words from a, 37. 

xoy/t], 103. oof, 187. 

Dictionary; observations on the So- 

ciety's proposed 

new English, 152. 

litin<$, 104. '/rn/i, Ap. 84. Dulcis-,, its connection with Deli- 

cice, Delicalus, 

Delect are, 150. 

lt(o%os, 287. /;.xof, 286. 

Egyptian language; a sisterfamily 
FRENCH, of the Semitic, 115. 

bacler, begin 

colimacon,110. 'cmbowelled'=: buried (Shaksp.), 142. 


baver, belTlor, faufeleur, 31. fecit, old form of Lat. perf.. 

31. tidier, 148. Finnish languages; their relation- 
furet, furon, ship with the Indo-Germanic 

carpleuse, 90. 149. 

family, disputed by Dr. Lottner, 

chenille, 100. 

129; "maintained by Mr. Wecltr- 

chercher, 85. gal, 148. wood, 281. 

(.loperte, 14. FRY, D. P., ESQ.; 

on the last syl- 



lable in the words Knowledge, 
Revelach, and Wedlock, 75. 
FCRNIVALL, F. J., ESQ., notes by, 43 
&c.; 299-302. 

Greek words occurring in Latin 
authors; mode of writing them 
discussed, 178. 

Hexameters, English ; causes of their 

failure, 52. 
Homeric words, used by later writers 

in new senses; instances of, 271. 
Houssa language; not related to the 

Semitic, 24. 

JOURDAIN, W. C., ESQ.; Some pro- 
posed Emendations in the Text 
of Shakespeare, and Explanations 
of his words, 133. 

KEY, Prof. T. HEWITT ; Miscellaneous 
Remarks suggested by Ritschl's 
Plautus, especially on the For- 
mation of the Latin Perfect, 172. 

Knowledge, Revelach, and Wedlock- 
on the last syllable in the words, 

Languages, the historical unity of; 

not countenanced by scientific 

enquiry, 21. 
LOTTNER, Dr. C. ; On Sisterfamilies 

of Languages , especially those 

connected with the SemiticFamily, 

20-27, 112-132. 
- ; On the Norse origin of 

Are, the Plural Present of the 

English Verb Substantive, G3. 

Malay languages; their connection 
with the Indo-German considered, 

Morte Arthur; notes on the Rox- 
burghe Club Edition of, 279. 

National Names ; etymology of, 199 ; 
Brit tones, Picti, 289; Celt?p, 
Galatse, Galli, 202; Cymro, Ap. 
99; Deutschen, Teutones, 201, 
203, 216; Welsh, 199. See also 
the List of Gaulish Derivations. 

*;; on its meaning as an 
epithet in Homer, 250; in the 
later epic poets, 269. 

Passives in -r, in Celtic as well as 
in Latin. In the former at least, 
this r cannot have arisen from 
*, A p. 84. 

'Passion of our Lord, the 1 ; a Middle- 
Cornish Poem, transcribed and 
translated, Appendix. 

pater; instances of, 179. 

Perfect Tense ; how formed in Latin, 

Puck; on the origin of, 17. 

Race, question of Difference of; 
how affected by the discovery of 
the Sisterfamilies of the Semitic, 

re-, force of the Latin prefix, 174, 

Reduplication; theory of, 179. 

Rhythm defined, 45 ; present neg- 
lect of its principles in reading 
poetry, 62. 

Ritschl's Plautus; Prof. Key on, 172. 

Romance languages; their relation 
to Latin, 191. 

Saho-Galla; a sister-family of the 
Semitic, 21. 

Semitic family of languages, not 
connected with the Aryan, 130; 
dato of the separation from it of 
its Sisterfamilies discussed, 123. 

Shakespeare; emended and ex- 
plained, 133. 

; illustrated, 18, 96, 97, 

99, 109. 

Sister-families of Languages; Dr. 
Lottner on, 20-27, 112-132. 

'Slug'; its primary meaning, 106. 

Slugs and Snails; on the names 
of, 102. 

Smith, Dr. Adam; his theory of the 
first formation of language con- 
firmed by the Chinese, 5. 

Stammering; figurative derivations 
from, 30. 

STOKES, W., ESQ. ; Notes on Com- 
parative Syntax, 168. 

; On the Third Person 
Sing. Imperative Act. in Cornish, 

Cambrica, 204-249, 


; 'The Passion', a Middle- 
Cornish Poem, transcribed and 
translated. Appendix. 



-tit, plural in, 301, App. 1. 
TIIIKLWALL, The IU. Rev. C., Lord 

I.ishop of St. David's; On the 

name Welsh and the word Aqua, 

Triliteral Semitic Roots; on their 

formation, 118. 

' Vocabular Parodies'; term suggested 
by Mr. II. Coleridge. Ex. 'Your 
Devilship', 38. 

WKDGWOOD, H. , ESQ.; English 
Etymologies : 1 . Figurative deri- 
vations from the notion of stam- 
mering. 2. Wiliral, \Vitlol. 
3. Gainlnsoti. l. Hansel, llanse- 
Toirn, 30-37. Harridan; Gal- 
Toothed; Jack of f)orcr, Gala, 
Goal; Fudge; to Fix; ferret; 
to Run I lie Gauntlet, 145-150. 

WKDGWOOD, II., ESQ.; On the con- 
nection of the Latin Dulci$ with 
Deficits, De-ficahif, Delectare, 150. 
; The Family-relationship 
between the Finnish and Indo- 
fiermanic languages maintained, 

WEYMOUTH, R. F., ESQ.; On ' Who' 
as a relative, 64.* 

; On the phrase 'Di- 
ametrically opposed", 197. 

; On the Homeric Epithets 
"jJu'ttos and fluiuni'>c, 250-278. 

; Notes on the Roxburghe 
Club Morte Arthur, 279. 
l Wlio' as a relative; on, 64. 
Wood-louse; on names of the, 8. 

'young bones' - infants just born, 


Page 139, line 6: before Act I, Sc. 3 read Othello. 

202, 1: for Mere read There. 

, 236, 14: for formossas read foruiosas. 

, 92, 9: f>r Wedgewood read Wedgwood. 
Ap. p. 9i>, last line but 2: for Tenedon, Tenedos (??). 
Ap. p. 98 (st, 231): for St. 231, 1. 3, read 1. 4. 


* Page 64. "On who (in the nominative) as a Relative". The Rev. J. 
Eastwood writes: "It is difficult to see how the tcho in the following 
passages differs from the relative pronoun. Indeed in the Auth. Yers. 
it is rendered he that, and in the 2d Wicliffite Version irhicli. Ecclus. 
.XIV. 20seq.: Blisful the man that shal dwelle in wisdam, and that in 
rightwisnesse sweteli shal thenke, and in wit shal thenke the looking 
abonte of God. Who thenketh out the weies of hym in his herte, and 
in hid thingus of it vnderstonding shal be; goende after it as enserchere, 
and in the weies of it beende stille. Who byholdeth bi the wyndowes 
of it, and in the jatis of it is herende; who resteth biside the hous of 
it, and in the walles of it piccheth a pale." 

Of \cho as a relative, 'under considerable restriction' (as Mr. Weyiuouth 


says, p. 69), Dr. Stocker's extract from the so-called WiclifiVs Apology, 
c. 1380, may serve as an instance: "But wo is pe formar and original 
cause, wel, and biginning of pis gret inel, I drede ungly to sey." p. 55. 
The Wycliffite versions give for the "God who is rich in mercy" 
(Eph. ii. 4) of our Authorised Version, cited p. 71, I. forsoth God that is 
riche in merci, II. but God that is riche in merci. 

From Palsgrave's L'esclaircissement, 1530, Mr. Ellis sends the follow- 
ing extracts: 

Book 2, fo. 34. "Interrogatiues be .iii. qui who, quel what maner, and 
que what. Relatiues be .ii. qui whiche, and le quel the whiche." 

Book 3, fo. 108. "Who be they agaynst whome you haue to warre: 
Alayn Chartier, Qui sont ceulx contre qui vous aues a garroier.'' 

Ib. verso. "The man whiche begynneth and cannat make an ende is 

nat to be holden wyse and I wkiche trusted hym aboue all men 

was begyled amongest the first .... All women whiche regarde their honour 
take exemple by her." 

Ib. fo. 109. "The man in whom I dyd put all my trust ... for whiche 
thyuge it is more easily to be pardoned to the, par quoy il test de 
legier plus pardonable." 

However, the extract from Hawes, p. 71, which I was lucky enough 
to hit on before Mr. Weymouth's Paper was read, shows that who had 
established itself as a relative by 1555, if not 1509; and two extracts 
sent by Mr. J. M. Cowper from Lyte in 1578, completely justify Captain 
Barry's similar use of it in 1627: 

Who, a simple relative, nom. case. " Venus loued the younker Adonis 
better then the carrier Mars (who loued Venus with all his force and 
might) but when Mars perceiued that Venus loued Adonis better then 
him, he slew Adonis." (1578) Dodoen's Hist, of Plants, Lyte's Transl. 
p. 656. 

Who, a simple relative, nom. case. "Some also say that Roses be- 
came red, with the casting down of that heauenly drinke Nectar, whiche 
was shed by Cupide that wanton boy, who playing with the Goddes 
sitting at the table at a Banquet, with his winges ouerthrew the pot 
wherein the Nectar was." (1578) Dodoen's Hist, of Plants, Lyte's Transl. 
p. 656. 

Page 197. The earliest extract that I have happened to light on, con- 
taining the phrase diametrically opposite, was sent in for the Dictionary 
by Mrs. D. Richardson of Rye Hill, Newcastle, as follows: 

"The foolish Painter, that to a Man's Head added a Stag's Neck and 
a Fishes Body, did not Limn a more deformed Monster, than those pre- 
pare a monstrous unwholsom Diet, for either the well or sick, who jumble 
together Ingredients so heterogenious , and as it were diametrically op- 
posite" (1692) Tryon's Good House-wife made a Doctor, ch. xiv. p. 104. 


The Rev. C. Campbell sends another extract for it from NORTH in 1742: 

"If he had not consorted with a party diametrically opposite to the 
interests of the crown." (1742-4) North's Lives, v. 1, p. 182 (ed. 182(5). 

The Rev. Professor Whittard supplies an earlier use of the adverb 
diamilrally from Prynne: 

Diamil rally, adv., = diametrically. "If you become either darke Lan- 
thornes which can yeeld no light, or starkblinde, purblinde, squinteyed 
Seers ... or if you commonly reside so farre remote, so distant from your 
Bishopricks for your ease, ... as that they are beyond the compasse of 
your ken, your view, much more your oversight: (a fault not tolerable 
in any overseers, as being diamilrally repugnant to their office, but most 
odious, most insufferable in the master overseers of Christ's most precious 
flock and mens most peerlesse soules) needs must our Church ... become 
exceeding dark and blinde." (1629) Prynne, Old Antithesis, Pref. p. 24. 

Play of the Sacrament. Preface, p. 1. The continuance of the plural 
in -ih to a late date having been doubted by some; I add the following 
confirmations of W. S.'s evidence ; those from Lord Berners being sup- 
plied by the Rev. K. Bowles, and those from Strype, by the Rev. J. T. 

"Thus went the realme ofFraunce out of y c ryght lynage as it semed 
to many folk, wherby great imrres hath mouecl and fallen." (1523) Lord 
Berners' Transl. of Froissart, vol. i. ch. v. p. 4. 

"A, fay re lady, quoth the kyng; other thynyes lyetk at my hert that 
}Q knowe nat of." Ibid. ch. Ixxvii. p. 99. 

"Than she returned agayne to the kyng and ... sayd, sir, yf it please 
Jou to come into the hall, your hniglites abideth for you to wasshe." 
Ibid. p. 99. 

"To all them that this present letter K scyth, we send gretyng." Ibid, 
ch. ccxlii. p. 3") 8. 

"I trust ryght shortly so to describe your most noble realm and to 
publysh the Majestie of the excellent acts of your progenitours, hytherto 
sore obscured, both for lack of em-pryntyng of such works as lay secretly 
in corners; as also because men of eloquence hath not enlerprised to set 
them fourth in a floryshing style." John Leland's New-year's-gift to King 
Henry in the 35th year of his reign, 1543, quoted in Strype's Eccl. 
Memorials, vol. 6, p. 245. 

"Part of the exemplaries curyously sought by me and fortunately found 
in sondry places of this your domynion, hath bene emprynted in Germany." 
Id. ibid. 

"Farther to insinuate to your grace, of what matters the icrilerx, whose 
lyves I have congested into four bokes, hatk treated of- I may ryirhtly 
say that ... there is no kynd of lyberal scyence ... in the which they 
have not shewed certain arguments of great felycite of wyt." Id. p. 247. 


"Whensoever they were present, the rest of the clergy were standing 
and uncovered, how long soever it were: which Dr. William Turner, Dean 
of Wells ... after the way of those times described it "If ye saw them 
(the Bishops) how slavely and bondly they handle the rest of the clergy 
in their convocation-house, ye would say they were the pope's right- 
shapen sons. For whereas there sitlelh but seven or eight lennin-wearing 
bishops at the table in the convocation-house, if there be threescore pastors 
and elders they are wool-wearers " (he meaneth like so many meek sheep)." 
Strype, Eccl. Mem. vol. 4, p. 77. (1553) 

"We have .. sundry intelligences of divers and sundry leud and seditious 
tales forged and spred by certain malicious persons .... whose faults passing 
unpunished seemeth either to be winked at or at least little considered." 
From Queen Mary's Proclamation "the first year of our reign". (1553.) 
Strype, Eccl. Mem. vol. 7, p. 47. 

"Articles to be enquyred of, in the general visitation of Edmund [Boner] 
Bishop of London, exercised by him in the year of our Lord 1554... 
And set forth by the same for his own discharge towards God and the 
world, to the honour of God and his catholick church and to the com- 
moditie and profyt of al those, that either are good (which he wolde were 
al) or delighlelh in goodnes (which he wisheth to be many), -without any 
particular grudge or displeasure to any one." Strype, Eccl.Mein. v. 7, p. 50. 

"This we must remember withal, that two kind of men dyelh: the 
faithful, the infidel; the obedient, the rebellious. There are that dyeth 
under the unity of the Church: there are that dyeth in the sedition of 
Core: there are that dyeth under the Gospel: there are that dyeth under 
the Alcoran." From a sermon preached by Bishop White (Winton) at 
the Funeral of Qu. Mary, 1558, inserted in Strype, Eccl. Mem., v. 7, p. 402. 

Our Authorised Version (1611) of the Bible has too in Matthew VI, 
19,20: "Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth 
and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal; but 
lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust 
doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal." And 
in 1 Corinthians XIII, 13: "And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these 
three; bat the greatest of these is charity." 

Again, Thomas Mason, in his Christ's Victorie, 1615, has, in The 
Epistle to the Reader: "And if we account the aforesaid 1260 yeares of 
Antichrists raigne from thence, there remaineth but about 46 yeares to 
come, vntil God shal call together the kings of the earth to destroy Rome." 


SOCIETY IN 1860-1. 

Thursday, January 12, 1860. 
Prof. GOLDSTIJCKER iii the Chair. 

George Long, Esq., was duly elected a Member of the Society. 
The Papers read were I. "On the names of the \Voodlouse"; 
by E.Adams, Esq. 11. "On Enclitics and Proclitics, especially 
in the Latin Language"; by Prof. Key. 

January 26, 1860. 
SIR J. F. DAVIS, BART., in the Chair. 

The Paper read was "Views on the original meaning of the 
auxiliary verbs 'to be', 'to go', 'to do'"; by Prof. Goldstiicker. 

February 9, 1860. 
F. PCLSZKY, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following works were presented 

A Syllabus of a proposed System of Logic: by Prof. De Morgan. 
The Madras Journal of Literature and Science, Nos. 7 and 8. 
Report of the Sub-Committee of the Madras Literary Society on 

writing Indian works in Roman characters. 

and the thanks of the Council returned to their respective donors. 
The Papers read were I. "How did Canada get its name''; 
by Rev. Dr. B. Davis. II. "On the word nutria"; by Prof. Key. 
III. "On Sisterfamilies of Languages''; by Dr. C. Lottner. 

The Secretary was authorized to apply to the Secretary of 
State for India for a grant of Books on Indian Languages, it 
having been stated by the Assistant Secretary that such grants 
were being made to certain Public Libraries. 

February 23, 1860. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

A donation of thirty-eight Volumes from the Secretary of State 
for India was announced, and the Hon. Secretaries were directed 
to return the warmest thanks of the Meeting to the Secretary 
of State for India for this very handsome Present. 

The Paper read was "On certain peculiar and advantageous 
properties of the written Language of China''; by Sir John F. 
Davis, Bart. 


March 8, 1860. 
SIR JOHN F. DAVIS, BAKT., in the Chair. 

The Canones Lexicographic!, or Rules to be observed in editing 
the Society's New Dictionary, as agreed upon by the Committee, 
were laid on the Table, and it was announced that they would 
be discussed on April 12. 

The Papers read were I. "On the Vowel changes in the 
Hungarian Language''; by F. Pulszky, Esq. II. "On a peculiar 
construction noticed in the Old Norse and Irish"; by Whitley 
Stokes, Esq. 

March 22, 1860. 
HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Paper read was "On certain questions connected with 
ancient Hindu chronology"; by Prof. Goldstiicker. 

April 12, 1860. 
Professor KEY in the Chair. 

John Muir, Esq., was duly elected a Member of the Society. 
The Chairman opened the discussion of the Canones Lexico- 
graphici drawn up by the Committee of the Society appointed 
December 8, 1859, which discussion was also continued at the 
Meetings of April 26th and May 10th, and the results of it have 
been printed in full and circulated among the Members. 

April 26, 1860. 
The Very Rev. the DEAN OF WESTMINSTER in the Chair. 

A pamphlet by Charles J. Beke, Ph.D., "On the Geographical 
distribution of the Languages of Abyssinia and the neighbouring 
countries", was presented by the Author, and the thanks of the 
Society returned to him for the same. 

The discussion of the Canones Lexicographic! was continued. 

May 10, 1860. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

M. Albert Colin, M. Charles Cassal , and Dr. Helmoke were 
balloted for and duly elected Members of the Society. 

The Chairman announced to the Meeting the lamented death 
of one of its Vice-Presidents, Prof. Horace Hayman Wilson, and 
paid a warm tribute to his character and literary merits. 

The discussion of the Canones Lexicographic! was resumed, 
after which it was resolved that the revised Canons be referred 


to the former Committee for a general revision as to wording 
and arrangement before they are finally issued. 

A Paper "On the Canones Lexicographic! and New Dictionary'' 
by the Rev. ]). Coleridge, was read, and the thanks of the .Meet- 
ing voted to him for it. 

Mai/ 31, 18GO. (Anniversary Meeting.) 
Professor KEY in the Chair. 

The Rev. S Cheetham and the Rev. S. Benham were balloted 
for and duly elected Members of the Society. 

The following Members of the Society were elected its Officeis 
for the ensuing year: 

President. '\\Q Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. David's. 


The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of London. 

The Right Hon. Lord Lyttleton. 

Edwin Guest, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 

Ordinary Members of Council. 
Ernest Adams, Esq. .). Power Hicks, Esq. 

Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P. 
P. .1. Chabot, Esq. 

Herbert Coleridge, Esq. 
Rev. Derwent Coleridge. 
Rev. Dr. B. Davies. 
Rev. John Davies. 
Sir J. F. Davis, Bart. 
Th. Goldstiicker, Esq. 
Re\. Dr. Hawtrev. 

Rev. Dr. Kynaston. 
Henry Maiden, Esq. 
.1. M. Norman, Esq. 
F. Pulszky, Esq. 
Whitley Stokes, Esq. 
The Very Rev. Dean Trench. 
Thomas Watts, Esq. 
H. D. Woodfall, Esq. 
B. B. Woodward, Esq. 

Treasurer. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 
JFon. Secretaries. T. Hewitt Key, Esq.: F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

The Treasurer's Cash Account for the past year, as approved 
by the Auditors (P. J. Chabot and F. J. Furnivall, Esqrs ), was 
read and adopted. 

The Papers read were I. U 0n the word culorum''; by Herbert 
Coleridge, Esq. II. "Philological notes and queries on the Liber 
Winton"; by B. B. Woodward, Esq. The thanks of the Meeting 
were voted to the writers for these Papers. 

June 21, 1860. 
HENSI.KKJII WKDUWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 

E. Oswald, Esq., and W. H. Reece, Esq., were duly elected 
Members of the Society. 

The Paper read was "Metrical Time, or the Rhythm of Verse, 
ancient and modern"; by T. F. Barbara, Esq. 


November 8, 1860. 
Prof. MALDEN in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and the thanks of the 
Society voted to their respective donors: 
Smithsonian reports 1858. 
First report of a Geological reconnaissance of the Northern counties 

of Arkansas. 

Memoirs of the American Academy, Vol. VI, part 2. 
Proceedings of the American Academy. 
Madras Journal, Oct. 1859, March 1860. 
Proceedings of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, 3 parts. 
Verslagen en Mededelliugen der k. Acad. van Wetenschappen, 5th 

and 10th Vols. 

Jaarboek van der k. Acad. van Wetenschappen. 
Catalogus van de Bookerij 

Kemarks on the recent progress of the Sanskrit Literature; by Dr. 


Luther's Vagabonds; by Mr. C. Holler. 
Chinese History; by Mr. J. Williams. 

The Papers read were I. "Miscellaneous English Etymologies" ; 
by H. Wedgwood, Esq. II. "On the exclusion of certain words 
from a dictionary"; by H. Coleridge, Esq. 

November 22, 1860. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting returned to the donor: 

Journal of the Frisian Society of Art, Antiquity, &c.) From the Frisian 
List of Frisian Books. j Society. 

Rev. A. S. D'Orsey, Fitzedward Hall, Esq., and W. Gibbs, 
Esq., were duly elected Members of the Society. 

The Papers read were I. "On decapitated words"; by Prof. 
Key. II. "Emendations of some misprinted passages in Shake- 
speare", Pt. 1; by W. C. Jourdain, Esq. 

December 13, 1860. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

Charles Daubeny, Esq., and E. K. Horton, Esq., were duly 
elected Members of the Society. 

A Tractate on Language, by W. J. Gyll, Esq., was presented 
by the author, and the thanks of the Society voted to him for 
the same. 

The Papers read were I. "On the Scandinavian origin of are, 
the plural of the verb substantive"; by Dr. C. Lottner. II. 
"Emendations of some passages in Shakespeare", Pt. 2; by W. C. 
Jourdain, Esq. III. "On decapitated words", Pt. 2; by Prof. Key. 


December 27, 1860. 
PHILIP J. CIIABOT, Esq., in the Chair. 

Rev. Charles Crowden was duly elected a Member of the So- 

The following presents were announced and the thanks of the 
Society voted to their respective donors: 

A Zulu Kafir Dictionary, by Rev. J L. Dohnc; from K.R.H. the 

Prince Consort. 

Iln Tedliiri Milk. An Essay on Political Economy in Turkish, by 
diaries Wells, Esq.; from the author. 

The Paper read was "On decapitated words", Part 3; by 
Prof. Key. 

January 10, 1861. 
Professor KEY in the Chair. 

The Papers read were I. "On '?r//o' as a relative"; by R. F. 
cyiuouth, Esq II. "On the 
Wedlock"-, by D. P. Fry, Esq. 

\Vt-yniouth, Esq II. "On the terminations of Knowled/e and 

January 24, 1861. 
HENSLEKJII WEDGWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 

Frederick Watermeyer, Esq., was duly elected a Member of 
the Society. 

The Paper read was "A reconsideration of substantives in 
let"; by Prof. Key. 

February 14, 1861. 
TheRt.Rev.TheLouDBisnop OFST.DAVID'S, President, in the Chair. 

Ralph Carr, Esq., was duly elected a Member of the Society. 

The first part, A.-l). of the 3d Period, Basis of Comparison, 
for the Society's new English Dictionary was laid on the Table. 

The Papers read were I. "On Sisterfamilics of Languages", 
Pt. 2; by I>r. C. Lottner. II. "On the derivation and meaning 
of the word nV.s//"; by the Bishop of St. David's. III. "In- 
troduction to a Middle-Cornish Poem on the Passion of Christ''; 
by Whitley Stokes, Esq. 

February 28, 1861. 
Prut'. CJoLDsTrcKKK in the Chair. 

The Rev. \V. Bruce Cunningham was duly elected a 
of the Society. 


The Paper read was "On the names of Caterpillers, Snails, 
Slugs, and Worms"; by Dr. Adams. 

March 14, 1862. 
The Rt. Rev. The LORD BISHOP OF ST. DAVID'S, President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. J. S. Watson was duly elected a Member of the 

The Paper read was " On the Legend of the St. Graal and 
its history"; by Herr Albert Schnlz and F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

March 28, 1861. 
The Rev. T. 0. COCKAYNE in the Chair. 

Charles Wells, Esq., and Rev. G. C. Geldart were duly elected 
Members of the Society. 

The Paper read was "English Etymologies"; by H. Wedg- 
wood, Esq. 

April 11, 1861. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

"Epea Pteroenta" conveying revelations of the Past, by W. L. 
Bemerchel, A.M., was presented by the author, and the thanks 
of the Society returned for the same. 

The Paper read was "On Sisterfamilies of Languages"; by 
Dr. C. Lottner. 

April 25, 1861. 
J. POWER HICKS, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Furnivall announced the death on the preceding Tuesday 
of Herbert Coleridge, Esq., the Editor of the Society's New 
English Dictionary. 

The Paper read was "Miscellaneous remarks on Ritschl's 
Plautus, especially as regards the Latin perfect"; by Prof. Key. 

May 9, 1861. 
The Very Rev. The DEAN OF WESTMINSTER in the Chair. 

The Paper read was "On the Hindu God Savitri and his 
relation to the Greek Poseidon"; by Dr. Biihler. 

May 23, 1861. (Anniversary Meeting.) 
Prof. KEY in the Chair. 

The Treasurer's Cash Account, as approved by the Auditors 
(Messrs. P. J. Chabot and F. J. Furnivall), was read and adopted. 


The following Members of the Society were elected its officers 
for the ensuing year: 

President. The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. David's. 

Vice- Presidents . 

The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of London. 
The Right Hon. Lord Lyttleton. 
Edwin Guest, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 

Ordinary Members of Council. 
Ernest Adams, Esq. J. Power Hicks, Esq. 

Rev. J. W. Blakesley. 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P. 
P. J. Chabot, Esq. 
Rev. Derwent Coleridge. 
Rev. Dr. B. Davies. 
Rev. John Davies. 
Sir J. F. Davis, Bart. 
Th. Goldstucker, Esq. 
H. H. Gibbs, Esq. 

E. Steane Jackson, Esq. 
Henry Maiden, Esq. 
J. M. Norman, Esq. 
\Vhitley Stokes, Esq. 
Tom Taylor, Esq. 
The Very Rev. Dean Trench. 
Thomas Watts, Esq. 
H. D. Woodfall, Esq. 
B. B. Woodward, Esq. 

Treasurer. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 
Hon. Secretaries.^. Hewitt Key, Esq.; F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

Mr. Furnivall made a statement as to the present condition 
of the Collections for the Society's Dictionary, and the course 
he proposed to pursue with regard to the scheme. 

The Paper read was "On the connecting vowels in Greek 
inflexions", Pt, 1; by Prof. Maiden. 

June 13, 1861. 
The Rev. DERWENT COLERIDGE in the Chair. 

The Rev. Mordaunt Barnard was elected a Member of the 

Two Volumes of the Transactions of the Accademia delle Scienze 
e delle Belle Lettere of Palermo were presented , and the thanks 
of the Society voted for the same. 

The Papers read were I. "On the derivation of ylvxvs, deli- 
cate and delight"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. II. "On the connect- 
ing vowels in Greek inflexions", Pt 2; by Prof. Maiden. 

June 27, 1861. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Furnivall announced that the Council had adopted the 
following resolutions: 

I. That Notices of the Meetings and Papers to be read, be sent 
once a month by post to all Members residing in London 
and within 5 Miles of it. 


II. That reviews of Books be admitted into the Society's Trans- 
actions, and form an appendix to each Volume. 

III. That reports of the condition and progress of the different 

branches of Philology during the past year by Members 
conversant with each particular branch, will be accepted 
with pleasure by the Council as contributions to the Trans- 

IV. That the Printing-Committee be appointed annually. 

V. That the Honorary Secretaries be requested to make arrange- 
ments to have a report of the Society's Meetings regularly 
sent to some of the weekly Papers. 

The Papers read were I. "On the word ornare r '; by Prof. 
Key. II. "On the word Hespera" '; by Prof. Key. III. U 0n 
Finland. A translation from the Norsk Manedschrift , published 
in Christiania in 1855", communicated by Mr. Woodfall. 

November 14, 1861. 
Prof. KEY in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and the thanks of the 
Society voted to their respective donors. 

From the Smithsonian Institute: Contributions to Knowledge, 

Vols. XL XII. Reports. 1859. 2 Copies. 
From the American Academy: Memoirs, Vol. VII. Proceedings, 

various Nos. 

From the American Philological Society: Various Vols. and Nos. 
From the State of Arkansas: Second Geological Survey. 
From the Friesch Genootschap voor Geschied <fec. -.Their Miscellanies, 

new Series, Part 3, Nos. 2. 3. 

The Paper read was "On Turkish and its relation to other 
European Languages"; by C. Wells, Esq. 

November 28, 1861. 
HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 

T. Pryce Jones, Esq., was proposed and duly elected a Member 
of the Society. 

The Papers read were I. "On Sanskrit roots"; by E. B. Tylor, 
Esq. II. "Some Notes on the Roxburghe Club Morte Arthur"; 
by R. F. Weymouth, Esq. III. "Instances of the use of 'who' 
as a relative"; by Rev. J. Eastwood. 

December 12, 1861. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following present was announced and the thanks of the 
Society voted for the same: 


Essays, Ethnological and Linguistic; by the late James Kennedy, 
LL B., formerly a Member of the Society; presented by his son, 
C. M. Kennedy, Esq. 

The Paper read was "The family relationship between the 
Finnish and Indo-Germanic Languages maintained"; byHensleigh 
Wedgwood, Esq. 

December 26, 1861. 

Only four Members being present, the Meeting resolved to 


S _> 

w4 ^ 

? ^ S 

w c 

m ' 

> to co 


3 H 






g I 

2 g 

* 0> 


s cy 

O O 

6-f fl 

**" <& 



o o 

& S 

s- p -, g 

CO ^ 




*-i -i 

^^* *^ 

s. i 

" B 


' B 

Hi J> 

> CD 

- 5' 




S 3 

5* o" 

1 ? 

OO fo 

o ^ 




1 s 

S 5 g 

" t 






r 3 - sr o 

QQ > 




1 > 







i. ^ 













1 i 

Cfl Q 



CO ^ 
Cn O5 

O en 



J^ > 

o ^ J* 


tb : 

O O 

CO <l ?- 




Jt H 


^ Ou 








^ ! 



Hi M 

o < 

5 C 



5 ?- 


& w* 

OQ" o 

P o 

s. S 

^i 3 










- Balance carried to next Account, viz, 
Cash at Bankers' 

- one overpaid Subscription return e 
Collector's commission 
New Dictionary Committee 

By Firing and Gas to July 1, 1859 

- Salary to Assistant-Secretary to A 
- Printing, Messrs. A. Asher & Co. 01 
- Stationery, and Circulating Procee 
Refreshments and Attendance . . . . 




~ 1 


& 1 *5 


H* ts 

o -. 

9 tO 

> to 

1 CO 




00 o ^ 

S z " 

I \\ 


O Hi 

95 N 

) Oi 



-* to 

"* H 1 


O t- 

Hi CO tO flu 



,_ l 


I h 

:> Hi 


Hi bO H> 

*- o o o o ! 

1 H 

- oo 


O O5 O 

O 4^ O O O ? 





) CO 



rH CO 






4 O 
4 rH 






rH rH 











rH <N 



CJ ca O ^ 









CO iO 

















a s 
*4 2 


M *- 

w ? 

<J ^ 









Salary to Assistant-Secretary to Apri 
Printing: Messrs. P. Francis <fe Co. 

on account Trans. 1857 
Messrs. A. Asher <fe Co. on 

account Trans. 1859.. 










New Dictionary Committee Expense 

Stationery, and Circulating Proceedi: 

Refreshments and Attendance 








Balance carried to next Account, Tiz. 

Balance at Bankers' 
Cash in hands of Assist.- Secretary 








i \ 
' ' 

1 1 1 1 1 


J.Ti ii >^ ^^ ^ 

-i-s-s li: 

0) fL, 


printed by Unger brothers, Printers to the King. 


THE following Middle-Cornish poem was called by Mr. Davies 
Gilbert, its former editor, "Mount Calvary" '. Zeuss, however, 
with more reason , entitled it Carmen de Passione Christi, and this 
name is justified by the second line of the first stanza: 
Re wronte }eugh gras ha whans je wolsowas y basconn 
"That He grant you grace and desire to hear his Passion!" 

There are four copies of this poem : A. in the British Museum, 
marked Harl. N. 1782; B. in the Bodleian, marked Gough, Corn- 
wall 4; C. also in the Bodleian, marked Gough, Cornwall 3; 
and D. a copy lately in the possession of Mr. Hotten of Piccadilly, 
who declines to name its present owner. The first is a small 
quarto on vellum, containing 21 folios, written in a hand of the 
fifteenth century. The others are on paper , and appear , says Mr. 
Norris, to be copies taken from the Museum MS. The poem is 
now printed from a transcript of codex A, which I made last 
Christmas vacation. 

Of Mr. Davies Gilbert's edition Zeuss thus writes: 

"Male certe se habet cormcus textus hujus editionis, tarn male 
ut vix credi possit , correctionem esse factam in eo vel sphalmatum 
typothetarum . . . Dignum certe est hoc poema quod puriorem et 
diligentiorem editionem nanciscatur." (Grammatica Celtica, praef. 

And Mr. Norris, referring to the passage just quoted, ob- 
serves : 

"I would go still further than Zeuss, and say that the person 
who prepared the manuscript for the printer, was quite unable to 

1 Mount Calvary, or the History of the Passion, Death, and Resur- 
rection of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Written in Cornish (as 
it may be conjectured) some centuries past, interpreted in the English 
tongue in the year 1682 by John Keigwiu, Gent. Edited by Davies 
Gilbert. London 1826. 


read the work he was copying; moderately speaking, there are 
eight errors in every stanza." {Cornish Drama, II, 441.) 

Zeuss might well have extended his censure to the translation 
by Keigwin (interpaged in Mr. Gilbert's edition), which betrays 
great ignorance of the Cornish language. The following extracts 
from pages 4-7 of Mr. Gilbert's book will justify these assertions as 
to inaccuracy of text and version. The rest of his edition is 
equally faulty. 

Stanza 6, lines 1,2: 

A peynis a worthenis ny ve rag tho y honan 
Lemyn rag pobyl an lys pan vous kessis marman 
"From y e paynes and miseryes we felt for 'twas his pity, 
Now for ye people of y world when were they found so weak." 

The same, rightly read and translated: 
A[n] peynys a wothevys' ny ve ragtho y honan 
leminyn rag pobyll an bys' pan vons y kefis mar wan 
"The pains which He suffered, were not for Himself 
But for the people of the world, since they were found so weak." 

Stanza 8, line 1: 

Llyn nagoft den skentyll pa pare del wou lavaraffthys 
"Although I not be a man learned at all, like as I know let me tell thee." 

The same, rightly read and translated: 

Kyn na goff den skentyll pur - par del won lavaraff jys. 
"Though I am not a very learned man, even as I know I will tell thee." 

Stanza 10, line 4: 

Ha wotewyth ray demys eff an geve awell boys 
"And at last for hunger he found fit to have meat." 
The same, rightly read and translated: 

Ha wotewyth rag densys- eff an geve awell boys 
"And at last, owing to His Humanity, He had a desire for food," 

Stanza 12, lines 3,4: 

Dre worthyp Christ yn urna lemyn ny a yll gwelas 

Lavar du maga del wrei neb a vynno y glewas 
"By the worship of Christ in y* hour now we may see 

The word of God feed, so will who will it hear." 
The same, rightly read and translated: 

dre wor^yp crist yn urna lemmyn ny a yll gwelas 

lavar du maga del wra 1 neb a vyuno y glewas. 
"By Christ's answer then we may now see 

How God's word feeds whomsoever will hear it." 


Considering, then, that this poem comprises rather more than 
one fifth of the extant literature of Middle-Cornish; consider- 
ing, too, the fact that the Cornish portion of Zeuss' invaluable 
work is not altogether satisfactory owing to its having been al- 
most entirely founded upon Mr. D. Gilbert's edition of the poem 
in question; the Council of the Philological Society have thought 
fit to print the following text with a corrected translation. 

As to the text I have followed the Museum MS. with the utmost 
faithfulness. In that codex a character like j is generally written 
for the aspirated d, the modern Welsh dd\ but in gor^-yp (12, 3) 
'answer' ( W. gwrth-eb 'objection'), por\as 'portavit' (26, 2), 
mollo) 'maledictio' (66,3), molo\ek 'maledictus' (47, 3), gor^ye 've- 
nerari' (148, 3. 228, 2), gwyyj 'venae' (183, 4), guerre 'vendidit' 
(104,4), cowers 'societas'(110,2), pym^ek 'quindecim' (227,3. 228,1), 
por\ow 'portas' (212, 1), and gwar^a 'summitas' (253,2), j stands 
for ih, and in ba\on (45, 3) 'basin' and Na\are (69, 3, Na^ary 255, 2) 
it represents s or z. On the other hand th is sometimes written 
for the aspirated c?, as in \e tliu (1,4) 'to God' (da). U, again, 
is often put for v, and v for u. I have not thought it necessary or 
desirable to make the scribe's practice in these and other respects 
uniform. The reader will accordingly sometimes find the definite 
article, prepositions, and verbal prefixes (with or without the 
suffixed pronouns) united as in Old-Irish, to the words to 
which they respectively belong. Nay, I have even followed the 
scribe in what I take to be his blunders, and written a veil for 
avel ( Ir. amhail), yn ire for yntre, na gonon for nag onon, gam 
am for gansatji , war ne\y for warne\y, &c. The contractions, which 
often occur in the MS., I have expanded, but such expansions have 
always been printed in italics. I have also used italics in the 
translation wherever I had to render reduplicated or emphatic 
pronouns. In preparing this translation which I wish to be judged 
of from the philological, not the literary point of view I have 
received much kind and valuable assistance from the Rev. Robert 
Williams of Rhydycroesau and from Edwin Norris, Esq. 

Jan. 31. 1861. W. S. 





[fo. la.] 

Tays ha mab ban speris sans wy abys a levn golon 
Re wronte jeugh gras ha whans }e wolsowas y basconn 
Ha }ywmo gras ha skyans the ^erevas par lauarow 
may fo ^e thu je worthyans* ha sylwans }en enevow 


Suel a vynno bos sylwys golsowens ow lauarow 
A ihesu del ve helheys* war an bys avel carow 
Ragon menough rebel's ha dyspresijs yn harow 
yn growys gans kentrow fastis peynys bys pan ve marow 


Du sur dre virtu an tas * }ynny a ^yttyas gweras 
En mab dre y skyans bras pan gemert kyg a werhas 
han sperys sans leun a ras dre y gadder may fe gum 
Go^aff paynys pan vynnas neb na ylly gull peghes 


An dus vas a jeserya* jeje gulas nef o kyllys 
gans aga garni hag olua' ihesus cn'st a ve mevijs 
may fynnas dijskynna' yn gwerhas ha bos genys 
gans y gyk agan perna* arluth du gwyn agan bys 


Ihesu cn'st mur gerense* }e vab den a ^yswejas 
an vghelder may ^ese jen bys pan deyskynnas 

[fo. 1 b.] 

Pehadoryon rag perna 4 o desevijs dre satnas 
rag henna gorjyn neffra- ihesus neb agan pernas 


A[n] peynys a wotheuys ny ve ragtho y honan 
lemmyn rag pobyll an bys pan vons y kefz's mar wan 
an ioull je adam kewsys' an avel te kemer tarn 
a veil du y fethyth gurys- pan yn provas nyn io mam 




Father, and Son, and the Holy Ghost, ye shall beseech with a full heart 
That He grant to you grace and desire to hear His Passion, 
And to me grace and knowledge to declare (it) by words 
That there be honour to God, and salvation to the souls. 


Whosoever would be saved let him hearken to my words, 
Of Jesus, how he was hunted on the world like a deer: 
For us he was often reproached and despised cruelly, 
Fastened on a cross with nails, tortured till he was dead. 


God surely dighted help to us thro' the Father's Power, 
Thro' the Son's great Wisdom , when he took flesh of a virgin , 
And thro' the Goodness of the Holy Ghost full of grace, so that He was made 
Suffer pains as he was willing, (he) who could not commit sin. 


The good folk desired for themselves heaven's country which was lost, 
With their cry and lamentation Jesus Christ was moved 
That he would descend into a virgin and be born 
With his flesh to redeem us Lord God, happy our lot! 


Jesus Christ shewed much love to (the) son of man 
When he descended to the world from the height where he was, 

To redeem sinners who were felled by Satan; 
Therefore let us forever worship Jesus who redeemed us. 


The pains which he suffered, were not for himself, 
But for (the) people of the world since they were found so weak. 
The devil said to Adam: "take thou a bit of the apple: 
Like God thou shalt be made" when he proved it it was not good. 



War lyrgh mab den je begha* reson prag y f e prynnys 
yw ihesus cn'st je ordna* yn neff y vonas tregys 
y vos kyllys ny vynna* y doull ganso o tewlys 
rag henna je bob dyjgthtya* forth a rug the vos sylwys 


Kyn na goff den skentyll pur - par del won lauaraff jys 
yn tre du ha pehadur* acordA del ve kemerys 
rag bonas gonn [leg. 'gan] pegh mar vur mayn yn treje a vegurys 
eff o cn'st a theth jen leur- mab du ha den yw kyffris 


Ragon y pesys y das* oil y sor may fe gevys 
gans y gorff dre beynys bras agan pegh may fo prennys 
mab marea leun a ras* oil y voth a ve clewys 
ha kymmys a theseryas 5050 eff a ve grontis 


I vam pan yn drehevys hay vos deue^'s je oys 
gull penans ef a pesys henna ganso nyn io poys 

[fo. 2 a.] 
[djevguans [leg. deu ugans] dyth ow penys y speynas (?) y gyk 

hay woys 
ha woteweth rag densys eff an geue awell boys 


Han ioull henna pan glewas * y demptye a brederys 
ha ^op y tysque^as* cals meyn hay leuerys 
Mar sos mab du leun a ras' an veyn ma gura bara js 
ihesus cn'st par del vynnas 5050 ef a worthebys 


Mab den heb ken ys bara' nyn geuas oil y vewnas 
lemmen yn lauarow da* a the ^e worth an dremas 
dre worjyp cn'st yn vrna* lemmyn ny a yll gwelas 
lauar du maga del wra* neb a vynno y glewas 


Gans gloteny ef pan welas * cam na ylly y dolla 
en tebell el a vynnas * yn ken maner y demptya 
war penakyll yn goras dyantell je ese^a 
a vgh eglos tek yn wlas* an yset[h]va y jesa 



After (the) son of man sinned (the) reason why he was redeemed 
Is that Jesus Christ ordained that he should dwell in heaven. 
He would not that he should be lost, his plan with him was determined, 
Therefore did he prepare a way for all to be saved. 


Though I am not a very learned man, even as I know I will tell to thee 
Between God and sinner how accord was taken. 
Because our sin was so great, a mean was made between them, 
He was Christ that came to the earth, Son of God and Man he is likewise. 


For us he prayed his Father that all His wrath might be remitted, 
That with his body, through great pains, our sin might be redeemed. 
Mary's Son full of grace , all his wish was heard , 
And as much as he desired unto him was granted. 


When his Mother (had) reared him, and he was come to age, 
To do penance he prayed that with him was not grievous. 

Two score days in doing penance, he spent his flesh and his blood, 

And at last thro' (his) Manhood he had a desire for food. 


And the Devil, when he heard that, thought to tempt him, 
And unto him shewed hard stones, and said: 

"If thou art God's Son full of grace, make these stones bread for thyself." 
Jesus Christ as he would, unto him he replied: 


"(The) Son of Man without other than bread hath not taken all his life, 
But in good words that come from the Supremely-good." 
By Christ's answer then we may now see 
How God's word feeds whomsoever will hear it. 


When he saw that with gluttony he could not a whit deceive him, 
The wicked angel would tempt him in another manner. 
He placed him on a pinnacle dangerous to sit upon: 
Above a fair church in the country the seat was. 



An ioul jegryst a gewsys' yn delma rag y demptye 
a hanas y thew scn'fys' bos eleth worth je wyje 
rag own yw jom desevys je droys worth meyn je dochye 
mar sos mab du a \ur brys' dijskyn ha jew dor ke 


Ihesus cn'st a leuem* je thu ny goth thys tewiptye 
yn neb ehan a seruys lemmyn prest y honore 

[fo. 2b.] 

Ha whath an Ioul a dewlys- towll ken maner mar [cjalle 
dre neb forth a govaytzV gujyll jy gowsys tryle 


A lene yn hombrowkyas vghell war ben vn meneth 
ha 5030 y tysquethas owr hag arghans gwels ha gweth 
ha kywmys yn bys vs vas* yn meth an ioul te a feth 
ha me ad wra arluth bras* ow honore mar my/myth 


Ihesus cn'st a leuem y vos scryfys yn lyffrow 
yn pub gwythres ycoth thys * gorjye ^e ju hay hanow 
Ke je ves omscumvnys ^e jyveyth veth yn tewolgow 
the vestry a vyth lejys neffre war en enevow 


An ioul a trylyas sperys* hag eth jy tyller tythy 
tergweyth y fe convyctijs' evn yw jyn y voleythy 
je ihesu may fons parys jy gomfortye yredy 
an neff y fe danvenys je worth an tas eleth dy 


Ha satnas gans y antell- hay scherewneth hay goyntis 
crest mab an arluth vghell y demptye pan predem 
besy yw jys bos vuell' ha spernabyll yth seruys 
mawno allo an tebell- ogas ^ys bonas trylys 


Rag y hyller ervyre hay welas yn suredy 
y vos prest worth je vetye je veth jys ha belyny 

[fo. 3 a.] 

te na yllyth omweje- vn pres yn geyth na peghy 
pan omsettyas je demptye gujyll pegh neb na ylly 



The devil said to Christ thus to tempt him: 
"Of thee it is written that there are angels guarding thee, 
For fear it is that thou fall (and) dash thy foot against a stone. 
If thou art Son of God of great worth, descend and go to the ground." 


Jesus Christ said: "Thy God it behoves thee not to tempt, 
But to honour Him always in every kind of service." 

And still the Devil cast a plan otherwise if he could 

Through some way of covetousness make him turn to his falsehood. 


Thence he led him high on top of a mountain, 
And shewed him gold and silver, grass and trees 
"And as much as is good in the world," said the Devil, "thou shalt have, 
And I will make thee a great lord if thou wilt worship me." 


Jesus Christ said: that it was written in books, 
In every work it behoves thee to worship thy God and His name. 
"Go thou away, accursed, to a wilderness ever, into darkness, 
Thy mastery over the souls shall be destroyed forever." 


The Devil lost heart, and went to his place quickly, 
Thrice was he convicted right it is for us to curse him. 
To Jesus, that they might be prepared to comfort him readily, 
From the heaven angels were sent to him from the Father. 


And Satan with his danger and his wickedness and his cunning 
Since he thought to tempt Christ, Son of the high Lord, 
It is needful for thee to be humble and steadfast (?) in thy service , 
That the evil one may not be turned near thee. 


For it is possible to observe and to see him surely 
That he is ready to meet thee for shame to thee and villainy. 

Thou canst not keep thyself a moment in the day from sinning, 
Since he set himself to tempt Him who could not commit sin. 



Del yw scn'fys prest yma* adro jywny ganso try 
mara kyll ^e worth an da' }e wejyll drok agan dry 
folle yn ta y whela 1 ys del wra lyon y pray 
drey dew yn peyn a calla- neffre ny vnsa moy ioy 


Gans an ioul kyn fy temptijs anojo na ro dymme 
rag comfort yw henna jys scn'fys y w yn leas le 
yt allos y vos gorrys * kyffn's seuell ha cothe 
ha ganso kynfes tewlys' te a yll seuel arte 


Ihesu cn'st yn pow a dro- pub eroll pregoth a wre 
han virtu an pregoth o- mab dew ^e ase peghe 
ha gevys may fe 3030 kyffrys y begh hay fyltye 
degi's na ve ^e worto gulas nef [h]a roys ^e gen re 


Benegas yw neb a gar' du dm pub tra vs yn bys 
hag a wojaffo yn whar - 30^0 ky mmys vs ordnys 
bo clevas bo peth kescar* po dre breson presonys 
ol en da han drok kepar' ^e ihesu bejens grassys 


Ihesu cn'st yn pow may the ef a sawye an glevyon 
dal na bojar ny ase * nag omlanar [leg. omlanas] na gonon 
na claff vyth ow crowethe mar pesy a leun golon 
whare sawijs y feje- del vyrma cn'st y honon 


[fo. 3b.J 

Pan welas an ethewon- bos cn'st au cuthyll meystry 
ow care ejomogyon* hag a ne^e na wre vry 
rag hewna an vuscogyon' orto a borjas avy 
dre vraster bras yn golon' y chuwgfy ons (leg.thugty ons ?) y jestrewy 


Dewsull blegyow pan ese yn mysc y abestely 
y wreg ^e re a ne^e' mos jen dre ha degylmy 
an asen ha dry ganse ha leuerell yredy 
mar teffa tus ha gweje- bos }e ju }e wull gywsy 



As it is written he is ready about ws, with him three (?) 

If he can bring us from the good to do evil, 

More furiously indeed he seeks than doth the lion his prey, 

To bring man into pain if he can, so that he should never know more joy. 


Though thou be tempted by the Devil, for him do not care a halfpenny. 
For comfort is that to thee, it is written in a multitude of places, 
That it is put in thy power as well to rise as to fall, 
And though thou hast been cast down by him, thou shalt be able to rise again. 


Jesus Christ about in the country at all times preached, 
And the virtue of his preaching was that the son of man should leave sinning, 
And that as well his sin as his filth would be forgiven to him, 
Nor the kingdom of heaven be taken from him and given to others. 


Blessed is he that loves God beyond every thing that is in the world, 
And that suffers gently as much as is ordained to him, 
Be it sickness, be it poverty (?), be it imprisonment in prison, 
All the good and the ill alike, to Jesus be thanks. 


Jesus Christ in (the) country where he went, he healed the sick, 
Blind nor deaf he left not who was not cured , not one , 
Nor any sick person lying down, if he prayed with a full heart, 
(But) was soon healed as Christ himself wished. 


When the Jews saw that Christ was working power, 
Loving the needy, and that of them he made no account, 
For that the madmen bare hatred towards him, 
Through great grossness in heart they prepared (?) to destroy him. 


(On) Palm Sunday when he was among his apostles, 
He caused some of them to go to the town and untie 
The she-ass and to bring (her) with them, and to say readily, 
If folk should come and keep (her), that God had to do with her. 



Del yrghys ihmis jeje y a rug a jesympys 
ol y voth ef del vynne* an asen a ve kerghys 
war nejy rag eseje dyllas pan a ve gorrys 
rag morogeth a vyrnie* ^en Cyte ^e vos gorthijs 


Mur a dus ha benenas* a ierusalem yn dre 
erbyw cn'st rag y welas y eth ha rag y worjye 
war an forth dyllas a les' a ve gums ^e ragthe 
palm ha flom kekyffm- er y byn degt's a ve 


I helwys a leuw golon* gans mur ioy ha lowene 
yn hanow du yn trejon- benegas yw neb a the 
cn'st a gafas gorkorian (leg. gockorion) yn templys a berth ywdr* 
ef a rug jeje yn scon- monas yn mes a lene 


En scherewys a sorras rag bonas cn'st honora 
ha bos y ober mar vras ha dm an bys ol notijs 
grussons cusyll na go vas rag may fo ihesus dyswm 

[fo. 4 a.] 
ha kymmys y an cablas may fe an dre lys 


An gusyl o may fe dm je rag cn'st pehadurfes] 
ol jy voth may rollo bres a nejy del re (?) je gres 

rag an la[h]ys ?ynny es' a vyn y dampnye porres 

ym mejens y forth nyn ges may hallo bos deflam gum 


Then tyller cn'st re dethye- haw e^ewon o dygnas 
I jesa an veny/i ganse para ens jy huhu^as 
hedre vons y ov plentye ihesus yn dowr a scry fas 
ha dre virtu an scn'fe* peb je ves a owdennas 


Pan ejons oil ^e wary ancombrys y rebea 
pema jn meth cn'st jyjy neb a vyn je guhuja 
denvy th nyn ges yn mejy ihesus a gewsys arta 
me nyth dawpnyaf yredy ha na wra na moy pegha 



As Jesus commanded them, they did straightway 
All his wish as lie willed: the she-ass was fetched. 
On her, for a seat when raiment was put, 
He would ride to the city to be worshipped. 


Much folk and women of Jerusalem at home 
Went to meet Christ, to see him, and to worship him. 
On the way raiment was put forth before him, 
Palm and likewise flowers were carried to meet him. 


They cried from a full heart, with much joy and gladness: 
"In God's name blessed is he that cometh amongst us!" 
Christ found traders in temples within the town, 
He made them forthwith go out from thence. 


The wicked were angered for that Christ was honoured, 
And his work was so great, and noted through all the world; 
They took counsel which was not good, that Jesus should be undone, 

And so much they disparaged him that the town was ed. 


The counsel was that a sinful-woman should be brought before Christ 
That he might give judgement upon her all according to his will as some(?) 


"For we have the laws, that will needs condemn her," 
They said, "there is no way that excuse can be made". 


To the place came Christ and the Jews who were opposed: 
The woman was with them: ready were they to accuse her. 
While they were complaining of her, Jesus wrote in the ground, 
And by virtue of the writing out every one withdrew. 


When all were gone out, not of one mind were they: 
"Where", said Christ to her, "is he that will accuse thee?" 
"There is no oiu- at all", said she. Jesus said again: 
"/ do not condemn thee indeed; go, sin no more." 



Benyn dyr vur cheryte- y box ryche leun a yly 
a vgh crist rag y vntye hy a vynnas y derry 
corf ihesus rag cowfortye gures pur sur o yredy 
ludas scharyoth ascable* ha gans mwr a falsury 


ludas fals a leuerys' trehans dynar a vone 
en box oil bejeris gwerthys a vos [leg. ha bos] den rag y ranne 
the vohosogyon yn bys* gwel vya ys y scolye 
ihesus crest a worthebys y gowsys ef a wojye 


Na thegough sor yn golon- war neb a vyn ow sawye 
ow thermyn a the yn scon' genough me nvm byth trege 
wy a gyff bohosogyon pub er warnough ow carme 
pan vynnough agis honon wy a yll gull da jeje 


[fo. 4b.] 

Wh[are] y s[o]ras ludas ny gewsy dre geryte 
[lemen] rag cafos ran vras' an pencon mar a calle 
Eff [o] harlot tebel was woteweth lader vye 
$en ejewon y ponyas* crist y arluth rag gwerje 


Eff a levem ?eje pyth a vywnough why je ry 
ha me a ra ^eugh spedye- ow cafos cn'st yredy 
yfons vnver jn tre^e * kepar ha del wovyny 
xxx [leg. dek warn ugens] a vone yn vn payment y wrens ry 


Arte ludas ow tryle * gwan wecor nyn geve par 
ny yl den vyth amontye* myns a gollas yn chyifar 
worth ihesu ef a fecle kepar ha pan ve hegar 
yn deweth ny acordye y golon gans y lauar 


Gans iudas del o tewlys 4 drey ihesus sur del vynne 
garcs crz'st y tho cowethys- byth nyn gens y coweje 
en gyth o deyow hablys may fenne ihesns sopye 
gans an re yn y seruys- wor an bys rejewesse 



A woman through much charity her box rich, full of salve, 
Over Christ to anoint him she wished to break it. 
To comfort the body of Jesus it was right surely made ready. 
Judas Iscariot disparaged her, and with much of falsehood. 


False Judas said: "three hundred pence of money! 
Let the box all be sold, and be to us to share it. 
To the poor in the country better it were than to spill it." 
Jesus Christ answered: his falsehood he knew. 


"Do not bear anger in heart against one who would save me: 
My time will come soon: with you I shall not stay: 
You will have (the) poor always calling on you: 
When you yourselves wish, you may do good to them." 


Anon Judas was wroth, he spoke not through charity, 
But to get a large share of the pay as he could. 
He was a scoundrel, an evil fellow, at last he was a thief 
To the Jews he ran to sell Christ his lord. 


He said to them: "what are you willing to give? 
And I will speed you, taking Christ forthwith." 
They were agreed (?) among them , even as he asked. 
Thirty [pieces] of money in one payment did they give. 


Again Judas turning a weak trader (that) found not an equivalent, 
Nor could any one compute, how much he lost in (the) bargain 
Jesus he flattered as when he was amiable: 
At the end his heart did not accord with his word. 


Thus was it arranged with Judas that he would surely bring Christ. 
With Christ he was associated: they were not at all comrades. 
The day was Maunday Thursday, so that Jesus would sup 
With those that lie had chosen into his service on the world. 



Dew }en cn'st a ^anvonas je berna boys ha dewas 
an keth rena a spedyas ban soper a ve para 
cn'st worth an goyn a warnyas dre onan bos treson gum 
arluth du y a armas pv a yl henna bonas 


Ihesus cn'st a worthebys ow tybbry genen yma 
pub onan ol a ylwys arluth du yv me hena 
ha ihesus a worjebys' am scudel dybbry a wra 
gwef vyth pan veva genys a dor y vam jen bysrna 


Du a sonas an bara- je rag y abestely 
ow horf a ve yw hernna* yn meth cn'st sur ragough wy 
pernys a berth yn bysma' dyspresys haneth a vyth 

[fo. 5 a.] 
an deppro gans cregyans da' gober tek eff an geuyth 


Han gwyn esa war en foys ef a rannas yn treja 
yn meth cn'st hema yw goys* evough why par cheryta 
gans dowr gorra yn bajon [leg. basin] y wolhas aga garrow 
hysseas ys guregh pur wyn' del vynna du caradow 


Henna pedyr a sconyas ihesus je wolhy y dreys 
taw pedyr te ny wojas * yn meth cn'st pan dra raf }ys 
mar nyth wolhaff dre ow gras yn nef ny vejyth tregz's 
ynmeth pedyr }ym na as troys na leyff na vo golhys 


Ihesus cn'st leun a bete a leuem jen dowjek 
wy yv glan a bub fylte* mas nyn iough ol da na whek 
bos ludas ef a wojye pwr hager ha molojek 
an ioul ynno re drecse- may 50 gweth agt's cronek 


In delma crist pan wresse* je iudas y leuem 
te ke yn vn fystene' je voth may fo colenwys 
rag an termyn re deve may fyth an begel kyllys 
ha chechys yn tre dewle 1 ban deves je ves fijs 



Christ sent two men to buy food and drink. 
Those same sped, and the supper was prepared. 
Christ at the supper gave warning that treason was done by one. 
"Lord God", they cried, "who can that be?" 


Jesus Christ answered: "he is eating with us." 
Every one exclaimed: "Lord God, am I that one?" 
And Jesus answered: "Out of my dish he is eating: 
Woe to him that he was born from his mother's womb into this world." 


God blessed the bread before His apostles. 
"My body is this", said Christ, "surely for you 
Bought within this world, despised to-night it will be; 

Whoso shall eat it with good faith, a fair reward lie shall find." 


And the wine that was on the table he divided among them. 
Says Christ: "this is blood, drink ye par charite." 
With water put into a basin he washed their legs, 
Until he made them very white as God the loveable would. 


That did Peter refuse that Jesus should wash his feet 
"Be silent, Peter, thou knowest not", said Christ, "what thing I do to thee. 
If I wash thee not by my grace, in heaven thou shalt not dwell." 
Said Peter: "leave not to me foot nor hand unwashed." 


Jesus Christ, full of pity, said to the twelve: 

"Ye are pure from every foulness, but ye all are not good nor sweet." 
He knew that Judas was very ugly and accursed. 
The Devil had dwelt in him, so that he was worse than a toad. 


When Christ had thus done, he said to Judas: 
"Go thou, in haste that thy wish may IK- fulfilled, 
For the time has come that the shepherd shall be lost, 
And caught between hands, and the sheep driven out to flight." 




Kyn fallens ol me a \etJi" yn meth pedyr yth smiys 
yn meth cn'st yn nos haneth- kyns ys boys colyek clewys 
pech/r te am nagh tergweth- bythqueth arluth na vef jys 
yn meth ped?/r tan ow feth nyth nahaff kyn fen lejys 


In meth cn'st a ban rug ^eugh ernoyth (?) sernoth ow holye 
daver vyth wy ny ^ecsyugh* }e worre trevyth ynne 
betegyns wy ny wojough pan dra ejom ayan be 
arluth guyr aleuersough- y a gowsys yn treje 



Mas lemmyn rys yv porm- batayles kyns ys coske 
an geifo pows as gwyr^yns * ha }O]O pernas cle^e 
sur yma dew jyn parys* y a leuera whare 
hen yw lowr na moy ny rys* du a leuen's arte 


Mab marya leun a ras ^en meneth olyff y ^eth 
hay ^yscyplys an sewyas- yn meth cn'st yn nos haneth 
golyough ha pesough ow jas may hallough mos jy aseth 
na vejough temtijs dygnas gaws gow ha garzs scherewneth 


Fed?/?* androw ha lowan yn meth cn'st deugh holyough ve 
bys yn meneth ha me gwan trystyws vs worth ow blujye 
je worte vn lam beghan y jeth pesy may halle 
^y ^as yn weth vgy a van hag ef rag own ow crenne 


Mab marya mur a beyn a wojevy yn vrna 
rag ef a wojya yn feyn ban kyg ny vywna henna 
mes y jeusys o mar feyn- pub vr an trylya ^e^a 
may ^eth wr ben y ^ewleyn ha pesy yn ketelma 


Mara sew }e voth ow jas 1 gura \en payn ma ow gasa 
mes bejens gurzs je vynnas' arluth du je voth del ve 
?v jyscyplys y trylyas yscafas ol ow coske 
ynmeth cn'st vn pols golyas* ny yllough juw cowfortye 



"Though all fail", said Peter, "I shall be in thy service." 
Said Christ: "This very night, before a cock is heard, 
Peter, thou wilt deny me thrice, that I ever was lord to thee." 
Said Peter: "On my faith, I will not deny thee though I be slain." 


Said Christ: "When I made you follow me (?) barefoot, 
Te carried no conveniences to put aught into them, 

Nevertheless ye knew not of what there was need (?)" 

"Lord, you have spoken true," they said among themselves. 


"But now it is needful, right needful, to battle rather than to sleep: 
Whoso hath a coat, let him sell it, and buy for himself a sword." 
"Surely we have two ready," they said anon. 
"This is enough, there needs no more," said God again. 


Mary's Son, full of grace, went to the Mount of Olives, 
And his disciples followed him. Said Christ: "This very night 
Watch ye and pray my Father that ye may be able to go to His seat, 
That ye be not tempted to molest with falsehood and with wickedness." 


"Peter, Andrew, and John", said Christ, "come ye, follow me, 
Even to the Mount, and I shall weaken the sadness that is bleeding(?) me." 
He went from them a little distance that he might pray 
To his Father also who is above , and he trembling for fear. 


Mary's Son suffered much pain then, 
For he knew keenly, and that the flesh wished not, 
But his Manhood was so delicate that always it turned to him (?) 
So that he went upon his knees and prayed thus: 


"If it be Thy will, my Father, make this pain to leave me. 
But let Thy wish be done, Lord God, Thy will as it may be." 
To his disciples he turned: he found them all sleeping: 
Said Christ: "one moment could ye not watch to comfort me?" 




Ena cn'st sur as gasas hag eth arta je besy 
war ben gleyn je worth y das* del lauarsa ragon ny 
y beynys o cref ha bras warnojo heb y dylly 
reson o rag ol an wlas ef a wojye y verwy 


In meth cn'st o du ha den- arte jy abestely 
golyough ha pesough yn ven- rag own an ioul hay vestry 

[fo. 6 a.] 

tresse gwyth hag ef yn cren' y pesys du dylyr vy 
arluth mar ny yl bos ken- bejens kepar del vywny 


Ihesus cn'st dygonfortys' war ben dewlyn pan ese 
an nef y fe danuenys el jojo jy gomfortye 
mab du o kywmys grevijs rag tomder ef a wese 
dowr ha goys yn kemesk^s 1 weys cn'st rag je gerewse 


Cryst kyramys payn yn geve* angus tyn ha galarow 
mateth angoys ha dropye* war y fas an caradow 
den vyth ny yl amontye na leuerell war anow 
oil myns peynys an geve- kyns ys y vonas marow 


Lemmyn ny a yl gwelas hag ervyre fest yn ta 
cryst je wojaff dre jewsys' mur a benans yn bysma 
ef ny ylly dre ^ewsys * gojaff na nyll drok na da 
rag mester o war an bys hag ol myns vs ef a ra 


Pan o y besadow gum' jew dowjek y leuerys 
koscough lemmyn mar sew prys* powesough wy yv grevijs 
tus vs jym ow tevones* yv gans ow thraytor dyskis 
fatel dons thov hemeres ha del vejaff hombronkis 


Kepar du del leuerys pan esa cn'st ow pesy 
ludas eth yn y neg/s en ioul y v en hombrowky 
jew ejewan dyrryvys* del o y fynas synsy 
synch's ve dre govaytz's yn della y w leas huny 



Then Christ surely left them and went again to pray 
On his knees from his Father as he had spoken for us. 
His pains were strong and great upon him without deserving them; 
(The) reason was that for all the land he knew that he should die. 


Said Christ, who was God and man, again to his apostles: 
"Watch and pray strongly for fear of the Devil and his power." 

A third time and he trembling he prayed: "God, deliver me! 
Lord, if it cannot be otherwise, be it as Thou wilt." 


While Jesus Christ was on his knees discomforted, 
From heaven, to comfort him, an angel was sent to him. 
God's Son was so much grieved (that) for heat he sweated, 
Water and blood mingled did Christ sweat for love of thee. 


Christ, so much pain had he, keen anguish and pangs, 
That the blood came and dropped on the loveable one's face. 
No man ever can compute, nor say by (word of) mouth, 
All the multitude of the pains that he had before he was dead. 


Now can we see and consider very well, 

That Christ endured thro' manhood much penance in this world. 
He could not thro' godhead endure either evil or good, 
For he was master of the world, and all that is he made. 


When his prayers were done , he said to the twelve : 
"Sleep now as it is time rest, ye are weighed down. 
Folk are coming to me, taught by my betrayer, 
How they should come to take me, and how I may be led." 


As God spoke so when Christ was praying, 
Judas came on his business, the Devil it is that led him, 
To the Jews he declared how it was he would hold him; 
He was hurt through covetousness so is many a one. 



Then ejewon pan dojye* y leuerys hag y ov tos 
me a gris yn ta spedye* om aegis haneth yn nos 
deugh geneff ha holyough ve- gothvejough na rellough tros 
ha me a ra the cn'st arame' may hallough y asswonvos 


[fo. 6b.] 

An princis esa yn pow gans ludas a thanvonas 
tus ven gweskfs yn arvow kepar ha del ens jen gas 
ganse y a thuk golow nos o ny welons yn fas 
bys yn Ihesus caradow y eth del dyskas ludas 


Pan dojyans bys yn tyller* may ^ese cn'st ow pesy 
lowene jys a vester- yn meth ludas an brathky 
3030 y rug fekyl cher- hag y awme trewesy 
ef a vynne yn ober' gul ken ys del dyswyjy 


Ihesus a gewsys pur dek ludas ow ry te avyn 
dre }e vay a reyth mar whek* je neb am tormont mar dyn 

moll[o]j den ha gowr ha gwrek- a ^e poraw erjebyn 
peynys ad wra morejek yn yifarn down pub termyn 


Ihesus cn'st a wovywnys' worth anbobyll a jeth dy 
gans an fals yn y seruys pandra y w a vywnough wy 
en rena a worjebys Ih^sus y w an caffans ny 
en arluth a worjebys me yw henna yredy 


Pur wyr drefen an virtu.' an lauar cn'st pan gowsas 
neb a \vheleugh why me yw je ves y a omdennas 
rag own y a gangyes ly w rag gwander y a gojas 
yn trevyth y nyn gens gyw ^e wejyll dm y vynnas 


Cryst a wovynys arte' orth en ejewon woky 
agis aegis pyth y we * pv y w neb a weleugh wy 
ihesus cn'st an najare* an rena a wor^eby 
yn meth ihesus me ywe* lewzmyn gureugh agis meystry 



When he came to the Jews he said, while they were coming: 
"I believe I shall speed well in my business this very night, 
Come ye with me and follow me, know ye, do not make a noise, 
And I will kiss Christ so that ye may be able to know him." 


The princes who were in the country, sent with Judas 
Strong folk clad in armour as if they were going to the battle. 
They bore a light with them: it was night, they saw not well. 
Unto Jesus, (the) loveable, they came as Judas taught. 


When they were come to the place where Christ was praying: 
"Joy to thee, O Master!" said Judas the hound. 
Unto him he made a flattering countenance, and kissed him dolefully. 
He would in effect do other than as he shewed. 


Jesus said very gently: "Judas, thou wilt give me 
By thy kiss which thou givest so sweetly, to (those) who will torment me 

so keenly. 

The curse of mankind, both man and woman, will come straight against thee. 
Pains will make thee miserable in deep hell always." 


Jesus Christ asked of the people that came thither 
With the false one in his service: "What is it that ye would?" 
Those answered: "It is Jesus whom we would take." 
The Lord answered readily: "That one am I." 


Right truly because of the virtue of Christ's word when he said: 
"I am (he) whom ye seek": away they withdrew. 
For fear they changed colour, for weakness they fell, 
In nothing were they fit to do beyond his will. 


Christ asked again of the foolish Jews: 
"Your business, what is it? who is he whom ye seek?" 
"Jesus Christ of the Nazareth," those answered. 
Said Jesus: "I am he, now exercise your power." 



[fo. 7 a.] 

Wharc y an kemeres [leg. kemeras] hag an sensys yn treje 
gans lauarow an scornyas * gallws o growth }eje 
je wejyll aga mynnas' yn della ef a vywne 
may halle dre baynys bras' menvel rag je gerewse 


Pedyr an neyl tenewen' yn mes a de?inas cleje 
hag a drohas ryb an pen" scovern onara aneje 
cnst a settyas yn tyen- an scovern arte je dre 
hag an dyjgthtyas pwr lowen* maga tek del rebye 


Gor je gle^e yn y goyn je pedyr cn'st a yrghys 
rag dre gle^e a veughe dre gleje yfyth lejys 
dewjek lygyon yn vn ro vye an nef danuenys 
ha moy a my/men ^ywimo pesy ow jas pwr barys 


Hag a pe yn della ve neffre ny vean fethys 
yn vrna fatell vye* am bewnaws del yw scnfys 
yn lyffrow yn leas le- dre brofusy leuerys 
reys yw poms heb strevye both ow jas je vos sewijs 


Ihesus a gewsys arte' why a theth jym yn arvow 
dre dreyson yn un scolchye- gans boclers ha clejy^yow 
thorn kemeres jom syndye* ^om peynye bys yn crow 
kepar ha del veua ve an purra lader yn pow 


In agz's mysk pan esen la[h]ys du jeugh ow tysky 
gallws uyn gese kemmew jom cara na pm sensy 
lemmyn deve ken termyn- ow jas rom growntyas ?ewy 
leun a beghas ny won ken je wejyll agis meystry 


[fo. 7b.j 

In vrna y a colmas y jefregh fast gans cronow 
en goys yn mes may tarjas* del fastsens en colmennow 
gansa y an hombrowkyas yn prys hanter nos heb wow 
bys yn aga fryns annas o vn lutter bras yw pow 



Anon they took him, and held him among them. 
With words they scorned him: power was granted to them 
To do their will even so he would, 
That he might through great pains die for love of thee. 


Peter from the one side drew forth a sword, 
And cut beside the head an ear of one of them. 
Christ set the ear completely home again, 
And dighted it right gladly as fair as (it) had been. 


"Put thy sword into its sheath", Christ commanded Peter, 
"For (he) that lives by sword, by sword shall be slain. 
Twelve legions in a gift would be sent from the heaven, 
And more, very ready, if for myself I would pray my Father. 


And if it were thus that I should never be vanquished, 
Then how would it be as it is written of my life 
In books in many places , spoken by prophets ? 

It is needful, right needful, that my Father's will should be followed with- 
out striving." 


Jesus said again: "Ye have come to me in arms 
Through treason, sculkingly, with bucklers and swords, 
To take me, to hurt me, to torture me even unto death, 
As if I were the veriest robber in the land. 


"When I was among you, teaching you God's laws, 
There was not power any way to accuse me nor to hold me. 
But another time has come: my Father has granted me to you 
No other I know full of sin, to do your power." 


Then they bound his arms fast with thongs, 
So that the blood sprang out, so they fastened the knots. 
They led him with them at (the) time of midnight without a lie 
To their prince Annas who was a great Justicer in (the) country. 



Tus cn'st je ves a fyas pep aydu pwr vorejek 
saw ped#r cn'st a holyas* abell avel vn ownek 
je dyller an prins annas' ene y jese sethek 
orto ef y a sethas may clewo leff ihesus whek 


En prins scon a leueris * te cn'st laur ^ym plema 
}e dus mar voldA re jyssys prag na jons genas owma 
an la[h]ys a bregowthys * lemmyn dyswe mar syns da 
ha ihesus a worjebys ef del vyrcna yn vrna 


Pur apert hag yn golow ' y leuera ow dyskas 
ow la[h]ys haw lauarow * suel a vywna y clewas 
yn le may then yn trevow yn splan me as derevas 
ny gowsyn yn tewolgow * a dryff tus yn vn hanas 


Pan dra a wovente se * je wor^aff ve ham la[h]ys 
mar a mynnyth govy/my ordA en keth re as clewas 
an rena a yl je }ysky yn della y re jyskas 
yn delma heb velyny orto Ihesus a gowsas 


Gans henna an ejewon* onan yn ban a sevys 
hag a ros ryb an scovern' box je gn'st a jesympys 
ha je Ihesus y honon- an harlot a leuerys 
pu a woras yt colon 4 cows yn delma worth iustis 


[fo. 8 a.] 

In meth ihesus yn vrna' mara kewsys falsury 
ha na blek genas henna* ha fals te dok dustuny 
mes mara kewsys yn ta- han gwreoneth y synsy 
prag omgwysketh yn delma* nyn gyw mernas belyny 


Ena mwr a vylyny pedyr ^e gryst a welas 
y scornye hay voxscusy* tre\\ r e yn y ^ewlagas 
hag ef rag own ny ylly gans ihesu kewsel ger vas 
henna o poynt a falsury dejewys heb koweras 



Christ's folk fled away, each on his (own) side right mournful, 
But Peter followed Christ from afar, like a coward, 
To (the) place of the prince Annas: there was a seat there: 
He sat down upon it that he might hear the voice of Jesus (the) sweet. 


The prince straightway said: "Thou Christ, tell me where is 
Thy folk so bold that thou chosest? why came they not with thee here? 
The laws that thou preachedst, shew now if they are good." 
And Jesus answered as he would at that time: 


"Full openly and in light I spake my doctrine; 
My laws and my words, whosoever would heard them. 
In the places where I was, in towns clearly I declared them, 
I spoke not in darkness behind folk (?) 


What thou wouldst ask concerning me and my laws, 
If thou wilt ask of the same that heard them , 
Those can teach thee as they learned." 
Thus without rudeness Jesus spake unto him. 


With that one of the Jews rose up , 
And straightway gave Christ a buffet beside the ear, 
And to Jesus himself the scoundrel said: 
"Who put it into thy heart to speak thus to a Justice?" 


Said Jesus then: "If I have spoken falsehood, 
And that is not pleasing to thee, and false, do thou bear witness. 
But if I have spoken well, and have held the truth, 
Why dost thou strike me thus? it is nought save villainy." 


There much of villainy Peter saw (done) to Christ: 
Mocking him and buffeting him. spitting in his eyes, 
And he could not for fear speak a good word with Jesus. 
That was a point of falsehood he promised without fulfilment. 



Vn venyn hardA a ynnyas' war pech/r y vos treg?'s 
gans ihesus ef a naghas y arluth a ^esympys 
taw gans cn'st me ad welas' gurek arall a leuem 
pedyr arta agowsas bythqueth me nyn aswonys 


Mur a dus a leuerys ny dayl jys cam y naghe 
dre je gows y jew prevys ' je vos den a galyle 
ef a doys a jesympys maga town ty del wojye 
gans cn'st na vye tregz's na bythqueth ef nan quelse 


Gans henna ef a clewas- en colyek scon ow cane 
ha cn'st worto a wetras an peynys bras may jese 
pedyr sur a omdennas * jn vrna del rebeghse 
ow nagha du leun a ras hag ef gwarnyys del vye 


Whare yn mes y trylyas hay golon nam na dorre 
rag y arluth leuw a ras mar jynas ef jy nahe 
dybbry boys ef ny vyrcnas lywmyn pub erol ole 
^ojo bys pan danvonas* cn'st y to je galyle 


Ihesus a ve danvenys ha je worth an pn'ns annas 
gans tus ven a jesympys bys yn ebscob cayphas 

[fo. 8b.] 

drep cn'st may fe bresys' ol jy voth ha jy vynnas 
mwr a dus o cuwtullys' er ybyn jy guhujas 


Rag y vos war bronteryon* mester bras a berth yn wlas 
gums ve yn y golon' yn delma gul may cowsas 
rys yw poms }e onon- nwwel rag pobyl an wlas 
pobyl ihesus y honon* na vons tregw gans satnas 


En ejewon yn treje a whelas dustuneow 
rag peyne cn'st ha syndye- ny gewsys }e blegadow 
saw war thu y a vynne' dre envy leuerell gow 
a dus fals y redojye an Tpurre laddron yn pow 



A bold woman urged on Peter, that he was staying 
With Jesus: he denied his Lord forthwith. 

"Be silent! I have seen thee with Christ," said another woman. 
Peter again said: " J never knew him." 


Much people said to him: "It avails thee nowise to deny him: 
By thy speech it is proved that thou art a man of Galilee." 
He swore forthwith as deep an oath as he knew, 
That he was not staying with Christ, that lie had never seen him. 


With that he heard the cock suddenly crowing, 

And Christ turned towards him, from the great pains in which he was. 
Peter surely went out in that hour that he had sinned 
Denying God full of grace, and he warned as he had been. 


Anon out he turned, and his heart all but broke 
For his Lord full of grace, that he denied him so obstinately. 
Food he would not eat, but weep always 
Until it was sent to him that Christ was come to Galilee. 


Jesus was sent, and from the prince Annas, 
With strong folk straightway unto bishop Caiaphas, 

That by him Christ might be tried all at his will and at his pleasure. 
Much folk were collected to bring accusation against him. 


Because of his being over priests a great master in the land , 
It was put into his heart to do thus, so that he said: 
"It is needful, right needful for one to die for (the) people of the country, 
That people of Jesus himself may not dwell with Satan." 


The Jews amongst them sought witnesses, 
To torture and hurt Christ: they spake not to (their) wishes, 
But of God they would through envy utter a lie , 
Of false folk there came the veriest thieves in (the) country. 



Ha dew a thuk dustuny yn clewsons ow leuerell 
pur wyr y fercne terry an tempel cref hay wujell 
war lyrgh henna dre vestry yn tressa dyth heb fyllell 
dre nerth bras yn drehevy bytqueth ef na vye guell 


Neb o mester ha lustz's* worth ihesus ef a gowsas 
myns vs omma cuwtullys pur apert y ret flamyas 
ha te ger vyth ny gewsys * onweyth lemmyn mar co^as 
ol Ihesus an gojevys * hay worjeby ny vyrmas 


Kayphas arta a gewsys yn hanow du te lavar 
mar sos du del danvansys [leg. omwressys] me yw yn meth crist 

jn whar 

yn nef y fe^aff tregfc an barth dyghow gans am car 
yn sur thu ow tevones* wy am gwylvyth heb neb mar 


Kayphas pur wyr a sorras hag eth pwr fol yn vrna 
hag a squerdyas y ^yllas pan gowsas cn'st yn della 
ytterevys dre sor bras dusteneow drok na da 
ny reys jyraiy je welas' awos dampnye an dewma 


[fo. 9 a.] 

A ow cows why an clewas- leuerough mar pyth sawys 
ol warberth y a armas gweff y w je vonas lejys 
gans mowys y anscornyas yn y fase y a drewys 
te yv mab du leuw a ras* yn ges y a leuerys 


Gans queth y ben y quejens' guelas baraia na ylly 
^e ihesus crz'st betegyns* ow kujyll drok ha belyny 
avel brathken aga dyns' orto y a theskerny 
eraga fyn betegyns cn'st vn ger ny leuery 


Hag y worth y dormontye y cujens y ben gans queth 
han dus esa ol yn dre ha prync?'s yn pow yn weth 
ha TOUT a bobyll ganse' a jyghow sur hag a gleth 
the gryst y tons }j syndye* ha je dry jew dor gans meth 



And two bare witness (that) they had heard him saying 
Bight truly that he would destroy the strong temple , and build it 
After that through power on the third day without fail 
Through great strength erect it so that it was never better. 


He that was Master and Justice unto Jesus he said: 
"All that are gathered here, right openly they have blamed thee, 
And not a word hast thou said once now if thou knowest." 
Jesus endured it all, and he would not answer him. 


Caiaphas again said: "Speak thou in God's name 
If thou art God as thou hast made thyself." "I am," said Christ gently, 

"In heaven I shall dwell, on the right side with my Father: 
In God's truth ye shall see me coming without any doubt." 


Right truly was Caiaphas enraged, and he then went right mad, 
And he rent his clothes when Christ spake thus. 
He declared in great wrath: "Witnesses good nor bad 
We need not seek on account of condemning this man. 


Have ye heard him speaking? say ye if he shall be saved." 
On all sides they cried: "He is worthy to be slain." 
With mowes they scorned him : they spat in his face : 
"Thou art Son of God full of grace," in jeer they said. 


With a cloth his head they covered, so that he could not see a drop; 
To Jesus Christ, however, doing evil and villainy. 
Like hounds they gnashed their teeth at him, 
Against them, nevertheless, Christ would not say a word. 


And tiny, tormenting him, covered his head with a cloth, 
And the folk who were all in town, and the princes in the country also, 
And much people with them, on the right surely and on the left, 
Came to Christ to hurt him, and to bring him to the ground with shame. 



I eth ha Ihesus ganse bys yn pylat o luste's 
a nojo bres may rolle* dre y vres may fo lejys 
lavarsons y heb pyte* agan traytowr yw kefys 
rys yw jeso y jawnye* jew mernans a jesympys 


In meth pylat pan adra' a ywnyough wy warnojo 
na ve bos fals an dewma* nyw drossen ny bys deso 
y leuerys dre laha' ha why dawpnowgha yjo 
yn mejens y ny a wra* dawipnye dew lader kyn fo 


Hewna pylat pan welas kymmys cawsys er y byn 
rowtors [leg. rowlors] ha tus kyche [leg. ryche] yn wlas resons 

mar fol ha mar dyn 

pylat orto govywnas * yn keth vaner ma govyn 
ose mab du leuw a ras * lemyn gwyr [te] lauar jyn 


[fo. 9 b.] 

In meth cn'st an kveff colon pur wyr te releuerys 
te a wojye je honon- pe dre gen re ves guarnys 
pylat a gewsys yn scon te a ve |ym danvenys 
lauar jywmo je honon pyth y w en drok rewrussys 


In meth Ihesus nyn gvgy o w mesternges [leg. mygternes] yn bysma 
hag a pe ow thus jewy nym delyrfsens yn delma 
ytho mygtern ote se yn meth pylat yn erna 
gwyr re gwesys [leg. gewsys] yredy yn meth cn'st mygtern oma 


Hewna ludas pan welas cn'st an bewnans na sawye 
an arghaws a gemeras rag corf cn'st je rysseve 
ef astewlys dre sor bras \zn ejewon yn tre^e 
dremas yw ef leuw a ras neb re werjys yn meje 


ludas scaryoth a gewsys yn keth manerma arte 

fest yn creff me re beghas ihesus je wy ov querje 
da y won y vos a ras gevyons me nvm byth neffre 
moy pegh o pan dyspresyas ys delo paw yn gaerje 



They went, and Jesus with them, unto Pilate who was Justice, 
Thathe might give judgment on him, that by his judgment he might be slain. 
They said without pity: "Our traitor is taken 
Need is for thee to condemn him to the death forthwith." 


Said Pilate: "What is it that ye urge against him?" 
"If this man were not false, we should not have brought him to thee." 
He said: "And will ye now condemn him by law?" 
Said they. "We will condemn (the) man as if he were a robber." 


When Pilate saw that, that so much spoke against him, 
Rulers and rich folk in the country, reasons so foolish and so sharp, 

Pilate asked him, in this manner he asked: 

"Art thou Son of God full of grace? now do thou tell us true." 


Said Christ, the kindly heart: "Full truly hast thou spoken. 
Didst thou know it of thyself, or by others wast thou warned?" 
Pilate said forthwith: "Thou wast sent to me, 
Tell me thyself, what is the evil that thou hast done?" 


Said Jesus: "My kingdom is not in this world, 
And if it were, my folk would not have given me up to you thus." 
"Now, art thou a king?" said Pilate then. 
"Thou hast spoken truly indeed," said Christ, "a king I am." 


When Judas saw that, that he (Pilate) would not save Christ's life, 
He took the silver he had received for Christ's body. 
He cast it with great wrath to the Jews amongst them: 
" Supremely -good is he, full of grace, whom I have sold," said he. 


t hulas Iscarint spake a^ain in this wise: 
u Very strongly have I sinned (in) selling Jesus to you: 
Well I know that he is of grace, forgiveness I shall never have." 
Greater sin it was when he misprized him than when he sold him, 



Han ejewon a gewsys* pan drew henna jywny ny 
ny an pernas je worjys * ha ad pes pur yredy 
ludas etli a jensyinpys a neyl tu je omgregy 
cafas daffar pwr parys lovan cryff rag y sensy 


Eneff iudas ny alias dos yn mes war y anow 
rag y anow y ammas 1 je ihesu leuw a rasow 
dywolow yfarn a squerdyas corf iudas ol je jarnow 
hag a notho a gerhas y eneff je dewolgow 


[fo. 10 a.] 

En ethewon dre envy a gewsys cn'st rag syndye 
pylat lustis otese' Ihesus gorweyth y dampnye 
a ierusolem thy/my ef a thueth a galyle 
la[h]ys nowyth ov tesky leas ganso ov tryle 


Ganse pylat pan glewas bos Ihesus a galyle 
bos herodes war an wlas * mygtern pylat a wojye 
Rag henna y tanvonas cn'st 3030 ef mayn dampne 
ruth veyr a dus an sewyas' pub eyr pam jy vlamye 


I eth bys yn herodes ha cn'st ganse fast kylmys 
ef a gara cnst gwelas rag kymmys y p praysys 
ganso mar callo clewas whelth nowyth a vo coynto's 
mar callo trylye je hes lauar crist pan vo clewys 


The herodes y thesa' pwr wyr worth pylat sor bras 
y welas ef ny gara na boys yn y gowejas 
jojo Ihesus jy thampnye * pylat bys pan danvonas 
yn vrna keskeweja- y a ve ha specyall bras 


Herodes a wovywnys 1 orth Ihesus cn'st leas tra 
ha trevyth ny worjebys 4 man geve nmrth a henna 
an ejewon a gewsys doyn thyn dustuny a wra 
mygtern yfyn bos synsys ha mester bras yn bysma 



And the Jews said: "Why bring ye that to us? 
We bought him from thee, and paid thee very readily." 
Judas went forthwith on one side to hang himself: 
He found convenience quite prepared, a strong rope to hold him. 


Judas' soul could not come out by his mouth, 
For his mouth had kissed Jesus full of graces. 
Devils of hell tore Judas' body all to pieces, 
And from him fetched his soul to darkness. 


The Jews through envy said, to hurt Christ: 
" Pilate, Justice, behold! take thou care to condemn Jesus. 
To Jerusalem he came to us from Galilee, 
Teaching new laws, turning many with him." 


When Pilate heard from them, that Jesus was of Galilee, 
Pilate knew that Herod was lord over the country. 
Therefore he sent Christ to him that he might condemn him. 
A great company of folk followed him , always ready to accuse him. 


They went to Herod and with them Christ fast bound. 
He loved to see Christ for that he was so much praised , 
That he might be able to hear the new story that was recounted, 
That he might turn at length Christ's saying when it was heard. 


In Herod there was right truly great anger against Pilate, 
He loved not to see him, nor to be in his company, 
Until Pilate sent Jesus to him to condemn him 
Then were they close comrades and specially intimate. 


Herod asked many things of Jesus Christ, 
And He answered nothing, so that he had wonder thereat. 
The Jews said: "He will bear witness to us, 
That he would be held a king and a great master in this land." 




Kywmys tra a lavarsa' ena y an rebukyas 
the rag an try may jesa annas pylat ha cay[p]has 

[fo. 10b.] 

pur vylen y an pyltye hag yn spytis an scornyas 
moygha pjo drok a wre- henna veja an guella gwas 


Herodes a leuerys- jen ejewon eugh yn fen 
je bylat ag?s lustis- rag me an syns pur ]en len 
ha leuerough bos gevys ol ow sor bejens lowen 
ham gallws y vos grontijs* jojo }e urusy an den 


I a wysk?'s cryst gans gwyn' avel fol y an scornye 
hag an gweska fest yn tyn betegyns ger ny gewsy 
hag an hombronkyas bys yn' pylat o lustis jeje 
may caffons y aga gwayn 4 war Ihesus cmt jy laje 


Then ioul mwr neb o tus keth* }e belat a leuera 
lowenna gwelha je feth- herodes reth tenyrghys 
yn y golen fast regeth* mur a gerense worjys 
hag ef a dalvyth \is wheth y honorc del wrussys 


Ha jeso y tanyonas* y allws cn'st rag iudgye 
ha ny ad cusyll na as * lemyn y voth heb sewye 
yn meth pylat scyle vas me ny gafe rum lewte 
na byth moy ef ny gaffas prag may fe rys y dampnye 


Orth pylat ol y setsans ha warnojo a rug cry 
rag Ihesus cn'st jen mmiaws y a vynne porrys dry 
yn meth pylat worth an myns an pegh peuas [leg. provas] myvry 
me ny gafa moys [leg. moy es] kyns reson gans gwyr jy vrvsy 


En ejewon a vynne* porrys y vonas lejys 
reson[s] y a rey ragthe mes war fals y jens growndys 
henna pylat a wojye' rag henna a jesympys 

[fo. 11 a.] 
bys yn cayphas jy jey yvggye ef a rug may fe gorrys 



Whatsoever he said there they rebuked him, 
Where he was before the three, Annas, Pilate, and Caiaphas, 

Right brutally they pelted him, and despiteously scorned him, 
Whoso did most evil to him, that one would be the best fellow. 


II< rod said to the Jews: "Go ye quite 
To Pilate your Justice, for I hold him a right loyal man; 
And say that all my wrath is forgiven, let him be joyful, 
And that my power is granted to him to judge the man. 


They clothed Christ with white, like a madman they scorned him, 
And beat him very severely, nevertheless he would not say a word, 
And they led him to Pilate, who was their magistrate, 
That they might get their gain (?) Jesus Christ to slay him. 


Those that were kith-folk (?) to the great devil, said to Pilate: 
" Very joyful wilt thou be, Herod hath greeted thee. 
Into his heart quite hath gone (?) much of love for thee , 
And he will repay thee yet, as thou hast honoured him. 


And to thee he has sent his power to condemn Christ, 
And we counsel thee, do not leave now without following his will." 
Said Pilate: "By my loyalty, good grounds I have not found." 
Nor any more did he find why there should be need to condemn him. 


On Pilate they all set, and to him cried, 
For they would needs bring Jesus Christ to the death. 
Said Pilate to the multitude: "It is necessary to give proof of the crime. 
No more than before have I got reason with truth to judge him." 


The Jews would needs that he should be slain, 
Reasons they gave for it, but on falsehood were they grounded. 
That Pilate knew, therefore straightway 

To Caiaphas thither to judge him he caused that he should be sent. 



Kayphas an droys arte ?e pylat o pen lustis 
hag ef eth jy gusulye ihesus cn'st may fe lejys 
en ejewon a arme' treytowr pur y vos keffys 
hag ol drok suel awresse' ha gow bras ganso clewys 


In meth pylat marth am bes* kymmes drok a wothevyth 
ha te reson vyth a dres* eraga fyn na gewsyth 
a na wylta ol myns es' orth }e vlamye yn soweth 
hag ov ry }ys boxow tres betegyns te ny sconyth 


In meth pylat me ny won' }en traytewr esa ganso 
yn cn'st cafos byth reson' nwwell prag y reys 3030 
y hylwys en ejewon la[h]ys es yn pow a dro 
may rys y laje yn scon' mygtern neb a omwrello 


Own boys cn'st mab du an neff' an tebel el an geve 
rag hercna scon y jeth ef je wrek pylat may ^ese 
han tebel el hager bref yn y holon a worre 
war y mester ve?iions cref y to Ihesus mar laje 


Thy gowr hy a }an[v]onas a cn'st kepar del welse 
yn kerdA delma dre gannas ny?i gew ragos se laje 
Cryst yv synsys mwr dremas je ^evyth a wos plegye 
rag haneth me re welas yto ve[n]ions had laje 


Onon esa yn prison* barabas ytho gylwys 
presonys o ef dre dreyson ha rag den lath kekyffm 
maner o jew ejewon' war dyth pasch worth an lustis 
an prison govyn onon ha bos henna delyffrys 


[fo. lib.] 

Pylat a vynsse gwyje' bewnans Ihesus dre goywtw 
hag a leuerys ^eje yn delma del yw scn'frs 
lewmyn merough pe nyle an dus swyth delyifrz's 
po cryst leuerough scyle po barabas den blamys 



Caiaphas again brought him to Pilate who was chief-justice , 
And he went to counsel him that Jesus Christ should be slain; 
The Jews cried out that he was found a very traitor, 
And that all he had done (was) evil, and a great lie concerning him was heard. 


Said Pilate: "It is a marvel to me, how much evil thou endurest! 
And any reason against them thou sayest not. 
Seest thou not all the multitude that is blaming thee unhappily, 
And giving thee froward blows? natheless thou dost not refuse." 


Said Pilate: "I know not" to the traitor who was with him 
"How in Christ to find any reason why it is needful for him to die." 
The Jews cried out: "The laws in the country about are, 
That he must be slain forthwith who would make himself a king." 


Fear of Christ being Son of (the) God of the heaven, had seized the evil angel. 
Therefore he went forthwith to Pilate's wife where she was, 
And the evil angel, ugly reptile, put into her heart 
That strong vengeance would come on her lord if he slew Jesus. 


To her husband she sent as she had seen of Christ 
Away thus by a messenger: "It is not for thee to slay. 
Christ is held very exceeding good promise on account of pleasing (me), 
For to-night now I have seen that vengeance would come and slay thee." 


One there was in prison, Barabbas was he called. 
He was imprisoned for treason and for manslaughter also. 
(It) was a manner of the Jews , on Easter day, of the Justice 
To ask one from the prison, and that that one should be delivered. 


Pilate wished to protect Jesus' life by artifice, 
And said to them thus, as it is written: 
"Now see ye which of the two men shall be delivered, 
Whether Christ, say ye the grounds, or Barabbas, a guilty man?" 



En ejewon a armas dre bur envy me a gris 
dylyver jynny barabas* ha hernia ol ny a bys 
Pylat arte a gowsas a Ihesus pyth a vyt/i gun's 
y hawlsons gans golon vras jew mernans bejens gurris 


Pylat yn ta a wojye' y je gusel dre envy 
rag henna ef a vynse gweje cn'st heb velyny 
hag a leuem jeje mar mynnough me an chasty 
ol war barth yny cyte hag an delyrf je wary 


I helwys en ejewon bejens ef yn crows gom's 
yn meth pylat me ny won- reson prag y fyt da[m]pnys 
y hawlsons gans moy colon bejens ef yn crow lejys 
yn meth pylat byth reson' je laje nyn ges keffys 


Ha pylat }e war breder' a leuem }e Ihesu 
ol an dusma a leuer- je vos cregfs te yv gyw 
lauar gwyr jymmo vn ger mar sota mab den ha du 
cryst a gewsys dyboner- te a leuerys del yw 


Whare y an dystryppyas mar noyth genys del vye 
hag worth post fast an colmas* vnwyth na ylly plywchye 
hag ena ij an scorgyas* yn tebel gans ij scorgye 
ha hager fest an dygtyas corf ha pen treys ha dewle 


[fo. 12 a.] 

In scorgijs prenyer ese yn dewle an ij ethow 
hagynfastkelinysjeje' kerdyngwe|jn[leg. gwej] yn mesk cronow 
may fons hyblyth je gronkye' hag a rag gur/s colmwenow 
gans pub colmew may jelle pa?i wyskens yn mes an crow 


Han jewna bys pan vons squyth* war cn'st y fons ov crowkye 
ma?ma geve goth na leyth- na gesa worth y grevye 
na war y gorff wek taw vyth pwr wyr henna o mwr byte 
ha whath moy wy a glewyth' a dormo?it cr^'st del wharse 



The Jews cried out, through pure envy 1 believe: 
"Deliver Barabbas to us, and that we all pray!" 
Pilate again said: "With Jesus what shall be done?" 
They cried with great heart: "Let him be put to the death !" 


Pilate well knew that they spoke through envy, 
Therefore he wished to protect Christ without villainy, 
And he said to them: "If ye wish I will chastise him 
Once for all in his city, and let him go free." 


The Jews cried: "Let him be put on a cross!" 
Said Pilate: "I know no reason why he should be condemned." 
They exclaimed with greater heart: "Let him be slain on a cross!" 
Said Pilate: "No reason at all is found to slay (him)." 


And Pilate, after thinking, said to Jesus: 
"All this folk say thou art worthy to be hanged, 
Tell me truly a word, if thou art son of man and God." 
Christ said debonairly: "Thou hast said as it is." 


Anon they stripped him as naked as he had been born, 
And bound him fast to a post, so that not once could he flinch, 
And there two scourged him evilly with two scourges, 
And very foully treated him, body and head, feet and hands. 


The scourges of sticks were in (the) hands of the two Jews, 
And fast bound to them were plaited cords among thongs, 
That they might be pliant to beat , and at their ends knots were made, 
That with every knot the blood might come forth when they struck. 


And those two, until they were weary, were beating Christ, 
So that ho had not vein (?) nor limb that was not grieving him, 
Nor on his sweet body any part right truly that was great pity, 
And yet more shall ye hear of Christ's torment how it happened. 



In treje avel tus fol* garlont spmie [leg. spern] a ve dyjgthtys 
ha dre aga husyll ol war j ben ave gorris 
may jo squardijs a dro ol' ay ben y oys o scolijs 
hag ywno fest luhas tol* gans an dreyn a ve tellys 


Gans dew scyntyl] a wojye' me a glewas leuerell 
an arlont y je define war y ben gans kymmys nell 
ma teth an dreyn ha cropye }ew nempywnyon dre an tell 
heraio payn a vwr byte* esa crist ow cojevell 


A vyne gwar^e yben* war y gorff bys yn y droys 
squardijs oil o y grohen 4 hag ef cujys yn y woys 
mur o an payn dar ken- je vab du mur y alloys 
del lever jyn an levar* kymmys payn ny ve ay oys 


I a wysk/s cn'st gans queth han purpur rych o dysks's 
rag y thry jew dor gans meth' yn ges y a leuem 
mwr a onour te afyth* te yw mygtern cvrvnys 
hag yn y leff jyghow yn weth' gwelew wyw a ve gorris 


[fo. 12 b.] 

Hag y thens je ben dowlyn- hag y kewsens je scornye 
hag a gamma aga meyn- pub onon rag y eysye 
lowene jys te yw ?eyn f mygtern rys yw je worjye 
hen o jojo mur a bayn % may jejens worth y ranne 


Onow gans an keth welen' yn leyff cn'st a ve gorris 
an gwyskt's lasche war an pen- bum pur gewar desejys 
ha buxow leas heb ken' ha tummasow kekyffris 
je gryst a dro je jewen gans nerth bras a ve syttis 


Colon den a yll crakye a vynha prest predery 
an paynys bras an geve han dyspyth heb y dylly 
hag ol rag je gerense ihesus cn'st as gojevy 
lymmyn gorqvyth y gare ha gweyth denatar na vy 



Among them like foolish folk a garland of thorns was dighted, 
And by counsel of them all was put on his head , 
So that all torn about, from his head his blood was spilt, 
And in it very many holes were bored by the thorns. 


By a learned man that knew I have heard say, 
That they drew the garland on his head with so much strength 
That the thorns came and pierced to the brains through the holes 
That pain of great pity was Christ enduring. 


From the very top of his head over his body unto his feet : 
All his skin was torn, and he (was) hidden in his blood: 
Great was the pain beyond other to God's Son, great His might. 
As saith the Book to us, so much pain was not of his age. 


They clad Christ with a cloth, and the rich purple was stript off. 
To bring him to the ground with shame in a jeer they said: 
"Great honour thou shalt have, thou art a crowned king." 
And in his right hand also a white rod was put. 


And they went on their knees and spoke (him) to scorn, 
And wried their mouths , each of them to praise (?) him : 
"Joy to thee, thou art a Lord to us, it is needful to worship thee." 
This was great pain to him that they were (?) him. 

One with the same rod that was put in Christ's hand, 

Struck him a lash on the head, a blow right ....(?) 

And buffets many without mercy and thumps likewise 
To Christ about his jaws with great force were set. 


A man's heart might break that would readily consider 
The great pains that he had, and the despite without deserving it, 
And all for love of thee Jesus Christ endured them; 
Now be thou careful to love him, and take care that thou be not unnatural. 



Pylat eth yn mes ay hell' yn vn lowarth an gevo 
ogas o nyn gesa pell' hag a worras cnst ganso 
ena worto rag kewsell' queth esa a dro jojo 
prest an ejewon debel* je Ih&sus esens a dro 


Ena pylat a gewsys* yn delma jen ejewon 
me ny won bonas kyfys * yn denma byth acheson 
may rys y vonas lejys' gothvejough ketoponon 
del y w an denma dyjgt^s myrough yn ag?'s colon 


Pan yn caffsons yn treje ol warbarth y a ylwys 
te pylat laje laje* mernans an grows desympys 
pylat a gewsys arte- drejough why bejens lejys 
rag ynno me ny gaffe' scyle vas may fo dampnys 


[fo. 13 a.] 

An debel dus a gewsys* ?ynny sur yma laha 
may rys y vonas lejys rag mab du ef a omwra 
own a gachyas an lustis pan glewas cows yn della 
rag henna a jesympys y trylyas thy asethva 


Orth cn'st ef a wovyraiys* te jew able ota gy 
jy gows crist ny worjebys y?imeth pylat yredy 
gorjeby te ny vynsys- a ny wojas ow mestry 
bos jywmo may fes lejys bo delyffm je wary 


In meth Ihesus yn vrna* mestry vyth te ny vea 
waraff ve drok vyth na da ken onan jys nan rolla 
byth moy ys ejow yn ta a beghas orth ov jrayta 
pylat pan glewas henna- a whelas y jelyffra 


Han ejewon oil a dro je belat a leuery 
kerense sesar ytho ny je lemman belyny 
in ny wreth dyffry dojo a berveth yn crows cregy 
rag mygtern a omwrello je sesar yw contrary 



Pilate went out of his hall into a garden which he had. 
Near it was, it was not far, and he set Christ with him, 
To speak to him there a cloth was about him; 
Readily the evil Jews were about Jesus. 


There Pilate spake thus to the Jews: 
"I do not know that occasion is at all found in this man, 
That it be necessary that he should be killed, ye know every one 
How this man is dighted, look into your heart." 


When they got him among them, they all cried out together: 
"Thou Pilate, kill him! kill him! death of the cross forthwith!" 
Pilate said again: "By you let him be killed, 
For in him I have not found good grounds that he should be condemned." 


The evil folk said: "Surely, we have a law 
That he must be killed, for he makes himself Son of God." 
Fear seized the Justice when he heard sueh a speech, 
Therefore immediately he returned to his seat. 


Of Christ he asked: "Thou man, whence art thou?" 
To his speech Christ replied not said Pilate readily: 
"Thou wilt not answer knowest thou not my power, 
That it rests with me whether thou shalt be killed or let forth to liberty?" 


Said Jesus then: "No power at all wouldst thou have 
Over me, bad nor good, unless some one else had given it to thee. 
Ever more than a Jew well he has sinned, in betraying me." 
Pilate, when he heard that, sought to deliver him. 


And the Jews all about said to Pilate 
Love of Caesar now it was not, but villainy 
"Wilt thou not cause him indeed on cross to hang? 
For he tluil would make himself a kiiiij. is hostile lo C;i 



Ena pylat paw glewas* an lauarow na ganse 
Ihesus ef a ^yswejas 1 pur evn yn cres yn treje 
a watta ef a gowsas* agis mygtern pie meve 
ol war barth I an naghas hag a yrghys y laje 


In meth pylat why a vyn- drys pub tra me jy laje 
agw mygtern meth yw jyn* na vejens clewys neffre 
yn mejens y nyn gorjyn' na ny goth thyn y worjye 
na ken mygtern ny venyn- ys Cesar caffos neffre 


[fo. 13 b.] 

Y thewleff pylat a wolhas hag a leuerys jeje 
glan off a wos an dremas rag ay woys venions a }e 

ol warbarth y a armas* mar te ven[i]ons ha cothe 
war agan flehys yn fras* ha warnan bejans neffre 


Camera pylat pan welas' na ylly crist delyffre 
manan geffo ef sor bras* je worth ol an gowe^e 
rag herana ef a luggyas * Ihesus jeje jy laje 
the ves y a thelyffras barabas quyth may jelle 


Pan o Ihesus cryst dampnys* aberth yn crows may farwe 
haccra mernans byth ordnys je creator ny vye 
en grows whath nyn io parys* nan ejewon ny wojye 
an prennyer py fens kefe's je wujyll crous a neje 


Vn ethow a brederys' hag a leuerys the^e 
bonas pren yn dowr tewlys* a vs yn houl na vye 
rag an grous y p ordnys han huthewon ny wojye 
hag an avell devejys drejy adam may peghse 


En prywnyer a ve kerhys* en grows scon dy;gt& may fe 
hag ynny bonas gorys ragon ny cryst a vy/ine 
ha war an pren frut deg?'s may fe sur jagan sawye 
may teth frut may fen kellys* rag adam je attamye 



There Pilate when he heard those words with them, 
He shewed (?) Jesus exactly in the midst among them. 
"See," said he, "your king where he is!" 
All together they denied him, and bade to slay him. 


Said Pilate: "Ye wish above every thing that I should slay him, 
Your king it is a shame to us let it never be heard." 
They said: "We do not worship him :. it behoves us not to worship him 
No other king do we wish than Caesar to have ever." 


Pilate washed his hands, and he said to them: 
"Pure am I from the blood of the supremely good; for from his blood 

vengeance will come." 

All together they cried: "If vengeance come and fall, 
On our children greatly and on us be it forever!" 


Pilate, since he saw that he could not any way deliver Christ, 
Unless he should have great anger from all the assemblage, 
For that he adjudged Jesus to them to slay him. 
He delivered out Barabbas that he might go free. 


When Jesus Christ was condemned that he should die upon the cross, 
Uglier death was never ordained for creature, 
The cross was not yet made, nor did the Jews know, 
What timbers should be found to make a cross thereout. 


A Jew considered and said to them, 

That there was a tree cast in the ground, that was not above in the sun, 
For the cross it was ordained, and the Jews knew it not, 
And the apple had come from it, that Adam had sinned by. 


The timbers were fetched that the cross might be dighted forthwith, 
And for us Christ wished to be put upon it, 

And borne u fruit on the live, that hi 1 , might be sure to save us, 
So that the fruit whereby we were lost, came to redeem (?) Adam. 



Whath kentrow ?eje nyngo- Ihesus yn crows rag synsy 
y hwalsons ol adro mar caffons goff yredy 
onan y welsons eno hag y ^ejons }y besy 
hag y lauarsons thojo te gura iij kenter jywny 


[fo. 14 a.] 

In meth an goyff me ny wraff pur wyr kentrow ?ewy wyth 
yn methens mar omwreyth claff- gorjewyth te an prenvytli 
awos guthyll wheyll mar scaff- yn ethom jyn mar fyllyth 
y worjebys ny vannaff* aga gujyll war ow fyth 


Gans mur a lucters yn wlas ef ave veyll rebukes 
kavanski's ef a whelas rag own y vonas lejys 
yn meth angoff clevas bras* es omdewleff devejys 
towyll vyth ny allaff yn fas ynno sensy je wonys 


Keys o jojo dysquejas* je pur treytours y jewle 
warneje gwelsons clevas bytegyws byth nyw gese 
yn meth y wrek mur a varth bras yv henna jym rum lewte 
hejow pan e^ys yn mes* cleves vyth nyth kemerse 


In meth gurek an goff jeje kentrow jewy why ny fyll 
a wos bos claff y ^ewle toche vyth gonys ef na yll 
del won yn vn fystene me as gura ny strechyaff pell 
a ban na ges a wothfe jeugh pans as gurelle gwell 


En debell wrek casadow gans mur a doth eth yn chy 
\var hast je wejyll kentrow may fens creff ha trewesy 
ij droys Ihesus caradow hay ij leyff y a delly 
rag an spykz's o garow * pan vons gwysk^s jy sensy 


Pan o an kentrow lewmys % hy as duk jen ejewon 
crows Ihesus navnio par^'s y eth jy laje yn scon 
bresell cref a ve sordijs- en grows pu elle jy don 
dre vur stryff y fe luggijs ys degy cr/st y honon 



Still they had no nails to hold Jesus on the cross, 
And they sought all about if they should find a smith readily. 
One they saw there, and they went to entreat him, 
And they said to him: "Make tliou three nails for ws." 


Said the smith: "Right truly, / will not make you any nails." 
Said they: "If thoumakest thyself sick, very diligently thoushalt pay for it, 
On account of doing work so light if thou fail us in need." 
He answered: "I will not make them, on my faith." 


By many of the Justicers in the country he was vilely rebuked , 
He sought an excuse (?) for fear of his being killed : 
Said the smith: "A great disease is come on my hands, 
Any tool I cannot well hold in them to work." 


Needful was it for him to shew his hands to very traitors, 
On them they saw disease, although there was not any. 
Said his wife: "Much of great wonder is that to me, by my loyalty! 
When thou wentest out to-day, no illness had taken thee." 


Said the smith's wife to them: "Nails shall not fail you; 
He cannot work a touch on account of his hands being sore 
As I know, in a hurry I will make them. I will not delay long, 
Because there is none that knows how to prepare them for you better." 


The wicked hateful woman with much of haste went into (the) house, 
In haste to make nails that they might be strong and doleful. 
(The) feet of Jesus , the loveable , and his hands they bored , 
For the spikes that were rough, when they should be struck to hold him. 


When the nails were sharpened, she brought them to the Jews. 
rK-sus' cross was now prepared: they went to slay him forthwith. 
A strong contest was raised, the cross who should go to boar it. 
Through great strife it was adjudged that Christ himself should carry it, 




[fo. Ub.] 

An queth tek a ve dyskw ban pwrpur ryche a vsye 
hay bowys yhonon gurm a dro 3030 hy a ve 
gans y vam y fye gum hag ef gensy ow tene 
kepar Ihesus del devys yn della an bows a wre 


Oil monas y a vyrnie bys yn mont a galvary 
a vest $en dre y ^ese- meneth vghell yredy 
an grows I a rug gorre war scoth Ihesus }y don jy 
je Ihesus cn'st may teffe- ol an greff ban belyny 


Dew lader drevs o dampnys- a ve dyjgtw gans Ihesu 
ganso ef may fens creg's onon jojo a bub tu 
Ihesus a ve hombronkss ha war y lyrgh mur a lu 
dre voider tebel lustzV rag y chasye kyn 30 du 


I vam whegol a welas del esons worth y jygtye 
pyteth mwr askemeras y holon nam na grakye 
dre vn scochforth y ponyas* cafos y mab mar calle 
I wortos hy a vywnas* quelas Ihesus a gare 


Pan welas y mab dygtzV gans an ejewon mar veyll 
hay vos gans spern curunys ha peb 30^0 ow cull geyll 
hag yn y gorf bos gorm goleow pals leas myll 
heb cows ger y clamderis y tethas [leg. cothas] war bol y hyll 


Ena pan sevys yn ban 4 hy a gewsys del ylly 
nyrc gew ow faynys beghan- vs lemyn war ow sensy 
ow holon yn tre myll darn* marth yw gene na squardhy 
pan welaff ow mab mar wan' ow town kemys velyny 


[fo. 15 a.] 

Gensy prest ij venyn len esa worth y homfortye 
marya magdalenen* ha marya cleophe 
y a fystena yn fen* arte ^y dyerbyne 
rag kerensa nyw io ken y welas y a vywne 



The fair cloth was stript off, and the rich purple (that) he used, 
And his own coat it was put about him. 

It was made by his mother while he was with her, suckling, 
As Jesus grew up, so she made the coat. 


All would go to the Mount of Calvary, 
Outside the town it was, a mountain high indeed. 
They put the cross on Jesus' shoulder to bear it thither, 
That to Jesus Christ might come all the grief and the villainy. 


Two fro ward robbers that were condemned, were dighted with Jesus, 
That they might be hung with him, one on each side of him. 
Jesus was led on, and much people after him 
By order of an evil Justice, to chase him though he was God. 


His sweet mother saw how they were dighting him. . 
Great pity took her: her heart all but broke. 
Through a crossroad (?) she ran if she could get her son. 
She wished to wait for him, to see Jesus whom she loved. 


When she saw her son dighted so vilely by the Jews, 
And that he was crowned with thorns, and every one doing guile to him, 
And that in his body were put plenteous wounds many thousands 
Without saying a word she fainted: she fell on the back of her head. 


There when she rose up, she said as she could: 
"Not little are my pains which are now holding me. 
It is a wonder to me that my heart does not tear into a thousand pieces, 
When I see my son so weak, suffering so much villainy." 


With her at hand were two loyal women, comforting her, 
Mary Magdalen and Mary Cleopiie: 
They hastened quite again to meet him: 
For love, it was nought else, they wished to see him. 




Benenas prest a holyas Ihesu crist yii vn garme 
Ihesus worto [leg. worte] a veras hag a leuer/s jeje 
flehys mur ha benenas- a ierusalem yn dre 
a wor bos ov feynys bras ragoff na wheleugh ole 


Olough rag agw fleghys ha ragough agis honon 
en dejyow a vyth guelys hag a je sur yntrejon 
may fyth torrow beneg?V bythqueth na alias ejon 
han benenas kekyffrys na ve jeje denys bron 


In erna jen menyjyow why a ergh warnough coje 
yn ketella an nanssow wy a bys ragas cuthe 
del lavare war anow * war an pren glays mar a te 
yn prew seygh ha casadow sur yn erna fatel ve 


I vam whek marya wyn pub vr fystene a wre 
may halle doys war y byn y mab kewmys a gare 
Rag gwander war ben dowlyn- hy an guelas ow coje 
han wlos askemeras mar dyn' may clamderas hy arte 


Ena hy a ve seuys* yn ban ynter benenas 
arlulh hy a leuenV ow holon y ma genas 
kepar ha te hy jew gum- yn anken worth je welas 
bytqueth den ny wojevys * payn alia jy golon nes 


En golyas ha fowt dybbry a wo^evys Ihesus ker 
han strokosow trewesy * war y gorff dm pub maner 
goys ay ben [h]ay ysely a jroppye war y jew ver 
rag dojo ef na ylly dou?i an grow[y]s rag gwander 


[fo. I5b.] 

Vn den asdyerbywnas Sywmon o ay own [leg. ewn] hanow 
y leuerys jojo guas te a jek an grows heb wow 
y don symon a sconyas ef an geve strocosow 
na moy sconye ny vywias* rag own cafos y ancow 



Women close followed Jesus Christ, wailingly, 
Jesus looked on them, and said to them: 
"Children many and women of Jerusalem at home, 
Who know that my pains are great, seek ye not to weep for me. 


Weep ye for your children, and for you yourselves. 
The days shall be seen, and shall come surely among us, 
That blessed shall be wombs that never could bear, 
And women likewise whose breasts were not sucked. 


In that hour ye shall bid the mountains to fall upon you, 
Likewise the vallies ye shall pray to hide you. 
As (one) saith by mouth : on the green wood if it come , 
In dry and hateful wood surely how will it then be?" 


His sweet mother Mary blessed, always made haste 
That she might come to meet him, her son so much she loved. 
For weakness, on his knees, she saw him falling, 
And the sight took her so sharply that she swooned again. 


There she was raised up again among the women. 
"Lord", she said, "my heart is with thee, 
As thou art treated to-day (?), in grief looking on thee." 
Never man endured pain that came nearer to his heart. 


The wounding and want of eating dear Jesus suffered , 
And the doleful blows on his body beyond every measure. 
Blood from his head and his limbs dropped on his ankles (?): 
For on him he could not bear the cross for weakness. 


A man met them, Simon he was by his right name 
They said to him: "Fellow, thou shalt carry the cross without a lie." 
Simon refused to boar it: he received blows: 
For fear of having his death , he would refuse no longer. 



Ef a rJhuk an grcas ganse* pwr wyr henno ay anvoth 
ny wrens y na hon scyle' lymyn sywye aga both 
pub er t[h]e -^n gura lewte 1 beva den yonk bo den coth 
orjaff mar mynnyth cole neffre gans an fals na soth 


I eth yn vn fystene* jen tyller ganso o ordnys 
pan dojyans ^y yntre^e' pows Ihesus a ve dyskf's 
y dysky mur an grevye worto fast navngo glenys 
whath bytqueth claif ny vee vylle ys dello dyskzs [leg. dyghtis] 


Vn venyn da a welas* dello Ihesus dystryppijs 
pytet mur askemeras* rag y vos mar veyll dygt& 
vn queth tek hy a drylyas- adro 3030 desympys 
ha warnans hy an quuthas rag gwyje na ve storuys 


Heys cn'st y a gemeras* an neyll lef bys yn y ben 
worth an les y a dollas ij doll yn grow[y]s heb ken 
may jello an kentrow bras* dre y ^ewleff bys yn pen 
rag y dreys y a vynnas telly }y worre yntten 


Ganse crist a ve tewlys war an grows ^e wroweje 
hay yll leff a ve tadb's* ord[h] en grows fast may ^ese 
hay yll troys a ve gorris* poran war ben y gele 
worth an grows yfons lajijs gans kenter guysk& dreje 


[fo. 16 a.] 

Then levff arall pan dojyans worth an grovs rag y faste 
y fylly moy ys tresheys* jen tol gurzs hy na heje 
en ejewon betegyns' gul tol arall ny vywne 
lemyn an tol re wrussens* y a vy[n]ne je smiye 


Ganse worth levff crist loven fast yn scon a ve kelmys 
hag yn tre en ejewon* an grovs fast a ve sensys 
gans re a gywmys colon- en loven a ve tennys 
y lunctis ketoponon- oil warbarth may jens squardis 



He carried the cross with them right truly that was to his displeasure, 
They gav_- no other ground but followed their will 
Always do thou loyalty to man, be he a young man or an old man, 
If thou wouldst listen to me, ever with the false or the true. 


They went in a hurry to the place that was ordained by them. 
When they came thither, among them Jesus' coat was removed, 
Its removal grieved him much, it was now clinging close to him, 
Yet there was never a sick person that was more vilely treated. 


A good woman saw how Jesus was stript, 
Great pity took her at his being so vilely treated. 
A fair cloth she wrapt around him immediately, 
And over him she covered him to keep him from being starved (with cold). 


They took Christ's length from the one hand even to the other, 
According to the width they bored two holes in the cross without mercy, 
That the great nails might go through his hands to the head, 
For his feet they would bore (a hole) to put them tightly. 


By them was Christ cast on the cross to lie, 

And one of his hands was nailed on the cross, so that it was fast, 
And one of his feet was put right over the other : 
On the cross they were ....(?) with a nail struck through them. 


When they came to the other hand to fasten it on the cross, 
It wanted more than a foot-length, to the hole made so that it reached not: 
The Jews nevertheless would not make another hole, 
But the hole they had made they would that it should servo. 


By them to Christ's hand a rope was forthwith tied fast, 
And among the Jews the cross was fast held, 
By some the rope was pulled with so much heart, 
That his joints every one all together were torn. 


Pan deth levff cn'st war en toll dre an nerth may tensons hy 

vn ethow avell pyth foil' a wyskt's kenter ynhy 
lewmyn me agis pys oil* a baynis cn'st predery 
ha na vo gesys }e goll 1 an lahys a rug jyraiy 


Scn'fys yw yn suredy ha lien me nyn lauarsen 
corff Ihesus hay asely y je dercna mar velen 
neb a vywna a ylly neuera oil y yscren 
hay skewnys kyc ha gwyjy pan esa jn crow[y]s pren 


Han grous a ve drehevys* ha Ihesus fasteys ynny 
han pen golas delyffrys 4 yn tol o tellys rygthy 
ena hy a ve gefys* je goja mar ankynsy 
je cn'st may fe crehyllys oil y gorf hay esely 


Ha cn'st yn delma peynys a berth yn crows pan ese 
yn [majnerma y pesys' rag an keth re ren crowse 
owjas whekbejensgevys jew rema aga nyscyte [leg. 'gan yncyte ?] 
rag me ny won [leg. rag ny wojons] py gymmys* y mons y sur 

ow peghe 


[fo. 16 b.] 

An ethewon a grogas * lader je gryst an barth cleth 
hag a jyghow lader bras' cregy a russons yn weth 
ha cn'st yn cres leim a ras levn y golon a voreth 
gans laddron y tewejas' del yw scn'fys ay jeweth 


Pylat a vyraias scn'fe- a vewnans [leg. vernans] cn'st acheson 
praga dawpnys rebee hag an scn'fas y honon 
pan eth pylat jy redye scyle nyw io na gonon 
prest y keffy pan vyre- henma yw mygtern ejewon 


En ethewon a gowsys henna y w jyn bylyny 
bedews }e ves defend^- y vonas mygtern ?ynny 
ha be^ens ena gom's y fense bos dre vestry 
han pyth a screfys screfys* yn meth pylat jeje y 


When, through the strength that they drew it (with), Christ's hand came 

on the hole, 

A Jew , as if he was mad , drove a nail into it. 
Now I pray you all to think of Christ's pains. 
And that to loss be not left the laws which he made for us. 


Of a surety it is written , and otherwise I should not have said it 
Jesus' body and his limbs they drew so brutally, 
Whosoever would might number all his bones, 
And his sinews, flesh, and veins, when he was on the cross-tree. 


And the cross was upraised, Jesus being fastened on it, 
And the bottom end delivered into a hole that was hollowed for it, 
There it was taken to fall so grievously, 
That for Christ might be shaken all his body and his limbs. 


And Christ thus pained when he was on the cross, 
In this manner prayed for those same that crucified him: 
"My sweet Father, be forgiven to these their iniquity (?), 
For they know not how much surely they are sinning!" 


The Jews hung a robber on the left side of Christ, 
And on the right a great robber they hung also, 
And in the middle Christ full of grace , his heart full of sorrow , 
With robbers he ended , as is written of his end. 


Pilate would write of Christ's death the occasion 
Why he was condemned, and he wrote it himself; 
When Pilate went to read it. there were no grounds, not one, 
Readily he found when he looked: "This is (the) king of (the) Jews." 


The Jews said: "To us that is villainy! 

Let it be put out that he was a king to us, 

And let it there be put that he would be (so) thro' mastery." 

"What I have written, I have written," to them said Pilate. 



En lybell a ve tack?V worth en grous fast may jese 
hag a vgh pen cn'st gorrys* may hylly peb y redye 
rag bos Ihesus cn'st crowsys- ogas je forth en cyte 
gans leas yfe redijs * y vonas mygtern jethe 


Dyllas cn'st a ve rynnys pedar ran gum a neje 
gans peswar marreg a brys * je bub marreg ran nayse [leg. mayse] 
y bous ef o mar dek gum- y ny vynsans y rarme 
war nethy pren be tewlys * oil an bows pyv an gyffe 


An barth cleyth neb o creg?V dyveth o ha lader pur 
yn ges ef a leuerys te cn'st mar sota mar fur 
war an bys del omwressys lemmyn dyswa ha gura cur 
ha saw te ha me kyffm- agan bewnans may fen sur 


In meth an lader arall- drok jew os kepar del ves 
ny jowtyth du te yw dall' rag genen cregis neb es 
den glan yw a begh heb fall' ynno eff cyfout nyn ges 

[fo. 17 a.] 
agan cregy ny yv mall' rag ny rebe laddron dres 


An lader an barth dyghow a besys in ketelma 
arluth pan dyffy jet pow predery a hanaff gura 
cn'st pur wek an car ado w* an gorjebys yn vrna 
te a vyth yn keth golow y[n] parades genama 


An ejewon a gewsy a Ihesus rag y scornye 
kyn& yn ta ef a ylly tus a bub drok ol sawye 
lemmyn gans ol y vestry ragon ny wor omweje 
na gans oil y tretury ny yll agan dyssaytye 


War aga dewlyn y je pe rag Ihesus re erell 
aga fen y a sackye hag a gewsy pur debell 
worth Ihesus rag y angre' a wotta omma neb yll 
tempell du dowstoll squardye' ha jy voth y jrehevell 



The libel was tacked on, so that it was fast on the cross, 
And put above Christ's head, that every one might read it. 
Because Jesus Christ was crucified nigh to the road of the city, 
It was read by many that he was king to them. 


Christ's clothes were parted, four parts were made of them, 
By four soldiers of worth : to every soldier that there might be a part. 
His coat it was made so fair that they would not part it. 
On it a lot was cast who should take the whole coat. 


He that was hung on the left side, shameless he was and a right robber; 
In a jeer he said: "Thou Christ, if thou art so wise 
In the world, as thou madest thyself, now shew and work a cure, 
And save thyself and me likewise, that we may be sure of our life." 


Said the other robber: "Thou art a bad man as thou hast been, 
Thou fearest not God, thou art blind, for he that is hung with us 
Is a man pure from sin, without fail, in Jiim is no default; 

To hang us is not wrong, for we have been froward robbers. 


The robber on the right side prayed thus: 

"Lord, when thou shalt come to thy country, think thou of me!" 
Right sweetly Christ the loveable then answered him : 
t'Thou shalt be this same light in Paradise with me." 


The Jews said of Jesus to mock him: 
"Though well he was able to save folk from every ill, 
Now with all his power he knows not how to keep himself from us, 
Nor with all his treason can he deceive us." 


On their knees went others that were before Christ. 
Their head they wagged, and said very wickedly 
To Jesus to anger him: "Behold, here is one who can 
Tear to pieces (?) God's temple, and raise it at his will." 



Hag y ee je ben dewlyrr ha hager mowys a wre 
gweje gojyans aga meyn- orth Ihesus a omgame 
hag ef moygha yn y beyn yn y fas y a drewe 
heno jojo calys feyn- agan pegh ny ow premie 


Re je gryst a leuery a berth yn crows pan ese 
mar soge cn'st mab dauy des an grows heb pystege 
ha ny a grys je vestry hag ad syns mester neffre 
me yw mab du yredy cn'st a leuem thethe 


A barth dyghow y jese }e gryst y vam marya 
hay vam ef neb a gare an barth arall magata 
deso benyn yn meja * lowan je vab me a wra 
na byth moy ken mam neffre' es hyhy te na whela 

War lyrgh cn'st enef je ry pub onan oil jy gele 

[fo. 17 b.] 

lowan y vam a sensy marya crist del arse 
yn pub maner may hylly y vam prest asonore 
yn delma comfort jyjy y map a vywnas dygtye 


Nevngo deuethys an prys* may jo ogas jy ^eweth 
yn erna y fe dorgis ha dm ol an bys ef eth 
tewolgow bras a ve gum- an houll a gollas y feth 
ha moy marjus me a gm* ys an rena ve yn weth 


In della hy a begyas bys banter dyth yredy 
yn erna cn'st a vywnas* leuerell ely ely 

je strirya [leg. scrirya?] yw a gowsas* arluth pragh y hysta vy 
mas re war gryst a ynnyas y jo dewas a yrghy 


Gans an ejewon war hast' drok |ewas a ve dyjgtys 
tebell lycowr mwr y last' eysyll bestyll kemysk/s 
yn [un] spong orth gwelew fast' je gryst hy a ve hejys 
gonys oil a wrens yn fast- rag na go cn'st attendijs 



And they went on their knees and made ugly mowes, 
They knew how to pray from their mouths : to Jesus they bent themselves. 
And he most greatly in his pain: they spat in his face. 
This to him was hard pain, (while he was) redeeming our sin. 


Some said to Christ, when he was on the cross: 

"If thou art Christ, son of David, come from the cross without magic, 
And we will believe in thy power, and hold thee a master always." 
"I am indeed God's Son", Christ said to them. 


On Christ's right side was his mother Mary, 
And the mother of him he loved on the other side as well. 
"To thee, Woman", he said, "I will make John thy son, 
Seek not thou (John) evermore any mother other than her." 

After Christ gave up the ghost, each went to the other. 

John took Mary (for) his mother, as Christ had bidden. 

In every way that he could, his mother he readily honoured. 

Thus her Son would dight comfort for her. 


Now the time was come that he drew near to his end, 
Then was there an earthquake, and it went over all the world, 
Great darkness was made, the Sun lost his face, 
And I believe there were also more wonders than those. 


Thus it ceased (?) until midday indeed, 
Then Christ would say Eli, Eli. 

To explain (?) what he said: ''Lord, why hast thou left me?" 
But some urged on Christ, that it was drink he asked. 


By the Jews in haste a bad drink was dighted, 
Evil liquor, great its tilth, vinegar, gall mixed 
In a spoiler fast on a rod. to Christ it was reached. 
All worked quickly for Christ was not attended (?). 



Re an ejewon tebell- a leuerys heb pyte 
a wottense ow kelwell hely 3030 jy wyje 
myrugh mar te drehevell- ay beynys ?y delyffre 
ban scberewys prest a bell' je worth an gwyr afye 


I beyn o mar greff ha tyn caman na ylly bewe 
heb dascor y eneff gwyn bytqueth yn Ian revewse 
cn'st a besys del redyn* yn delma yn luas le 
ow eneff me a gymyn arluth yn tre je jewle 


Rag gwan spyr hag ef yn ten- caman na ylly gwyje 
war nans [leg. mann ?] na bosse y ben rag an arlont a vsye 
mar posse an neyll tenewen rag y scoth hy an grevye 
Ha whath gweth a wre an pren- war jellargh mar an gorre 


[fo. 18 a.] 

Na war rag ef ny ylly pose rag own bos megz's 
yn erna del redyn ny y[n] lyffrow del yw scn'fys 
\wn nejyn gwyls rag nyejy tellyryow esa pan's 
the cn'st y ben py sensy teller vyth nyw go kefrs 


Rag porrys rys o jojo gase y ben ^egregy 
rag galse glan je worto' y woys bewe ny ylly 
war tu hay [leg. ay] vam an pewo y ben a vyraias synsy 
hay eneff eth a nojo gans garni eyn hag vghel gry 


Ryp crous Ihesus y |ese* vn den henwys sentury 
a vernans cn'st pan welse' kynyuer tra marthusy 
han enef del dascorse erbyn nator gans vn cry 
y leuerys heb scornye' hewma yw mab du yredy 
ha leas ganso ene* dojo a juk dustuny 


Nango banter dyth yn wlas ! po moy del yma scryfzs 
dorg^s esa ha lughas han tewolgow kekyffrys 
veyll an tempyll a squardyas yn tre dew jew dor cojys 
ena yn weth y torras en veyn o creff ha calys 



Some of the evil Jews said without pity: 
"Behold him, calling on Elias to protect him, 
See ye if he comes to raise, to deliver him from his pains." 
And the wicked were very far from the truth. 


His pain was so strong and keen that he could not live anyway 
Without parting with his pure soul: never fully had he lived. 
Christ prayed, as we read thus in many places: 
"My soul I commend, Lord, between Thy hands!" 


For he breathed weakly and he constrained, he could not keep anyway. 
On nothing could he lean his head, for the garland that he wore. 
If he leant on the one side , for his shoulder it grieved him , 
And yet worse did the tree , if he put it backwards. 


Nor could he lean forwards for fear of being stifled. 
Then as we read in books as it is written: 
For the wild birds to make nests places were prepared 
For Christ, where he might lay his head, no place was found. 


For it was very needful to him to leave his head to hang, 
For clean from him his blood had gone : he could not live. 
On the side of his Mother who owned him, his head he would hold, 
And his soul went from him with a cry and shrill scream. 


Beside Jesus' cross was a man named Sentury. 

When he saw such a number of marvellous things at Christ's death , 
And how he gave up the ghost against nature with a cry, 
He said without mocking: "This is God's son indeed", 
And many with him there to him bare witness. 


Now it was midday in the land, or more, as is written, 
Earthquake there was, and lightning, and the darkness likewise, 
The temple's veil was torn in two to the ground it IVll. 
There also were broken the stones that were strong and hard. 



En bejow yn lower le' a pert [leg. apert] a ve egery 
han corfow esa ynne- a ve yn ban drehevys 
hag eth poran jen cyte gans luas y fons gwelys 
en gwyr je justvnee bos mab du neb o lejys 


Dowr ha ler ha tan ha gwyns houl ha lour ha steyr kyffm 
a gryst ow cojaff mern&ns anken y a wojevys 
natur scyle me a syns' arluth da mar pyth peynys 
ol y sogete kyw fons syns * rag y beyn je vos grevijs 


Enaff cn'st je yfFarn eth* hag a dorras an porjow 
dre y nerth bras hay sleyueth' ena golmas dewolow 
lucyfer kelmys y v whath pur fast yn y golmemiow 
hag ef a dryk heb fynweth yn yffarn yn tewolgow 


[fo. 18b.] 

Ena cn'st a thelyffras a breson adam hag evef 
suel a wressa both y das man geffo tregva yn nef 

pan eth yn mes yn sewyas* en dus vas del vywne ef 
an scherewes a dregas yn yffarn yn tormont creff 


Vn burges losep hynwys* a haramat an cyte 
yn mernans cr/st a gewsys* bytqueth dremas re bee 
ol y doul ef o tewlys ganso yn nef rag trege 
Ihesus ganso o kem ha ny n io hard jy notye 


losep eth bys yn lustz's- je bylat mester treus o 
ha pur hardA a wovyraiys* corf Ihesus worto yn ro 
rag bos losep den keris grontw ef a ve jojo 
pylat a wor[h]omyrcnys meras crist marow mar so 


En e^ewon skyntyll keth- resteffo mur vylyny 
}e veras worth cn'st y eth * hag ef yn crous ow cregy 
y a welas war y feth- y vos marow yredy 
yttaseffsons oil yn weth dre an golon y delly 



The gnu a great number of places were opened wide, 
And the Indies that were in them, were raised up, 
And went straight to the city by many they were seen 
To witness the truth that it was God's Son who was slain. 


Water and earth and fire and wind, sun and moon and stars likewise, 
At Christ suffering death suffered sorrow. 
Nature will cause, I hold, if the good Lord be pained, 
All his subjects, though they were holy, to be grieved for his pain. 


Christ's soul went to hell and broke the portals. 
Through his great might and his skill there he bound the devils. 
Lucifer is still bound full fast in his bonds, 
And he shall dwell without end in hell in darkness. 


There Christ delivered Adam and Eve from prison, 
(And) whoso would do his Father's will, that he might have a dwelling in 


When he went out (there) followed him the good folk as he wished, 
The evil ones dwelt in hell in strong torment. 


A burgher named Joseph of Arimathea the city, 
At Christ's death he said that he had ever been supremely good. 
All his plan was formed to dwell with him in heaven. 
Jesus was loved by him, and it was not hard to note it. 


Joseph went to the Justice, to Pilate, who was a fro ward master, 
And begged very hard Jesus' body from him as a gift. 
As Joseph was a loved man, it was granted to him. 
Pilate gave order to see if Christ were dead. 


Those learned Jews, much villainy had they. 

To look on Christ they went, while he was hanging on the cross. 
They saw by his face that he was dead indeed. 
They all also desired to pierce him through the heart. 




In aga herwyth y }ese vn marreg long& hynwys 
dal o ny wely banna ef rebea den a brys 
gew a ve yn y jewle gans an e^ewon gorn's 
ha pen lym rag y wane je golon Ihesus hynwys 


Longis sur an barth dyghow* je grous Ihesus y jese 
jen marreg worth y hanow * y a yrhys may whane 
yn corf Ihesus caradow en gew lym ef a bechye 
pur ewn yn dan an asow dre an golon may ^ese 


An golon y ^eth stret bras * dowr ha goys yn kemesk^s 
ha ryp an gy w a resas je ^ewle neb an gwysk/s 
y wholhas y ^ewlagas gans y eyll leyff o gosys 
dre ras an goys y whelas Ihesus cn'st del o dyjgtis 


[fo. 19 a.] 

Eddrek mur an kemeras* rag an ober re wresse 
jy ben dowlyn y co^as arluth gevyans yn meje 
dall en ny welyn yn fas 1 ow bos mar veyll ow pewe 
Ihesus 50^0 a avas pan welas y edrege 


Mam Ihesus marya wyn herd[h]ya an gyw pan welas 
yn y mab yn tenewyn- dre an golon may resas 
ha ^en dor an goys ban lyn' an nojo dell deveras 
angusbrashapeynystyn'hagloyscreffaskemeres [leg. askemeras] 


Ffest yn tyn hy a wole je wherjyn nysteva whans 
hay dagrow a ^evere hay [leg. ay] dew lagas pur jewhans 
hay holon whek a ramie* me a leuer rag trystans 
rag an grayth yn hy ese- nas gweje an spyrys sans 


Dre y holon y ^eth seth- y mab synd^s pan welse 
moreth an seth ha pytet- natureth o ha denseth 
han pen arall o pytet' tackz's fast gans kerense 
ny wojevys den bythqueth- kywmys peynys ow pewe 



Along with them was a soldier named Longis: 
Blind was he, he saw not a drop; he was a man of worth. 
Into his hands a spear was put by the Jews, 
And a sharp point for him to pierce to mild Jesus' heart. 


Longis , sure , was on the right side of Jesus' cross , 
To the soldier by his name they bade that he should pierce. 
Into the body of loveable Jesus , the sharp spear he darted 
Right under the ribs, so that it was through the heart. 


From the heart there came a great spring, water and blood mixed, 
And ran down by the spear to the hands of him that struck him: 
He bathed his eyes with his one hand that was bloodied 
Through the blood's grace he saw how Jesus Christ was dighted. 


Great sorrow seized him for the work he had done. 
On his knees he fell "Lord, forgiveness!" he said, 
"Blind was I, I saw not well, that I am living so vilely." 
Jesus forgave him when he saw his sorrows. 


Jesus' mother, Mary blessed, when she saw the spear thrust 
Into her son in a side, so that it ran through the heart, 
And how to the ground the blood and the water dropt from him, 
Great anguish, and sharp pains, and a strong pang seized her. 


Very bitterly she wept, to laugh she had no desire. 
And her tears dropt from her eyes right copiously, 
And her sweet heart would have parted, I say, for sorrow, 
Had not the Holy Ghost protected her for the grace that was in her. 


Through her heart went an arrow when she saw her son hurt. 
Grief (was) the arrow, and pity, natural love (it) was and humanity; 
And the other end was pity fastened close with love. 
Never did human being endure so many pains while living! 



An seth yw rag leueris* as gwyska's tyn gans mur angws 
war y holon may crunys dre nerth an bum fynten woys 
ha hy a wolas kywmys' gans mar ver nerth ha galloys 
an fywten may trehevys ran yn ban da droka loys 


An goysna dagrennow try dre y ij lagas y }eth 
ny go comfort na yly a wrello y holon hueth 
hay veynys mar drewesy askemar ha kymmys cueth 
yn oil an bys ny ylly den cafos kywmys anfueth 


I feynys o bras ha creff' yn ioy ^ejy trylys yw 
rag mygternas yw yn nef- je vos gorjijs hy yv gyw 
Eleth je rygthy a seff- leas my 11 y both a syw 
hay mab as gorth del vyn ef tecke ys houl yv y lyw 


[fo. 19 b] 

In corff Ihesus y jese hag ef yn crows ow cregy 
pymp myll strek's del iove ha pedergwyth cans goly 
ha tryvgons moy ganse' ha pymjek pur wyr ens y 
hag ol rag pwr gerense* worth mab den ys gojevy 


Pub tejoll neb a vynne 1 leuerel pyw^ek pater 
a leun golon rag gorjye pascon agan arluth ker 
yn blyjerc y a vye ha [leg. a] bederow keneuer 
hag a owleow ese- yn corf Ihesus worth neuer 


En ejewon ny vywne' bos an laddron ow cregy 
ternos rag pasch o jeje- dyth vghel y a sensy 
an ejewon yn treje' a rug may wrellons terry 
aga morjosow whare hag a lena aga dry 


Erbyn bonas henna gum nanso prys gwespar yn wlas 
yn erna yn weth kerneas* ^e losep y a rontyas 
hag an grou[y]s del o prys corf Ihesus a gemeras 
tyr marya me a gnV pur ylwys [leg. hynwys?] an gweresas 



The arrow aforesaid struck her sharp with much anguish, 
So that on her heart gathered through force of the blow a fountain of blood, 
And she wept so much, with so great strength and power, 
That from the fountain a part was raised upwards, worst pang. 

Of that blood three drops went through her eyes , 

There was not comfort nor healing that could make her heart (?) , 

And her pains so mournful that seized her, and so much grief, 
In all the world a man could not find so much misfortune. 


Her pains that were great and strong, are turned into joy for her, 
For she is queen in heaven, she is worthy to be worshipped; 
Angels rise before her, many thousands follow her wish, 
And her Son worships her as he will: fairer than the sun is her hue. 


In Jesus' body there were, while he was hanging on the cross, 
Five thousand strokes as there were , and four times a hundred wounds, 
And three score more w*th them, and fifteen, right truly were they, 
And all for pure love to (the) son of man he endured them. 


He that would every day say fifteen paternosters 
With a full heart to worship the Passion of our dear Lord, 
In a year there would be as many paternosters 
As were of wounds in Jesus' body by number. 


The Jews wished not that the robbers should be hanging 
The day after, for it was Easter to them a high day they held it. 
The Jews among them caused that they should break 
Their thighs anon, and bear them thence. 


Against that was done, it was now vesper-time in the land: 
Then also they granted leave to Joseph, 
And from the cross as was time Jesus' body he took, 
Lovely Mary , I believe , very (?) helped him. 



Mam Ihesus cn'st a awme corf y mab pur drewesy 
hay daggrow a ^evere' a nojo pan predery 
ban anken mur asgrevye pan vyre worth y woly 
yn tenewen y ^ese* dre an golon astylly 


losep je gryst a vynnas y arrow hay jeffregh whek 
yn vaner del [ve] yn whas hag as ystynnas pur dek 
a dro }y gorff y trylyas * sendall rych yn luas pleg 
ha marya leun a ras' ganso trest ha more^ek 


Ena vn lowarth ese ha ynno nyn io [leg. beth ve] parys 
den marow rag receve newyth parrys nyn io vsijs 
corff Ihesus cn'st yn treje }en logell a ve degys 
Hag a heys je wroweje ynno ef a ve gesys 


[fo. 20 a.] 

Vn den da c[ri]st a gara Nycodemws y hanow 
eff nyn io hard^ ^y notya- rag own cafos y ankow 
dworennos yn pur brena* cf eth jen corff o marow 
gans vwnient jojo esa' ha spyc^s a vur rasow 


Nycodemws a vras corff Ihesus hay esely 
oynment o a gymmys ras may we^e corf heb pedry 
nagonon ef ny asas heb vre ay esely 
yn delma ef an dyjgtyas mey eyn sur o y wely 


Ha spycis leas ehen* ef a worras yn y veth 
je gryst a bub tenewen- hag a jyghow hag a gleth 
worth y dreys ha worth y ben ha war ol y gorf yn weth 
dysquejyens war lyrgh anken- beje mygtern yn deweth 


Han ejewon a worras* a vgh Ihesus cn'st vn men 
leden o ha poys ha bras moy ag/s gauel tredden 
ganso drys nos y jolyas [leg. golyas]' yn y seruys neb o len 
an nosna a dremenas hag oil y drok hay anken 



Jesus Christ's mother kissed her son's body right sadly, 
And her tears dropt when she thought on him, 

And the great sorrow that grieved her when she looked on his wound, 
Went into a side, pierced her through the heart. 


Joseph for Christ made white his legs and sweet arms, 
In manner as was usual (?), and stretched them out full gently, 
Around his body they wrapt linen rich in many folds, 
And Mary, full of grace, with him sad and mournful. 


There was a garden there, and in it a tomb was prepared 
To receive a dead man, newly prepared, it had not been used. 
Jesus Christ's body was borne to the coffin between them, 
And to lie at length it was left therein. 


A good man loved Christ Nicodemus his name, 
He was not bold to denote it for fear of taking his death , 
By night in pure affection (?) he went to the corpse that was dead, 
With unguent which he had, and spices of great virtues. 


Nicodemus anointed Jesus' body and his limbs, 

The ointment was of so much virtue that it kept a corpse without putrefying. 
Not one of his limbs he left without anointing 
Thus he dighted him so that his bed was very right (?). 


And spices, many kinds, he put into his tomb, 
At each side of Christ, both a-right and a-left, 
On his feet and on his bead, and on all his body also, 
A declaration after sorrow that he was a king at last. 


And the Jews put above Jesus Christ a stone, 

Broad it was , and heavy, and large , more than (the) hold of three men. 
By it through the night there watched one who was loyal in his service 
And that night passed away all her ill and her grief. 



Ternoys y sordyas bresel- gans an ejcwon goky 
lauarow tyn hag vghel fest yn foil y a gewsy 
may jens y parys ?en well ny [leg. may] wojyens y jystrowy 
rag Ihesus je leuerell' yn tressa dyth y sevy 


In vn stevya oil y eth bys yn pylat o lustis 
vn ejow jojo yn freth yn delma a leuerys 
ny a yll yn nos haneth fest dystough bonas kellys 
ha may fo dynny ^e weth- rag bonas Ihesus lejys 


[fo. 20 b.] 

Eag an traytor a gewsys ha je rag leas huny 
war lyrgh y vonas lejys }en tressa dyth y seuy 
mars mara peja deg/s- gans y dus nan caffan ny 
yn vrna byth leuerys ef je sevell dre vestry 


Pylat a yrghys ^eje- war beyn kylly an bewnans 
monas }en corf ^y weje* nan kemerre y yskerans 
hag yn nos oil aspye- ha gwyje tarn na guskens 
y eth yn vn fystene peswar marrek yrvys ens 


Pan dejens y bys yn beth- y ^eth vn marrek ^y ben 
hag arall ^y dreys yn weth yrvys fast bys yn ^ewen 
hag a jyghow hag a gleth* onon a bub tenewen 
bost a wrens tyn ha deveth yn gwejens worth y ehen 


En varogyon a guskas myttyn ban gyth ow tarje 
ha Ihesus a jejoras hag eth yn le may fynne 
den a pert [leg. apert] ha mwr y ras golow cleyr ow tewynnye 
ef a wre oil y vyraias y ny yllens y weje 


Pan o pur holergh an gyth y tefenas vn marrek 
del deth an nef war y fyth ef a welas golow tek 
han meyn vmhelys yn weth- ese a vgh Ihesus whek 
ha warnojo a yseth* ell benegas lowenek 



The day after arose a quarrel among the foolish Jews. 
Words sharp and high very madly they said, 

That they were ready for the sight, that they knew (how) to destroy him, 
For Jesus had said that he would rise on the third day. 


In a crowd they all went to Pilate who was magistrate, 
A Jew strongly said to him thus: 
"We may this very night quite soon be lost, 
And so that it may be worse for us that Jesus was slain. 


For the traitor said, and (said) before many a one, 
That after his being slain, he would rise on the third day; 
But if he be carried away by his people, we should not find him, 
Then it will be said that he arose through power." 


Pilate commanded them on pain of losing their life , 
To go to keep the body that his enemies might not take it. 
And all the night to look and to take care that they slept not a whit, 
They went in a hurry, four armed soldiers were they. 


When they came to the tomb, one soldier went to his head, 
And another to his feet also, armed quite to the jaws, 
And on the right and the left, one on each side, 

A boast they made, sharp and shameless, that they would keep him against 

his effort. 


The soldiers slept at morning, while the day was breaking, 
And Jesus ascended and went whither he would. 
A man clearly, and great his grace, a clear light shining, 
He did all his will, and they could not keep him. 


When the day was very well advanced, a soldier awoke 
As the sky came on his face, he saw a fair light, 
And the stone turned away also that was over Jesus sweet, 
And on it sat an angel, blessed, joyful. 



En marrek na a sevys oil yn ban y goweje 
ha jeje a leuerys- a Ihesus fatell vye 
an denma re drehevys * gallas ny wojan pele 
lemman na veny lejys* nyn ges forth je omweje 


Marrak arall a gowsas gouy vyth pan veyn genys 
tru a thu elhas elhas gans vn huyn re ben tullys 
an bewuarcs ny re gollas' hag yn weth agan fleghys 
om jyghtyn trussen anwlas fyan na veny kefys 


[fo. 21 a.] 

An peswore a gewsys * na whelyn gwevye an pow 
kepar del ve jen lustw* dun leueryn war anow 
ay veth del yw drehevys* na leueryn vn ger gow 
y a ruge [leg. rug] a jesympys oil war lyrgh y arhadow 


I eth yn vn fystene* je pylat aga lustis 
en deskyens del vye ha jojo a leuerys 
re saffe cn'st heb strevye- ol jy voth gans golowys 
ha na yllens y gwyje y voth na vo colenwys 


Ena pylat pan glewas * yn delma y je gewsell 
prederow an kemeras rag own y }e leuerell 
ha }y notye drys an wlas sur a ogas hag a bell 
may teffe tus gans nerth bras' erybyn rag gustle bell 


Rag he?ma pylat a ros* ^en vorogyon aga ro 
may lavarsans hadolos yn pub tyller dm an vro 
je vos tus yrvys yn nos w^rneje kymmys a dro 
na gens y hardA ^e wortos lewmen oil monas jen fo 


En varogyon pan glewas pylat ov cows yw della 
mur a ioy askemeras' y ^e ^eank yn della 
an peynys o creff ha bras ha cafos rohow mar }a 
both pylat y a notyas yn le may jens rag he7^na 



That soldier roused up all his comrades, 
And told them how it was with Jesus: 
"This man has arisen, he has gone, we know not where 
Now there is no way to keep us that we be not slain!" 


Another soldier said: "Woe is me that we were born! 
Sad, O God, alas, alas! by a sleep we have been deceived. 
We have lost our life, and also our children 
Let us dight ourselves, let us cross the country, let us fly that we be not taken." 


The fourth said: "Let us not seek to flee (?) the country. 
Let us go to the magistrate, let us tell by mouth how it was; 
How he has risen from his tomb, let us not say a false word." 
They did straightway all according to his orders. 


They went in haste to Pilate their magistrate, 
They taught him how it was, and to him they said, 
That Christ had risen incontestably, all to his will with lights, 
And that they were not able to keep his will from being fulfilled. 


There Pilate, when he heard that they spoke thus, 
Thoughts took him for fear that they would say, 
And make it known through the country, surely anear and afar, 
So that folk with strong power should come against him to engage in war. 


Therefore Pilate gave to the soldiers their gift, 
That they might say and publish, in every place through the land, 
That there was armed folk at night upon them so many around 
(That) they were not bold to stay, but that all went to the flight, 


When the soldiers heard Pilate speaking thus, 
Great joy took them , that they escaped thus 
The pains that were strong and great, and got gifts so good, 
Therefore they made known Pilate's will in the place they were in. 



In keth gythna pur avar- ban houll nowyth drehevys 
tyr marea cleyr ha whar- a jeth \en beth leuerys 
ha ganse oyranent heb par rag corf Ihesus o prennys 
whath yn erna nyn gens war- bonas mab du drehevys 


[fo. 21 b.] 

Pan o an tyr marya* ogas jew beth deuethys 
an meyn esa a war^a' [h]y an guelas drehevys 
en benenas yn delma* yn treje a leuerys 
je worth an beth an meyrana- }yraiy pu an owmelys 


En benenas leuw a ras gans an beth fast powessews 
worth an pen y a welas* jew beth yw leuem kens 
vn flough yonk gwyn y ?yllas eyll o ha y ny wojyens 
scruth own mur askemeras' rag an marthus re welsens 


En eyll a gewsys jeje na vepugh dyscowfortts 
Ihesus cn'st a najary del welsough a ve lethys 
sevys gallas ^e gen le- den a pert [leg. apert] ha mur y breys 
a wotta an le may jese vwma nyn gew ef tregs 


Eugh yn fen jy jyschyblon- ha leuerough wy }eje 
ha ^e pedyr dos yn scon- erybyn ^e alyle 
ena cn'st an kuf colon- wy an kyff yn lowene 
del leuerys y honon- yn kyg yn goys ow pewe 


Gans hernia y a drylyas* confortts ha lowenek 
hag eth tus cn'st rag whelas hag as cafos morejek 
y lauarsons ol en cas' y jejons yn vn tonek 
bys yn galyle jy whelas ha je gows worth Ihesus wek 


Pan demons ^e alyle' Ihesus cn'st y a welas 
yn y ^ensys ow pewe' den apert ha mur y ras 
ol y beyn yntremense ha trylys ens yn ioy bras 
hag a vyth jyraiy neffre- mar a cresyn ha bos vas 



That same day very early, and the sun newly risen, 
Lovely Mary, clear and gentle, went to the said tomb, 
And with her (was) ointment without peer, for Jesus' body it was bought, 
Yet then they were not ware that God's Son had arisen. 


When the lovely Mary was come nigh unto the tomb, 
The stone that was on the top she saw it raised, 
The women thus said among themselves: 
"The stone from the tomb, who has turned it away for MS?" 


The women full of grace leaned quite on the tomb; 
They saw at the head of the tomb that is before mentioned, 
A young child, white his raiment; it was an angel, and they knew it not. 
A shiver (?) of great fear seized them at the marvel which they saw. 


The angel said to them: "Be ye not discomforted. 
Jesus Christ of Nazareth, as ye saw, was slain. 

He has risen, he has gone to another place, a man clearly and much his worth, 
Behold the place where he was: here he is not dwelling. 


Go ye quite to his disciples, and tell ye to them, 
And to Peter, to go forthwith to meet Him to Galilee, 
There Christ, the loving heart, ye shall find in joy, 
As he himself said, in flesh, in blood living. 


With that they returned, comforted and joyous, 
And went to seek Christ's folk, and found them mournful. 
They told all the case; they went in one flock 
To Galilee to seek and to talk to Jesus (the) sweet. 


When they came to Galilee they saw Jesus Christ, 
Living in his Manhood, a man clearly, and much his grace; 
All his pain had passed him, and they were turned into great joy, 
And he shall ahvays be for MS if we believe and be good. 

78 NOTES. 


Del sevys mab du ay veth yn erna jen tressa dyth 
yn della ol ny a seff- deth brues drok ha da yn weth 
obereth dremas a dyff yn erna rych ef a vyth 
drok $en yn gythna goef je gryst y fyth anbarth cleth 


[The contractions requiring explanation, which are used in the follow- 
ing notes, are: 'Buh.', the Breton miracle-play Buhez Santez Nonn (Paris 
1837). 'D.', '0.', and 'R.' are, respectively, the Cornish dramas Passio 
Domini nostri, Origo muncli, and Resurrectio Domini, published by Mr. 
Edwin Norris (London 1859). 'Vocab.' is the Cornish Vocabulary in the 
library of the British Museum, Cotton. Vesp. A. XIV.] 
St. 1, line 1. abys = a, a verbal prefix, -\-pys, 3 sg. fut. act. of a verb 
pesy (54,4), borrowed, likeW. pedi, pysy, Br. pidif, from theLat.pefo. 
leun = Br. leun, W. llawn, Ir. Ian Lat. plenus, Lith. pilna-s, Goth. 
full-s for fuln-s. Observe in the compound lenn-golon (= lano- 
cahna} the infection of the initial of the second element, owing 
to its having been flanked by vowels. The same phenomenon 
appears in other compounds: tebel-was 'evil fellow' (guas) 38, 3; 
tebel-wrek 'evil woman' (gurek) 159, 1; gwan-wecor 'weak trader' 
(gwecor) 40,1; drok-\en 'bad man' (den) 259,4; drok-]ewas 'bad 
drink' (dewas) 202, 1; hager-bref 'ugly reptile' (pref) 123, 3; pur- 
wyr 'very true' (gwyr) 68, 1; 94, 1; pur-toyn 'very white' (gwyri) 
45,4; pur-voretheh 'very mournful' (moretheh) 77,1; pur-vylen 
'very brutal' (mylen) 112, 3; pur-^etcans 'very eagerly' (dewhans) 
222, 2; pur-barys 'very ready' (parys) 72, 4; mur-rasotc 'great 
graces' (grasow) 234,4; mur-byle 'great pity' (pyte) 132, 3; 134,4. 
L. 4. may fo }e thu \e worthy ans, lit. 'ut sit deo honori\ This 
is quite the Latin double dative (as in Horace's exitio est mare 

St. 2, 1. 1. suel = W. sawl. golsowens, third singular imperat. act.: the ter- 
mination -ns from -nt (which occurs also in 51, 2; 55, 2; 57,4) 
seems to point to a pronoun -NT- of the third pers. singular, 
which appears again in the form warnans (177,4) 'on him', cf. O.Ir. 
trit 'through him'. L. 2. helheys, connected with helhiat, gl. perse- 
cutor, hefhvur, gl. venator, in the Cornish Vocabulary, W. hely, Ir. 
selg, and O.Celtic ^t^yovai. May we compare (with Dr. Siegfried) 
Lat. silva for silgva (as mahus , fulmis for malgvus, fulgvus)? 

NOTES. 79 


As God's Son rose from his tomb, then, on the third day, 
So shall we all arise on Doomsday, good and bad also. 
Full of works the very good shall come, then shall he be rich. 
The wickedman on thatday, woe to him he shall be on Christ's left hand. 

carow, W. carte, from cervus with the usual provection of e before 
r, and vocalisation oft? after r. L. 3. rebekis, Bret, rebeck, 'to re- 
proach', rebuke. L. 4. gans = Br. ganl, O.W. cann (from cant) Lib. 
Land. 157. kentrotc, 'nails', pi. of kenter (Ir. cinteir, Bret, kentr, 
W. cethr , Gr. zti'iput', Skr. kanlaka 'thorn') which has taken a 
plural termination originally belonging to the u-declension. 

As regards their declension the Cornish substantives are divisible 
into three classes : 

Class I, the vocalic stems, of which we find 1) masculine a-stems, 
whose plural, formed by umlaut, points to an old ending in i, 
as in Latin and Greek. Thus margh 'horse', pi. mergh, would 
in Gaulish be marcos, pi. marci, O.Ir. marc, pi. mairc, W. march, 
pi. rneirch. 2) Nouns, whose plural, formed by adding i (later y), 
points to an old ending in is 1 , originally restricted to stems in i. 
Thus letter 'ship', pi. iistr-i; esel 'a limb', pi. esel-y. 3) Nouns, 
whoso plural, formed by adding ou (later ow), points to an old 
ending in -aus, originally restricted to stems in w. Thus titulg-ou 
'tenebrae', fos 'wall', pi. fos-ow; dagr 'tear' ((f*r), pi. dagr-ow. 

Class II, the consonantal stems. Of these we find 1) dental 
stems: nouns with a plural ending originally restricted tot-stems, 
as benyn 'woman', pi. benen-aa; flogh 'child', pi. flegh-es (the old 
t in flech-et (gl. liberi) Vocab. becoming as usual *); nt-stems, as 
eskftr 'enemy', pi. yske.r-e.ns, ysker-ans*; nouns with a plural 
ending originally restricted to d-stems, as el 'angel', pi. el-eth 
(here th is for dh); n-stems, as bom 'blow', pi. bom-myn*-, ky 
'hound', pi. kuen or km 4 ; hanow 'name', pi. hymryn*. 2) Liquid 
stems, as broder 'brother', pi. breder. 

1 -i* (not, as Ebel thinks, -t from it), for the termination would have 
been lost in British. 

2 Cf. O.Ir. escara, pi. escarait. 
8 In O.Ir. beim, pi. beimmen. 

4 In O.Ir. cu, n. pi. coin, conrz, = HUMP, n. pi. xo^f;, 

6 Originally perhaps an n- (n<-?) stem, as we see from the O.Ir. ainm, 

80 NOTES. 

Class III, the mixed stems. 1) Nouns with the ending of an 
i-stem, plus that of an u-stem, as eshid 'shoe', pi. eskid-i-eu; tyr 
'land', pi. tyr-y-ow; 2) nouns with the ending of an i-stem, plus 
that of an n-stein, as mab 'boy', pi. meb-i-on; guas 'fellow', pi. 
gues-y-on; 3) nouns with the ending of an i-stem, plus that of an 
r-stem, as pren 'wood', pi. prenn-y-er; 4) nouns with the ending 
of an n-stem, plus that of an u-stem, as bom 'blow', pi. bomm-en-ow 
(0. 2324). This third class may be compared with our English 
s + n-stem, child, pi. child-r-en. L. 4. bys pan = O.W. bet pann Lib. 
Land. 247 (pann = Lat. quando). maroic W. marw , Ir. marbh, 
O.Celtic marvos, Lat. mor-tuus, Skr. mr 'mori'. 

St. 3, 1. 1. rft^'God' = O.W. duiu, O.Ir. dia, Gaulish devo-s, Lat. deus, 
Lith. devas, O.N. plur. iivar, A. S. Tires-dag, Eng. Zbe's-day. 
L. 2. en mab dre y skyans is literally 'the Son through his wis- 
dom', and an sperys sans ... dre y gadder is literally 'the Holy 
Ghost through his goodness'. So in 59, 2: war y fas an caradow 
'on the loveable one's face', is literally 'the loveable one, on his 
face', 'auf den liebenswerthen sein antlitz', as one might hear in 
Northern Germany. Compare, too, the Breton maz off duet e 
buhez eguit an fez he neuezhat (Buh. 14) 'I am come to life in 
order to renew the faith', literally 'on account of the faith her 
renewing'. And compare the Magyar az ember sziv-e 'the. 
heart of man', literally 'the man heart-his'; az alya hdz-a 
'the father's house', lit. 'the father house-his', 'den Vater sein 
Haus'. gicerhas = Bret, guerches. kemer-t (= Mid. Welsh kemir-th, 
kemer-th y kymer-th from kymber-th, root BHAR, fero, (//ow) is an 
example of the a-conjugation (the Latin third), adding the ter- 
minations directly to the base. We have also kemar 225, 3; 
kcmeres 221,4, and kemeras 230,3; 249,2; 254,4. The latter 
form belongs to the a-conjugation (the Latin first). L. 4. go}aff 
(cf. O.W. guo-rfeiw-i-sauch 'sustulistis', Bret, gou-zaf, root DAM, 
Lat. domo, dttfjuxfa} belongs (like Goth, tamjari) to the ia-conjuga- 
tion (the Latin fourth), and accordingly exhibits umlaut in its 
3. sg. pret. go}evy-s, 223, 4, &c. 

St. 4, 1. 1. an dus (<us) vas (mas') 'the good folk'. The changes of initials 
are here due to the fact that tus, like Ir. tuath, is a feminine 
a-stem: m, the initial of the subsequent mas, must therefore at 
one period of the language have been flanked by vowels, and ac- 
cordingly, by the phonetic laws of Celtic, was weakened into v. 
The same reason accounts for the medialization of the t of tus: 
an is the fern, article, declined like a fem. a-stem. Other such 
instances of the aspiration of the initial of an adjective are : ger 

n. and anmann, oroptt, n. and ace. pi. oi>6fj.ara. Possibly, how- 
ever, the double n in the Irish form is inorganic. 

NOTES. 81 

vas (mas) 83, 3, 'a good word'; ruth veyr (meyr) 108,4, 'a great 
crowd'; leff }yghow (dyghow) 136,4, 'right hand'; Marya wyn 
(gwyri) 171,1, 'blessed Mary'; gwelen wyn (gwyn) 136,4, 'white 
rod'; colon tras (bras) 126,4, 'a great heart'; nerth fras (bras) 
'great strength', ran vras (bras) 38, 2, 'great part'. 

Instances of vocalic infection after the fein. definite article are 
an arlont (yarlont) 134, 2; 205, 2, 'the garland'; an dus (lus) 97, 2 
(~en dus 213, 3); an debel-dus 143, 1 (tebel-dus) 'the evil folk', 
(so en debell-wrek, 159, 1); an gusyl (cusyt) 32, 1, 'the counsel'; 
an grous 184, 1, 'the cross' (= en grows 160, 3); an bows (pows) 
161,4; 190,4, 'the coat'; an bobyll (j)obyll) 67, 1, 'the people'; 
an iclas (gulas) 246,4, 'the country'; an mo (bro) 250, 2, 'the 
country'. So in the case of the fem. indefinite article un (= una, 
oind) un venyn (benyn) 177, 1, 'a woman'. 

Vocalic infection also takes place in Cornish, as in Irish, after 
the nom. pi. masc. of the article, which must have ended in a 
vowel. Thus an vuacogyon (muscogyon) 26,3, 'the madmen'; en 
veyn (meyn) 209,4, 'the stones'; en varogyon (marogyon) 251,1, 
'the knights'; an gletyon (clevyon) 25, 1, 'the sick men'. And here 
also inorganically after the dative and accusative: \en varogyon 
(marogyon} 250, 1, 'to the knights'; an veyn (meyn) gura bara 
11, 3, 'make the stones bread'-, ef a sawye an glevyon (clevyon) 
25, 1, 'he healed the sick', galwy an thewolow D. 3057, 'call the 
devils' (dewolow). We find this also in the case of adjectives agree- 
ing with rnasc. nouns in the plural: e}ewon debel (tebel) 140, 4, 'evil 
Jews'; e\ewon woky (goky) 69, 1, 'foolish Jews'; laddron dres (tres) 
192, 4, 'froward robbers'. 

As was to be expected, we also find vocalic infection of the initial 
of an adjective agreeing with a noun in the dual : dew lader dreus 
(ireus) 163, 1, 'two froward robbers'. So after the dual of the 
article: en Ihyu (dyu) grous 'the two crosses' D.2820; an }ew-na 132, 1, 
'those two'. And, lastly, we have vocalic infection of the initial 
of a noun governed by a preceding feminine a-steni: fynten woys 
(goys) 242, 2, 'a fountain of blood', where fynten stands for fontana. 
So in Breton: poan benn (penn) 'pain of (the) head', where poan 
stands for poena. So too in O.Irish: tol cholno (colno) 'will of 
(the) flesh'; dull chesto (cesto) 'sense of (the) passive', where tol 
and ciall (W. pwyll) are fem. a-stems. tus 'people' = O.W. tut, 
IT. tualh, Oscan tuttu, Uinbr. toto, Lith. tauta, Goth. \>\uda all, 
apparently, derivatives from the root tu. nef 'heaven' = O.Ir. nem, 
Slav, nebo, Lett. debb t >s (for dnebbes), Skr. nabhas, Gr. i'ij os, 
Lat. nubes. L. 2. ol-va (o/-ma), cf. W. wyl-fa, icylo. L. 4. arluth 
= W. arhrydd, arglwydd. gwyn agan bys. This phrase often occurs 
in the Dramas, thus: 



Sg. 1. guyn ow by* , R. 929, D. 3193. 

2. guyn the vys, R. 279. 

3. guyn y vys, 0. 1476, masc. (= W. gtcyn ci fyd) ; guyn y bys, fern. 
Tl. 1. gvyn agan beys, 0. 411. 

2. (guyn agis bys). 

3. guyn aga beys, D. 2650. 

St. 5, 1.1. dyswe}as probably connected with dysque}yens 236, 4, and 
dysque]as 157, 1. L. 2. ughelder 'height' from nghell 16, 1; 19,2, 
\\.ncliel, Br. uc'hel, 0. Celtic uxello, in Uxello-dunon &c. L. 4. 
The use of neft 'aliquis' (Ir. neck), here as the relative (see also 
?10,4), is quite like the Welsh and Breton: me suply doe ncp am 
croueas Bnh. 100, 'I beseech God who made me'. In Middle Irish 
the dat. sing, of this pronoun (do-neoch) is often used as a relative. 

St. 6, 1. 2. rag polyll an bys 'for (Ike) people of the world', not rag an 
pobyll an bys. The rule in Cornish, as in Breton, Welsh and Irish, is 
that in such cases the article is only used before the last governed 
substantive. Thus dre virtu an tas 'through (the) virtue of the 
Father 1 3, 1; dre virtu an scrife 'through (the) virtue of the writing' 
33,4; }e dyller an prins annas 'to (the) place of the prince An- 
nas', 77, 3; gurek an goff '(the) wife of the smith', 158, 1; veyll 
an lernpyll ' (the) veil of the temple ', 209, 3 ; dre ras an goys 
'through (the) grace of the blood', 219, 4; dre nerth an bum 'through 
(the) force of the blow', 224, 2. In only two instances do I find 
a second article: han virtu an pregolh 'and the virtue of the 
preaching', 23, 2; dre fen an virtu an lavar 'because of the virtue 
of the word', 68, 1. L. 4. gurys 'made' (1 pres. indie, guraff 155, 1 
= Br. groaff Buh. 172, O.W. guru, if I rightly read the passage 
in Juvencus p. 1: ni guru gnim molim trintaut 'I do not work, 
I praise the Trinity'). The root seems the same as that of 0. 
Norse gorva, Ohg. garawjan, garawen, A.S. gearvjan, Scotch 
gar (cf. too Eng. gear), mam (perhaps man) is rendered by 'good' 
on Keigwin's authority. 

St. 7, 1.2. tregys, cf. W. trigo 'to stay', 'dwell'. L. 4. dy^gthlya, like 
dy}gtis 153, 1, dyltiyas 3, 1, dygth D. 624, and dygtya D. 629, is 
taken from the Eng. dight, or A.S. dihtan. 

St. 8, 1.1. off 'arn' = W. wyf. But why is not the m kept as in O.Ir. 
am = Skr. asmi, Gr. ttf*i , Lat. sum for es-u-m? L. 3. mayn = Ir. 
medon (in-medon = 0. W. y meun Z. 161), Fr. moyen, late Latin 
medianus, Diez E. W. 228. L 4. kyffris = Br. gueffret (now kevret), 
W. cyfred. 

St. 9, 1. 1. sor = W. sor 'angry'. 

St. 10, 1. 1. drelievys (also in 224, 4; 245, 3; 252, 1; 253, 2): en thyv 
grous erel yn ban dreheveugk kettep onan "the two other crosses 
raise ye up every one" D. 2820, 2821, is for derhevys, cf. W. 
derchafu, derchafael. oys , =*W.oed (or is it oes?), is perhaps 

NOTES. 83 

connected with Lat. aetan. L. 2. poys, Vf.pwys, occurs as an 
adjective also at 237, 2, Lat. pensuti. L. 4. awell boys. This oc- 
curs, I suspect, in 0. 366, where I would read rum kummer hag 
awel box 'through my trouble and desire of food': cf. W. ewylltjn 
'will, desire'. 

St. 11, 1. 1. Observe the provection after y; the reason being that y 
stands tor yl ate; thus: ma-y trehevya 224, 4; y tanvonas 108, 3; 
1 H'., 1 ; y tefenas 244, 1. A curious provection is that of gir into 
It if (written u-h): y wkolhax , y irhelax 219,3,4. may irhathfough 
'that yon may know' D. 2156, where one would have expected 
(juoldx, quelan , qmotkfottgk , as in can quyth D. 574, 'a hundred 
times', = cant + guy tit. d is provected into h after y in y hyller 
((/ijller') 20, 1. Provection also occurs after -n- (nan quelse 85, 4), 
-a- (mar a calle 38, 2, mar a pe}a 240, 3), after mar (mar callo 
109, 3), after yn (ijn ta 63, 2; 82, 3), after maga (maga town 83, 3), 
niter /' (may fo colenwys 48, 2) &c. Provection is also frequent 
after oio(rtiO=:lJret.0ic*; cf. 26, 1 ; 37,3; 39,2; 43,1; 01,3; 96,2; 
104,2; 107,4; 161,3; 165,2. L. 2. cah 'hard' for calys , O.Ir. 
calad. So in D. G2: arch then cals meynma bos bara 'command 
these hard stones to be bread'. Cals, says the Rev. R. Williams, 
i> still used in Cornwall for mine-refuse. 

St. 12, 1. 2. drc-man 'supremely good' (mas - W. mad, Ir. maith) occurs 
infra 149,2; 214,2; 259,3; cf. W. tra-bychan, Ira-da. L. 3. 
gor^yp recte gortkyp = W. gwrth-eb for gwrlh-heb. With hcl> 
(O.W. hep} cf. fjionctt, Lat. in-sece (= twins for Iv-wt), O.Ir. 
saigim '1 say', in-s-ce (sermo). Ebel compares Lith. sahav. L. 4. 
maga = W. magu, Bret. ma//rt 'nourrir'. 

St. 13, 1. 1. cam 'passus', like the Fr. pas, seems to have degenerated 
into a negative particle. L. 3. dyantell = dyanlel D. 94. In pena- 
kyll, from p\nnaculum, note the breaking of t by the following a. 
L. 4. yxethva (asethva 143, 4) = W. eisteddfa; yseth 244, 4, O.W. 
cxtid, gl. sedile. 

St. 14, 1. 1. yn del-ma, del = W. delw, Ir. delb 'forma'. L. 3. }-om- 
desevyn 'thou cast thyself down'. This idiom is also found in 
Breton: an oil es-ern-collez 'omneiii te perdis'; es-em-guifi sot 
'tu te iuvenies stultum', Z. 872. de-sevys (of which the parti- 
ciple de-semis occurs in 5, 2) is formed from the negative pre- 
fix de- and the root sev (from STEM?) of which the infin. set-ell 
is 1'oiind in 22, 3. The prefix om- (=: W. yin-, Br. em-) in om-desetys, 
is commonly used to form reflexive verbs. Thus in this poem alone we 
have nm-f/itinmf (camme) 196, 2; om-grcgy (W. ym-grogy, crcgy W. 
rro</i) 10."), 3; um.-}tji/hl!in(dyghlyny26,4- om-furyxkclh 82,4; om-\re}c 
te) 20,3: 1 .4; om-icra (gra) 143, 2; om-icrclln I'Jl.-l: 

r_'(.. 1 ; 'in-irrcsfiys 191,3; om-wreijtlt, 155,2; om-melys, um-hclys 
253,4: 244,3; om-itettyas 20,4, and om-t/enna* 


84 NOTES. 

33, 4; 68, 2; 86, 3 (cf. Breton em-tennet Buh. 4, 3). dochye may be 
a mutation of tochye Eng. touch, perhaps, however, it is dash. 

St. 15, 1. 2. ehan, the gen. pi. ehen occurs at 236, 1. W. echen 'stock', 
'tribe', from ach 'stem'. L. 4. gowsys seems derived from goto 
'false' (W. gav, Ir. go')] the plural gousesow occurs at D. 885. The 
termination sys from -tit (= -TAT, -ujq) also occurs in den-sys 
'manhood' and dew-sys 'godhead' = O.Welsh duiulit. "For gowsys 
\ve should regularly have wowsys, but the mutations are often 
neglected. The Rev. R. Williams thinks gowsys here the regular 
mutation of cowsys, plur. of cows 'a speech'. 

St. 16, 1. 1. ho-m-bronkyas, cf. the W. hebrwng. L. 2. gweth from gwedh 

O.Ir. fid, Gaulish mdu ~ Eng. wood. 

St. 17, 1.1. bos (boys 122, 1) =Mid.W. hot, Br. 6ow< = BHAUTU as 
= Skr. bhuti, Gr. (j'vais for <f /ITU;. L.2. gwythres^N.gweilhrediiQm. 
gweith = Ir. /ee/tf. L. 3. vef/i is here superfluous. With dyteylh 
cf. perhaps W. diffaith and mor di/eu/ (gl. pelagus) Vocab. om- 
scwnunys 'excommunicatus' = ymskemunys D. 2551. W. ysgymunn 
'maledictus' Z. 794. om. ym, seems here an intensive particle 

O.Ir. imb-, Gaulish ambi-. scumunys must be excommunicatus. 
St. 18, 1. 1. tylhy I take to be an adv. from loth, louth 'haste', infra 159, 1, 

and see Cornish Drama II, 295. The Rev. R. Williams compares 
W. lulh 'a trot'. L. 2. em = W. iawn. moleylhy = W. melldithio. 

St. 19, 1. 1. scherewnelh, like scherewynsy 0. 962, from scherew 31, 1, 
borrowed from the O.Eng. where shrew means 'wicked', see Cole- 
ridge's 'Glossary' p. 73. L. 3. vuell like Br. vuel by metathesis 
for uvel = W. ufell, Ir. umhail, all from Lat. humilis. L. 4. ogas 
= lr.acus, Lat. angustus, Gr. tyj-uV. 

St. 20, 1.1. Better, perhaps, 'For he may be (gyller} observed and seen 
surely', fjyller y welas, literally 'seeing (gwelas) of him (y) is 
possible (gyllery. Note this passive form, the third sg. pres. indie, 
act. of gallaf (possum). As in the other Celtic languages the sign 
of the passive is r a remarkable instance of agreement with Latin. 
In Celtic, at all events, this r cannot have arisen from s, accord- 
ing to the usual theory. L. 2. Is vetye a mutation of metye after 
\e (= O.Ir. du, W. dy, Skr. lava} from Eng. meet, or is it from 
guetye, cf. gueyt, 'take care' 0. 2156, R. 1630? meth (dyveth 191,1) 
= Br. mez 'dedecus' Buh. 166. 

St. 21, 1.3. folle may be the comparative of foil 'mad' (182,2), l fooV 
114,4 (from follis 'windbeutel', Carlyle's 'windbag'). 

St. 22, 1. 1. ro, literally 'give', dijmme = W. dimai - Med. Lat. dimidius. 
L. 2. yn leas = Br. a-lies 'saepe'. L. 3. cothe 'to fall', better 
co\e, W. cwyddiad, Lat. cedere (not cadere). 

St. 23, 1. 1. pow, W. pau, from pdgus, with the regular loss of g between 
vowels and weakening of the diphthong au into ow. The Welsh 
Powys Fr. pays, Ital. paese from pagense. 

NOTES. 85 

St. 24, 1. 3. po (also 125, 3; 144, 4; 175, 3). This use of the verb subst. 
as a disjunctive conjunction is also found in Breton, Zeuss 689, 
and Irish, Zeuss 674: im-b'i cein fa in accus beo-sa 'whether I 
am afar or anear'; im-p'6ge fa lanamnas 'whether celibacy or 

St. 25, 1. 2. omlanas from orn-glanas, W. ym-lanau 'to cleanse oneself. 
L. 3. cla/f = O.Ir. clam, W. claf, Bret, klano. Dr. Siegfried has 
compared the Skr. root A/aw, whence klamydmi, klamdmi 'tabesco'. 
ow crowelhe = ow growethe with the usual provection after ov>. 
growelke W. gorwedd, Bret, gouruez Buh. 12: after \e it appears 
as tcrowe}e 179, 1; 233, 4. 

St. 26, 1. 1. an usually ow. L. 2. bry-Vf. bri, auctoritas, O.Ir. brig. 

St. 27, 1. 1. dewsull blegyow 'Palm Sunday', literally 'Sunday of flowers', 
the Welsh sul y blodau, pi. of blawd 'bloom' = Ir. bldth, Ohg. 
/jlitat. deic-sull = dies solis. blegyow for blesow , as cregyans, 
44,4, for cresans. yn mysc, cf. O.Corn. corn-wise Vocab., = W. 
cy-mysc, O.Ir. cum-masc, Lat. misceo, Gr. ^iioyio , Ohg. miscjan, 
Eng. mix for misc. 

St. 28, 1.1. yrghys 'mandavit' (ergh 'jubet' 170, 1), W. erchi. L. 2. 
herghys (kerhas 106,4), like W. cyrchu, Ital. cercare, Fr. cher- 
cAer, Eng. search (recte cercK) is from the Latin circare: 

Fontis egens erro circoque sonantia lymphis. Propert. 4, 9, 35. 
L. 4. morogetk (better morhogeth) = W. marchogaeth. 

St. 29, 1. 2. In er-byn (= er + pyn, cf. er }e byn 66, 3; er y byn 29, 4; 
er aga fyn 120, 2) Mr. Norris has pointed out a dative singular 
the only one yet recognized in the British branch of Celtic. (Con- 
sider however war-lyrgk 91, 3, war y fyrgh 163, 3; nom. lergh 
= Bret, lerch). Er-byn is exactly the O.Irish ar-chiunn, where 
ciunn is the dat. sing, of cenn 'head' = W. and C. pen. The 
existence of a genitive plural in Cornish, Welsh, and Breton has 
hitherto been overlooked. In form it is, as was to be expected, 
identical with the noin. sing. The following examples of this geni- 
tive are taken from the poem now published. After leas or luat 
(= W. lliatcs, pi. lliosydd): leas ehen 236, 1, 'a multitude of kinds'; 
leas tra 111, 1, 'a multitude of things'; leas myll 165,3; 226,3, 
'a multitude of thousands 1 (myllyoir); luas pleg 232,3, 'a multitude 
of folds' (p/icarum) ; Ivhas lol 133,4, 'a multitude of holes'. After lower 
(= W. llawer, pi. llaiceroedd): lower le 210, 1, 'a great number of 
places'. After kynyver (co + numerus): kynyver tra marthusy 208,2, 
'such a number of marvellous things'. After the numerals cans, 
100, and myll, 1000: cans goly 227,2, 'a hundred (of) wounds' 
(goleoir); tre-hans dynar 36, 1, 'three hundred (of) pence'; myll 
darn 166,3, 'a thousand (of) pieces' (darnoir). The same construction 
prevails with all the numerals from 3 upwards: iij kenter 154,4, 
'three nails' (Aen/rotr); peswar marreg 190, 2, 'four soldiers' 

86 NOTES. 

(wnrrayyori); pedar ran 190, 1, 'four parts'; dew^-k lygyon 72,3, 
'twelve legions'; pym}ek paler 228, 1. 'fifteen paternosters' (pe- 
tfcrow 228, 3). Compare in O.Irish da .10-. milcd maithe '18 good 
soldiers', literally 'two nines of good soldiers' (mi/erf, gen. pi. of 
mi/). Felire, July, 23. Dr. Biihler tells me that there are several 
instances in the Veda of the occurrence of the gen. plur. after 
numerals. In Arabic (to pass to another family of languages) all 
numerals from 3 to 10 take the genitive of the broken plural 
(Wright's Arabic Grammar, p. 208). In Breton clear examples of 
gen. plur. are furnished by the phrases roen Iron 'king of thrones' 
(Ir union), roen ster 'king of stars' (steret), which occur constantly 
in the Buhez Santez Nonn. In Welsh we find the same con- 
struction as in Cornish after the numerals, and also after llawer, 
sawl &c. Thus llawer gwaith 'many times' (gweithiau). Of the geni- 
tive singular I find no trace in British nouns (as to the pronoun see the 
note on 36,3), and am loth to believe in Lhuyd's assertion to the con- 
trary. In the following examples, from the Passion , the form of the 
genitive is identical with that of the nominative: war bol y hyll 165,4, 
'on top of her nape'; both ow ]as 73, 1, 'my Father's will'; gulas 
nef 158, 1, 'country of heaven'; mab du 210,4, 'God's son'; mab 
den 5,1, 'son of man': yn corf Ihesus caradoic (not garadoic) 
218, 3, 'in the body of loveable Jesus'; tor y vam (mam) 43,4, 
'his mother's womb'; fynten woys (goys) 224,2, 'a fountain of 
blood'. Even the genitive of the niasc. article does not aspirate: 
virtu an tas 3, 1, 'the virtue of the Father'; pobyll an bys 6, 2, 
'the people of the world'; gurek an g off' 158, 1, 'the smith's wife'; 
ncrlh an bum 224, 2, 'the force of the blow'. In Breton, however, 
I find el an vet 'the angel of the world' (bet) Buh. 8. 
St. 30, 1. 3. This and the four following lines are thus translated in the 
Museum manuscript by some sixteenth-century blunderer: 
"Christ found ydle foolk in the temple within the town 
and he made them yrnmediately to goe out from thence 
The scribes a., ware wrathfull be cause Christ was honovrd 
and because his worke was soe great, and through the world noted 
They took counsell that was not good that Jesus should be undone." 
gockorion 'traders'; the singular, guicgur (gl. mercator vel nego- 
tiator), occurs in the Vocab., and as gwecor in gwan-wecor 40, 1; 
cf. the W. gwicawr 'pedlar'. 

St. 31, 1. 4. Mr. D. Gilbert has : may fe an dre cusulys, which gives no sense. 
I propose, doubtfully, \Jireher\lys 'so that the town was shaken'; 
cf. st. 184, 4. 

St. 32, 1.1. In pehadures 'siuneress' the termination is a loan from 
Lat. -issa, Gr. -watt. It is used constantly in Welsh and Breton 
(Z. 801), and I find two or three instances in Irish. Thus main- 
ches 'a nun', 'a monkess'j gen. mainchesa; Idiches 'a heroine', 

NOTES. 87 

aithches <a champione . i'nt'nntheris (= presbyterissa} also oc- 
curs MS a name. L. 3. cs (also 121,3; 156, 3) = Ir. is, Lat. est, 
t.i. tttn , Skr. */!. 
I. 1. // iW wi.v also o.vurs infra, jit .02, 3 and at I). 1<)!). \\.dygtni. 

St. 34, 1. 1. aucombryx, 'dissentient', from an, the neg. particle, and 
ruiii-bri/s 'unanimous' (brys = W. bryd 'mind'). L. '_'. <//* (pi. 
/M.S/-W.V 32,4; 01), 4) = W. wet/, Z. 560. Bret. c ; -me 'dit' : kased em 
eiiz c'-wn- ar mevel, ho pioc'h d'ar marc'had '1 have soul. saj> lh- 
servant, your cow to the market'. In Irish 1 only tind this verb 
in the gloss '<laith-wtv/A .i. uaire aisneid' "hecause he declares" 
(Philulog. Soc. Trans. 1859, p. 182). L. 3. cuhu}a \ W. cyhvddato 
'to accuse' as cuku]aft 33,2, 88,4, = W. cyhudflcd. ruhupudioc 
(gl. accusator) Vocal), should certainly ho cuhuytd'wc. L. 4. ha 
4 go thou' for = W. A, 0. Pughe i. 67; cf. r/f ' I go' 0. 339, 
ft! K. -J1D7: cuglt 'go yo ' R. 17!), <.- Met llu-m go' I). 173. 
See Z. 546, 553 for the Welsh and Breton forms of this i"t. 

S1.35, I. 1. tre-hans, 300, from (res 4- rang, W. trichant. Here observe 
the infection produced by s, of which other examples are furnished 
by deyoir Itablys = dies Jovis capitilavii 41,3, and by y hyll 'her 
nape' (cyll 165,4); y liolon 122, 3, 'her heart' (colon')- }y huhu\as 
33,2, 'to accuse her', literally 'to accusation (cuhu}as) of her'; 
worth y liomforl^c 'comforting -her', literally 'at comforting (com- 
forii/e) of her'. This pronoun y (= Ir. a, not infecting the initial 
of the subsequent word) is the gen. sing, feminine of a pronoun 
which Bopp connects with the Skr. ayani: the gen. sing. fcm. of 
which is asyas, while the gen. sing, uiasc. and neut. asya may 
well be identified with our Cornish y 'his', 'its' (= Ir. a, infecting), 
the gen. sing, masculine (or neuter) of the same pronoun, for this 
must have ended in a vowel, as it produces the vocalic infection: 
Thus y basconn 1,2, 'his Passion' (pscon); }y hen, -J42, 1 'to 
his head' (pen}; me ny fynnaf y gregy R. 1047, '/ will not be- 
lieve it', literally '/ will not belief (cregy, from crcsy) of it'; y gyh 
4, 4, 'his flesh' (kyK) ; y gorf 0. 2307, 'his body' (corf}; y das 9,1, 
his father' (las]; y ^yltas 254,3 'his raiment' (f/i///n); ay vetfi 
259, 1 'from his tomb' (Aef/*); y *oth ef 0. 483, 'Ins will (both}; 
llnj irletk 0.2370, Ho his country' (guletlt)-, tliy ttnjscydlon I 
'to his disciples' ((lyscyblon}; (Ire y ladder 3,3, 'through his good- 
ness' (dadder}; y rynnas 08,4 'his will' (mynna*}; y rant 43,4 
his mother' (mam}, dynar = dinair (gl. niimus) Vocal)., from 
dt-narlvs. L. 3. gtrel (gicell 91, 4) = 0. Ir. ferr 'better', th. 
parative of for- = Uaulish rcr-: cf. Skr. rariyans, <ir. l-itnfitov. 
The superlative girelha occurs at 115, 2. 

St. 37, 1. 3. bohosogyon , sg. bohowc = bochodoc , Vocal). = W. bychodaicg ; 
cf. Ir. bocht, Skr. bhikxhn , Kng. beggar. 

St. 38, 1. 2. <?a/fo = Br. crt/fo Buh. 174. L. 3. icvteireth (guo-dewedh} 

88 NOTES. 

= O.Ir. fo-diud 'sub fine', 'postremo'. Cf. yn detceth 40,4. The 
Welsh say: 6r diwedd. 

St. 39, 1. 3. Unver may perhaps be a Welsh unfir (mir) 'having one 
face', i. e. being agreed on anything; cf. tamen Bret, unvan 'd'accord'. 

St. 40, 1. 3. he-gar 'amiable', W. hygar, Gaulish Su-caros, Old Bret. Eu- 
hocar , Bran-hucar, see Zeuss pp. 110, 144. The prefix he- (= Ir. 
sit-, so-, Skr. su, Gr. tv-) is also found in hy-blyth (plyth = W. 
plydd) 'pliable' 131, 3. 

St. 41, 1.3. deyow hnblys (cablys), diiyoio hamlos, 'Maunday Thursday'. 
deyow - dies Jovis ; cablys W. cablyd = O.Ir. caplait, which Cor- 
mac brings from capitilavium. L. 4. dewesse connected with O.W. 
deguysso 'eliget', Z. 149. Bret, diuset 'electus' Buh. 4. 

St. 42, 1. 1. boys ha dewas = W. bwyd a diod, Ir. biad ocus deoch. (The 
root of dewas is dhe (DHA) 'to drink'.) L. 3. goyn, a mutation 
of coyn, from Lat. cena, like Bret, koana, W. cteynos. 

St. 43, 1. 3. scudel (gl. discus, Vocab.) is, like W. ysgudell, Nhg. schiissel, 
from the Lat. scutella. L. 4. pan veva (beva} 'since he was'. 
beva seems = the O.Ir. conjunctive bube in hore na-r-bube 'quia 
non fuit', Z. 602. The -be here reminds one of the Gaulish verb 
gobed-bi in the inscription of Alise, and of Latin forms like con- 

St. 44, 1.1. sonas, W. swyno, O.Ir. sen, O.N. signa, Nhg. segen, from 
signo, signum. \e rag = Br. di-rac. rag, rac = O.W. rac 'coram', 
'contra', 'prae' (cfr. Skr. pranc?). L. 3. dispresys, cf. Br. dispris, 
gl. contemptus, Lh. 50. L. 4. gober = W. gwobr, Bret, gobr, gopr. 

St. 45, 1.1. war en foys (moys) 'on the table'; moys = 0. Corn, muis 
= Ir. mias = Goth, mes, all from Lat. mensa. L. 2. evough 'bibite'; 
cf. O.W. iben 'bibebam', O.Ir. ibim 'bibo', Bret. eva. These forms 
have all lost an initial p which is preserved in the Vedic pibdmi, 
and rnedialized in Lat. bibo. L. 4. hysseas, ^N.hydat, Bret, het 
a het. 

St. 46, 1.2. taw 'be silent', W. taw, Bret, tao, tav 'silence', O.Ir. tua 
'silent'. L. 4. treys = O.W. troit, O.Ir. traigid (sing, traig , see 
note on St. 180, 2), \ei-tragus, T(>f/w, Goth. \>ragja. golhys, par- 
ticiple of golhy = W. golchi, Bret, guelchi; Ir. folcaimm (lavo) 
Ebel compares A.S. volhen, Ohg. wolchan (nubes); cf. too Nhg. 

St. 47, 1. 4. cronek = croinoc (gl. rubeta) Vocab. 

St. 48, 1. 3. begel = bugel (gl. pastor) Vocab. = W. bugait, Br. bugel, O.Ir. 
bochaill (gl. bubulcus), Gr. povxolog. L. 4. rfcres = O.W. rfeceii, 
Lib. Land. 237. 

St. 49, 1. 1. fallens (guin feJ/ef, gl. acetnm, Vocab.), borrowed from Lat. 
/"a//o. L. 2 and 86, 1. colyek 'cock' = chelioc Vocab., W. ceiliog, 
Ir. coileach. L. 3. in ter-gweth 'thrice', unwyth 'once' 130, 2; 
dyweth'tmctf D. 2496; rfeft ccw gwi/ffc 'ten hundred times' D. 574, 

NOTES. 89 

gweth ~- Ir. fccht 'iter', 'via'; cf. Gothic thrim sintham &c. L. 4. 
The prep, tan, also in 0. 2534, seems cognate with Lat. tenus. 

St. 50, 1. 3. at/an is obscure, and probably corrupt. 

St. 51, 1. 2. pernas 'einat'; a similar form of the 3. sg. imperat. act. is 
gorlhybes 'let him answer', D. 775. L. 3. y ma (pi. y mons, 
185,4) =W. y mae (pi. y maent) Z. 538. In Breton I have 
only met the singular: ma oz gouruez en bez man, Buh. 12, 'he 
is lying in this tomb'. 

St. 53, 1. 2. I take gwan here to be a verb; cf. W. gwandu, Bret, gwana 
'to weaken', Ir. fann 'weak' = 0wan (gl. debilis) Vocab. 

St. 54, 1.4. dew-leyn (dew-gleyn) literally 'two knees'. In Cornish, as 
in Welsh and Breton, the parts of the body naturally in pairs 
are regularly in the dual, except when mentioned as belonging 
to more than one person. Thus de-freyh (bregh) 76, 1 'two arms' 
(brachia) ; dew-lagas 'two eyes' 83, 2. 222, 2. 225, 1 ; dew-ver (fer, 
her?} 173, 3 'two ankles' (legs?); dew-le 130, 4 = dew-leff 149, 1. 
178,3; ij leyff 159, 3 'two hands'; dew-en (gen) 'two jaws' 138,4. 
242,2. So dyw-scoth, du-scoth D. 3068, 2583 'two shoulders'. 
In y dreys 236, 3. 242, 2 'his feet' the numeral is omitted. So 
in 130, 4, treys ha dewle = treys ha dyulef D. 2937 'feet and two 
hands'. Inst. 159,3 ij droys the numeral occurs. This idiom will re- 
mind the Hebrew scholar of the practice in that language of confining 
the use of the dual chiefly to such objects as are by nature or art in pairs. 

St. 55, 1. 3. coske - W. cysgu, Bret, kouska. 

St. 56, 1. 3. dylly, cf. Bret, dellezout 'meriter', Ir. dliged. 

St. 57, 1. 2. yn ven (men) 'strongly', lus ven (men) 64, 2; 88, 2; an-vein 
(gl. invalidus) Vocab.; cf. /utvos? 

St. 58, 1. 3. tomder (= Br. tuimder Z. 1112, W. twymdra) from toim (gl. 
calidus), Vocab, = tern (from tep-ma? root TAP, Lat. tepeo <fcc.). 
tcese (better whese) 'he sweated', cf. W. chwys, Br. c'hues, 
Lat. surfer, Gr. /cF-pw?, Skr. svid, svidydmi, sveda, A.S. swat, 
Ohg. sveiz. The * in the British forms can only be explained as 
arising from rf-M; chwys, then, would represent SVIDTA. (Cf. 
O.Ir. estar 'edit', Z. 258, from ed-tar.) In the next line perhaps 
weys is the substantive. If so, translate "water &c. (was) Christ's 

St. 60, 1.2. densys 'manhood' like detcsys 'godhead' in the next line 
(O.W. duiutit) is formed by the suffix tit. L. 4. ef a ra, better 
ef a tore, but rhyme is exigent. 

St. 62, 1. 3. With synsy cf. sinsiat (gl. tenax) Vocab. L. 4. leas hunt/ 
= Bret, lies hint 'plusieurs personnes'. 

St. 63, 1. 2. negis from negotium, W. neges , pi. negesseu, Z. 800. L. 3. 
tros W. tricst, Bret. /rows. L. 4. ass-icon-tott as -f gon -\- bos. 
nsiron (cf. aswonys 84, 4) is the W. adtcaen ' cognoscere ' (Mid. W. 
attcaenat 'cognoscebat' Z. 558). bo is the infinitive of the root 

90 NOTES. 

BHU, which in Cornish also occurs united with goth, better godh 
(= VID) in gothvcjough (goth + be + dough) 'know ye 1 63,3; 141,3 
(=. W. girybyddwch , Breton gouzvizil , gouz-bi-dit), and in Welsh 
in ndnabod 'to know' (ad-gna-bod) ami gwybod (gwyd-bod). 

St. 64, 1.2. arvofe is here = Mid. W. arveu 'armatura', Z. 785. }cn gas 
(cat) 'to the battle'. Here cas (carf-vur Vocab.) = W. cad, O.W. 
oaf, Bret. Artrf, Ir. c<A, Gaulish catu (in CVi/M-riges, Cafti-slogi 
<fcc.), Ohg. hadu, A.S. Aeadb. L. 3. yn fas = Br. en mat, Buh. 48. 
L. 4. caradoio, like casadow 159, 1, a fnt. part. pass. The -rfow> 
= W. -rfwy, O.Bret, -toe, O.Ir. -ft. 

St. 66, 1. 2. }e ty (bay) 'thy kiss' ; 6ay from Lat. basium, It. baccio, Fr. 
baiser, Eng. 6u*s. L. 3. mo//o; (cf. mollo}ek 47, 3) - W. mclldith. 
gour 'man', W. 0icr, O.Ir. /W = Lat. utr, Goth, t>air (Eng. wor-ld 
= Ohg. wer-alt 'hominuin aetas', 'seculum', 'mundus', Dief. Goth. 
Worterbuch, i. 188). 

St. 68, 1.4. dris y vynnas (mynnas): Zeuss , 700, translates this *ut 
volebant', comparing dris with Breton drez, and obviously taking 
y for the personal pron. 3 d plur. which of course does not infect; 
cf. 0. 172: dres dyfen ou arluth her 'beyond my dear lord's pro- 
hibition', dris (also 48, 1) = Br. dreis-t, W. dros, Ir. dar. 

St. 71, 1. 2. With trohas cf. W. trychu 'to cut', Bret, irouc'ha. 

St. 72, 1. 1. goyn 'sheath' (guein, Vocab.) like W. gioain, Ir. faigen, is 
from Lat. vagina. L. 2. beughe is connected with W. buchedd 'life'. 

St. 73, 1. 1. fethys: the infin. of this, fethe (= Bret, feaza, faeza) occurs 
at R. 254: yth ordeii agan lathe rak na yl agan fethe dre lavarow 
'he will order us to be slain, for he cannot vanquish us by 
words'; cf. too D. 77, 154, 0. 850, R. 251, 500. The Rev. R. 
Williams thinks we have here a mutation of gueythys (W. gwaethu) 
'made worse', sed quaere. 

St. 74, 1. 3. With yn un scolchye compare yn un fyslene 158, 3. 248, 1 ; yn 
un gar me 168, 1 ; perhaps yn un hanas 79, 4. crow properly 'blood' 
= W. crau = O.Ir. cro 'blood', 'death 1 . Lat. cm-or, Skr. hramja. 

St. 75, 1.2. cara, cf. Bret, carez 'reproche' Buh. 50,4, O.Ir. caire 'ac- 
cusatio', 'nota', 'culpa', cairigud 'reprehensio', O.Welsh cared (gl. 
nequitiae), Juvencus 86; Ebel compares 0. Slav, harali 'rixarf and 
Lith. koravoti 'punire'. 

St. 77, 1. 2. With holyas (also in St. 168, 1) cf. Bret, heulia 'to follow', 
and perhaps W. oli 'to be last' (W. holt is 'to inquire'). L. 3. 
sethek, 1.4. sethas , better sedhek, sedhas , cf. W. sedd, seddu, Ir. 
suide 'a seat", Lat. sedeo , Gr. e&o. 

St. 79, 1. 2. lahys pi. of laha 99, 3, = O.Corn. /oe, gl. regula. Perhaps 
borrowed from A. S. lagu ' law '. L. 4. I do not understand the 
latter part of this line, adryjf seems = Br. adreff 'post', 'in 
tergo ', Z. 662. The only word like hanas is W. hanes 'relation', 

St. 82, 1. 2. na bleh = non placet. ['history'. 

NOTES. 91 

St. 83, 1.4. deploys = dethtjictjs 0. 842, dethewys R. 633, W. addewodd 
IV'tni uilitair 'to promise', kmn-rd* ; --. \\ . ryu-ir'nid. 

St. 84, 1.1. hitnlh IHMV is perhaps the W. hnnld 'handsome'. L. 4. 
bythfjuetlt (also 49, 3) = Br. bez-coat Buh. 160, now bixkoai 'jamais'. 

Si. s,), I. ;;. foiy.v, Ur. tn-ucl 'j u rare' Buh. 170. ly 'oath'; the verb occurs: 
me an (< <>. 2154, 21C.3. 

St. SS, 1. 2. byx i/w Bret, bedcn (bedcn inaru 'usque ad mortem 1 Buh. 

St. 89, 1. 1. pronteryoH., pi. of printer = prouiidcr\oc. from praehendarius ; 
cf. Nhg. pfriinde from praebenda. 

St. 'JO, I. 1. In duxluneow (dusteneow 94,3, dusluny 111,3; 208, 5, }e }M*- 
fMW'c til o,4) I do not understand the d, as there is nothing to 
cause it; cf. </#/m (gl. testimonium) Vocab., and Br. tcstenni (gl. 
testor) Lh. 163. L. 4. pur re 'purest 1 note the reduplication of the 
r which arises from assimilation of a y, puryc. = puryam. And 
rompare lotrenna 115, 2 'more joyous' from Inwen (W. llaicen); 
Ickkc 'more fair' (<e/;, W. /^); Idle 0. 1111 'more loyal' (lei). 

St. 91, 1. 1. cletrsons 'they heard 1 , root CLU, Skr. ?/. 

St. 93, I. 3. l>e-}aff 'I shall be' = W. byddcif, Bret, bezaff, see Beilrtigc 
i. 405, where Trof. Schleicher compares the Slav, ba-da formed 
from the two roots bhii and dha. L. 4. yn stir ttiu (leg. r/Aw): 
there i.s a .similar expression yn suv J)dniriu Welsh, according 
to the Uev. R. Williams. 

St. 94, 1. 3. ytterevys = yd-derevys ; cf. dyrryvys 64, 3. 

St. M, 1. 1, and st. 217, 2. banna (bannc, gl. gutta, Vocab., Ir. banna); 
el. the French phrase ne voir goutte, Bret, /a; inlann Ixinne 'je 
no vois goutte', we ^f/cc bannc 'il n'entend goutte' (Legonidec). 
L. 3. brathken, pi. of brathky D. 2087. Mr. Norris thinks that 
the word properly means 'biting-dog', W. brathu 'to bite', deskemy 
(W. dytgyrnu') 1 take to be radically connected with Bret. skriTia 
griucer les dents', W. ysgyrnygu, 'to gnash'. dyns 'teeth 1 , sg. 
dans, Vocab., Bret, daht, pi. dent, W. dant , pi. f/ajw( (ill boch- 
ddaint) , Ir. </f'/ (daintecli), Lat. rfens, Gr. oJo*';,-, oJo;'7oc. 

St. 99, 1. 1. With ynniougk cf. W. i/niaw, if this be not a fabrication of 

St. 101, 1. 1; 256, 3. kueff, cuf (pi. cufyon D. 1093) = O.Ir. coim, now 
written caomh, 'kindly', 'loving', Bret, cuff, cuf, Buh. 100, 1' 

St. 103, 1.2. \e rysseve is an instance of the historical infinitive: 
beghn (peylta) 7, 1, \e ordna 7, 2, \e denne (tenne) 134, 2. 

St. 104, 1. 3. da 'well' (not as usual yn to). So in Breton, Z. 571. 

St. 105, 1. 2. />f.v, 3' 1 sg. prot. act. of a verb borrowed from pay, payer, 
Ital. pafjarc, Lat. parare; cf. Bret. ptv/. L. 3. desympys = dc- 
innint \ Oral). W. j//t ddyxymicih 'suddenly'. 

St. 100, 1. 1,2. (janow genuu, Vocab., 0. W. gcnou, Br. gueneu genara, 
Genera. L. 4 ; 209, 2. teiculgow, cf. W. ^Jfy// 'obscure 1 , 

92 NOTES. 

temel 'darkness', Eng. dim. Ebel also compares Slav, tima, Lith. 

tamsa, Lat. tenebrae , tcmere ('blindlings'), Ohg. demar. 
St. 109, 1. 3. whelth (pi. whethlow D. 2657) notcj/f/t = W. chwedl newydd. 

L. 4. Aes (Aey* in tres-heys 180, 2) = W. %rf. 
St. 110, 1.4. fces-Aetceja: ftes (also in lies-colon 'one-hearted' D. 2) from 

het (chet-va, gl. conventus, Vocab.), the W. cyd; ketce}a is for 

hewe\e (cowe\e 150, 2), cf. O.Welsh coueidid 'companion' Juvencus, 

50. cowe\as, 110, 2, = W. cyweithas. 
St. Ill, 1. 3. doyn, cf. Ir. denim 'I do', root dhd. 
St. 113, 1. 2. I should like to read pur len ]en. 
St. 114, 1.4. gwayn points to an O.French guain = Ital. guadagno &c.; 

cf. Bret, gounid. 
St. 115, 1. 2. tenyrghys, cf. W. anerchi. L. 4. tahylh, cf. W. *a/w, Nhg. 

zahlcn; cf. too Gr. rnAarro?', i^Aof 'tax' and Skr. fw/a 'scales'. 
St. 116, 1.3. scyle; this word occurs also at 125,4; 142,4; 187,3; and 

(apparently as a verb) at 211, 3. It seems written for syle, as 

pascon for passon, and in the first four places may be the plural 

of sel (gl. fundarnentum), Vocab. W. sail, seil, Bret, sol, from 

Lat. solum. 
St. 118, 1. 2. wes, Fr. tnais , Lat. magis. L. 4. gorris from ^ortts; see 

note on st. 6, 1. 4. 
St. 120, 1. 1. bes 'is' = W. %/ Z. 538, Br. bez Z. 539. L. 3. myw*, W. 

rnainl, Ir. we'if. soweth (see Jordan's 'Creation' pp. 76, 92) = W. 

ysywaeth; cf. Br. siuaa, siouaz 'alas!' 
St. 122, 1. 1. own 'fear' (whence ownek 77, 2) = Bret, ewn, W. ofn, O.Ir. 

owiw, Gaulish Ex-omnus 'fearless' (W. eh-ofyn). own an tebel 

el a-n geve, literally 'fear seized him, the evil angel'. So in 213, 2: 

ma-n geffo tregva 'that he might have it, a dwelling'. This super- 
fluous use of the infixed pronoun is very common in Middle Irish. 

L. 3. pref = W. pryf, Ir. crmm = Lat. vermi-s, Goth, vaurm-s, Lith. 

ktrtnele (from ftirmi-s), all which forms point to an original 

St. 123, 1. 2. yn kerdh = yn herth, R. 722, 'away', herd (gl. iter) Vocab., 

Bret, quer&et Buh. 2, 6. 
St. 130, 1. 1. noyth = Br. noaz, Ir. nocht, Goth, naqvaths, O.N. naklr (Lat. 

nudus from noidus; novidus, nogmdus?}. 
St. 131, 1. 4. colmen (pi. -OMJ, 76, 2; 131, 3; 213, 3) = W. cwlwm, O.Ir. 

colmmene, gl. nervus, Z. 789. 
St. 132, 1. 2. Is goth 'vein' (pi. gwy\y, 183, 4) = 0. Corn. ^wi</, W. gtcyth, 

and is /ej/^ = O.E. Hth, Goth, /i^ws, O.N. li&r, Nhg. ^-/ierf? L. 4. 

wharse for hwarfse: cf. yn della thyn re wharf o 0. 667 'so may 

it happen to us ! ' and cf. Br. hoarfe, hoarveio, 'accidat', hoarvetet 

'accidit' Z. 546. 
St. 134, 1.3. \en n-empynnyon;impinion(g\. cerebrum) Vocab. Vf.ymenydd, 

Bret, empentij Ir, inchinn, cf. lyxsyaAo;. The prefixed n which occurs 

NOTES. 93 

infra 206, 3, in jew n-e}yn 'to the birds ' = O.Ir. dundaib enaib 
(cf. dundaib abstolib Z. 1008) appears to correspond with the second 
d of dundaib from du-nnaib. (For e]yn, O.W. elint'l, one would have 
expected edyn, cf. idne, gl. auceps; ydnic, gl. pullus, Vocab.) 

St. 135, 1. 2. cu}ys 'hidden 1 (cuthe 'to hide 1 170, 2) is, like W. cuddyaic, 
Br. ctiief, cognate with xtvffio = Eng. Ai</e (celare). L. 3. r///oys 
may perhaps be = W. alaelk 'grief, but is more likely a mutation 
of galloys (224, 3) and the allusion is to St. 3, 1. L. 4. read del 
lever an levar }cn for sake of rhyme. 

St. 136, 1. 4. gwel-en (also in 202, 3), Bret, gwal-en, the sole example in 
this poem of the singulative termination, by which collective n<unis 
are made to mean one of the class thereby designated. 

St. 137, 1. 1. doic-lyn (glyn), W. glin, Ir. glun, Slav, holeno. L. 2. camma. 
The adj. cam (gl. strabo, Vocab.) = Ir. camm, Gaulish cambo-s 
(in Caw^o-dunon), xnurrr^ -/.(iinn-JM , Lith. kumpas. meyn pi. of 
men - W. min, Nhg. mun-d. eysya, gl. laudo, Lh. 77, sed quaere. 

St. 138, 1. 4. nerf A = O.Ir. nert, Gaulish JVer/o-maros , Esu-er<o-5, cf. 
Skr. nar, nr, Gr. -'/;o, Oscan and Umbrian ner, Lat. ATero. 

St. 140, 1. 1. lowarth (lo-garth} = Ir. lub'gort, 'a garden 1 , garth, gort 
= OT&?, horlus, Eng. garth, yard, <fec. Cf. too, lurorch guit (gl. 
virgultuni) in the Vocab. which should certainly be tutor th guid. 

St. 141, 1.2. gon = W. gwnn Z. 558, O.Ir. /mw from VI-N-D; cf. Skr. 
vindami. ackeson is clearly a singular at 187, 1. L. 3. heluponon 
= ketlep onan, D. 2821, = Br. guilibunan Buh. 130, now giri- 
tibunan 'chacun', 'tous sans exception'. 

St. 142, 1. 2. /aje = /aj + e; cf. O.W. ladam (gl. caedo), Bret, lazaff, la- 
ziff ' occidere ' Z. 165. 

St. 146, 1. 3. dyffry. The Rev. R. Williams suggests the Fr. devoir as 
the source of this word. It occurs, spelt deffry, in R. 655; cf. 
Buh. 24, 4, me goar defri. I should now translate it by 'quickly' 
and compare the W. deffrol 'to rouse', 'to wake'; cf. too the Ir. 
den deithbhir 'make haste'. 

St. 154, 1. 2. hwalsons = W. chwiliasanl. goff = W. gof, O.Ir. goba t gen. 
gobann, n. pi. gobainn W. gofainl; cf. Gaulish (jobannitius , Go- 
bannicnos. Zeuss compares Lat. faber, where (if he be right) f 
must represent an original GH. 

St. 155, 1. 2. gor}ewyth = a W. gor-ddiwyd. L 3. With wheyll cf. W. 
gorchwyl. scaff 'light 1 so in Breton: uiaz vezo scaff ho caffou 
'sint leves eorum sollicitudines' Buh. 200. So cf. the Welsh for 
lungs ' ysga faint', our 'lights'. 

St. 156, 1. 3. clevas = clevet (gl. niorbus) Vocab , W. clef yd, Br. clevet, 
cleffel, Z. 1110, from claff. See note on St. 25, 1. 3. L. 4. ynfas 
i. e. yn -f mas; mas W. mad, Ir. mait/t. 

St. 158, 1. 2. toche vytft = loch vyth R. 60. gonyn 'to work' = W. girtu-yd. 
cf. O.Ir. do-gniu (facio) = Gr. )-<rrni, Lat. ^no, Skr. root ;a. 

94 NOTES. 

L. 3. gon 'I know' = O.Ir. gen (in ad-gen-sa, cognosce), Skr. root 
jna, Gr. ^i-yvin-ay.a^ Lat. g-nosco, d r c. 

St. 159, 1. 1. en debell-wrek casadoic, 'the hateful woman', would regularly 
be era debell-wrek gasadow, as gurek is feminine (see note on 
St. 4, 1. 1). But the combination k + g is inharmonious, and so an 
exception was made. The Cornish, like the Breton and Irish, 
seems also averse to the combination n + dh. Thus we have tin 
venyn da 'a good woman' 177, 1, not un venyn \a; an dreyn 'the 
thorns' 134,3, not an \rcyn, chy = O.W. tig (bou-tig , gl. stabu- 
lum), Ir. %, leg, rtyog &c. L. 4. ^arotc = Ir. garbh, Skr. garva. 

St. 163, 1. 1. drew* (dres infra 192, 4), which I only find after the plural 
ludron and the dual lader, may possibly be a mutation of trruts, 
215, 1, tres, 120,4, = W. Irate*. If c/reti* be the uninfected form 
cf. W. drud, Ir. druth, Gaulish drutos. L. 3. lu - Ir. sliiag = 
Gaulish slogos (in Catu-slogi) , Gr. Ao/o?. 

St. 164, 1. 3. ponyaSj cf. t//eo punnia (gl. curro) Lh. 53. Hence Eng. pony? 
L. 4. gorloS) cf. Br. gourtoet 'expectate', gorlos 'vigilare' Z. 876. 

St. 165, 1.3. pa/* = Gaelic pailt, 'plenteous', and perhaps Bret, xplet 
'multitude' Buh. 10. L. 4. war bol (po/) y hyll (cylf) lit. 'on top 
of her nape'; pol hil gl. occipitum Lhuycl A. B. 104; chil (gl. cer- 
vix) Yocab. 

St. 167, 1. 3. dyerbyne (3<1 sing. pret. act. dyerbynnas 174, 1), W. dyerbyn 
'to receive 1 . 

St. 168, 1. 4. gor - Br. #oar Z. 559. Cf. W. rfioer = duw awyr (a + gicyr) 
'God knows' Z. 558. 

St. 169, 1. 4. Literally "that there was not to them sucked a breast." 
denys, cf. Ir. dinu 'a lamb', root dhe (Ebel). 

St. 170, 1. 3. glays 'green' = W. and Ir. glas = O.Celtic glasto; cf. glastum 
'woad'. L. 4. seygh, W. syck , Bret, seek, all probably, like Ir. 
secc, from Lat. siccus from sis-cus = Zend hush-ka, Skr. <;ush-ka 
= Ir. sese, Bret. Ae&, W. hysp. Ebel, however, (Beitr. II, 164) 
thinks sych a true Celtic word, and compares Gr. ffinwelf, Lith. 
sansas, O.Slav. uc/m. 

St. 171, 1.4. Marya wyn (gwyn = vindos ) not teen (guen = vinda), as it 
would be in Welsh, where the root-vow r el i is broken by the old 
feminine ending a. How little Lhuyd is to be trusted in his 
Cornish grammar, will appear from his statement that guen was 
the feminine of guyn, melen of melyn. Not only have we here Marya 
wyn, but eneff gwyn (leg. wyn~) 204, 2, and guelen wyn 136, 4. 

St. 172, 1. 2. Perhaps: "my heart which is with thee, it (hy) is made 
like to thee." L. 3. hepar ha te is exactly aeque ac tu. L. 4. 
nes = O.Ir. nessa. 

St. 173, 1. 1. The Rev. R. Williams makes golyas 'watching', W. gu-yliad. 
Bat I prefer comparing W. gwylio 'to wound'. The allusion seems 
to be to the goleow 'wounds' of 165, 3. L. 3. }ew ver. If ver be 

NOTES. 95 

the infected form of fer (gl. eras, Vocab., W. ffer> Gr. n 
this is a solitary instance of the mutation of f into c, which 
Llmyd, p. 241, mentions as common in his time. Cf. the proverb 
ii;i reys garera an tor (for = forth) goth rag an rut- noweth 
'needs not to leave the old way for the new way'. The Rr\. U. 
Williams, I think rightly, makes fer here a mutation of ln-r - W. 
\>ir ' leg', 'shank'. 

St. 174, 1. I. OH-U (eicn, 218,4) = W. iaion. L. 2. hcb=O.W. hep , Ir. 
.vr/i, Lat. .svru.v, (jr. /*,-. L. 4. ancou 'death' W. angev, O.Ir. 
e'e (gen. >, Conn.), now written euy. The root seems ANK for 
NAK: cf. Gr. r&i/c, Lat, wt-j, Skr. rtf. 

St. 170, 1. 2. Literally 'they made no other reason but to follow thfir 
will'. So in 54, 4: may )clh ltd pi'xy 'so that he went and l<> pray" ; 
10, 1: yn drehcvy* liny von deue)is '.she reared him and /m bnny 
come'; 250,2: may fararxanx It a (loins 'that they might say and 
to pvbKeh'i 59, "2: maleth an yoytt ltd drupyc, literally 'so that the 
blood came and to drop; 258,4: mar a crexyn ha bos vas, literally 
'if we believe and to be good'. In such cases in Welsh also the 
second verb is put in the infinitive. L. 3. yonk, O.Corn. iouenc, 
W. ieuanc , Bret, iaouank, O.Ir. 6c = Lat. j wcencus , Goth, jvgg-a 
'young', coth, Bret. Ao& = 0. Celtic collos (Alc-colti 'peranti(jni'). 
L. 4. Is sotlt the Eng. noolh ? 

St. 178, 1. 1. bys yn ybcu. Here yben is the Bret, eben, see Mr. Norris' 
Cornish Drama II, 255, where several Cornish examples are collected. 

St. 17:>, 1. 3. tear ben (pen) y gele (ccle) literally, 'on (the) head, or top, 
of its fellow'. A similar idiom occurs in Welsh: or earn di crlid 
'from the one cairn to the other 1 . Lib. Landav. 226, in Breton: 
(inn eil hag e-gi!e 'the one and the other', and in 0. Irish: carad 
ci'ii-h ndib a-cheile 'let every one of you love the other', is coir 
do clinch guide dee lia-chelc 'it is right for every one to pray God 
for the other', literally 'for his fellow'. With ceile Dr. Siegfried 
connects Skr. eAcrr, Gr. nt).(o, Nhg. gQ-fdhriQ. 

St. 180, 1.2. tres-heys 'footlengtlf; Ires (pi. treys, see note on St. 4G, 
1. 4) = Iros D. 2781, trous D. 860 = W. troed, O.Ir. traig, gen. 

St. 181, 1. 4. loven 'rope' = W. llyfan, O.Ir. Ionian (gl. fuiiis). 

St. 183, 1. :>. yxcren, pi. of ascorn, R. 2598, = W. asgwrn. 

St. 184, 1. 2. pen golas literally 'head of (the) bottom'; golas = W. 
gwaelawd, a deriv. from girael 'low', with which Dr. Siegfried con- 
nects the river-name Vahalis. 

St. 186, 1. 2. dyghoic W. dcheu for dechcti, Ir. dcs 6t^to^, dex-ter, 
(ioth. Itnhsz-s. L. 4. rrcliyllj/s. see D. 2818, and cf. (>. \\el>h 
criliol, gl. vibrat. lctn-]as dwcillm* \\ith the usual i.m 
it'tor the particle y. See note on St. 11, 1. 1. lYr!ia| 
louKl read y <jotrc}(ts, 'his comiianious '. 

96 NOTES. 

St. 192, 1.2. dowlylh 'fearest', the Old Eng. verb dout = fear. L. 4. 
mall from Lat. nialum. 

St. 193, 1. 4. Read yn paradis? 

St. 195, 1. 1. Read \e rag Ihesus? L. 4. The Rev. R. Williams reads 
dewscoll, and compares W. disguaJl 'without a defect' i. e. 'per- 
fectly' which would make good sense. 

St. 196, 1. 2. I take gwe]y here to be = W. gweddio. 

St. 197, 1. 2. pystege 'sorcery' should perhaps be pystrege, cf. pystry 
'sorcery' D. 1765, pystryor 'wizard' D. 1767, pestryores 'witch' 
0. 2668. Perhaps, however, we should compare the Bret, pistik 
'point', 'douleur aigue'. 

St. 200, 1. 2. dorgis here and infra 209, 2, seems a corruption of dorgris 
(= rfor-f-cris), where dor W. daiar, and cris = W. cryd, Bret. 
crid, Ir. crith, which last Diefenbach compares with Ohg. ridon, 
rirfa, assuming here an aphaeresis of h. 

St. 201, 1. 1. l Hy\ says Mr. Norris (Cornish Drama ii, 243), sometimes 
stands for the neuter, where in English we should use 'it'; as 
hyns hy bos nos "before it be night" 0. 2769. Is pegyas for 
pesyas , W. peidio 'to cease'? L. 3. Very difficult. Pryce has 
prag thysta ve scryryas , ' why hast thou forsaken me ? ' We should 
probably read scrirya and equate it with Bret, shleria. 

St. 202, 1. 1. dewas = diot, Vocab., W. diawt. L. 2. It has been sug- 
gested that last is = W. lias 'incrustation'. But I prefer com- 
paring Bret, lastez-en ' malproprete , salete'. 

St. 205, 1.1. I have little faith in my version of this line and of the 
first half of the next. I take spyr to be a verb from the Lat. 
spiro, or Eng. spire ('breathe'), which is used by Wickliffe. Caman 
(W. caman, Fr. chetnin, Med. Lat. caminus') seems to occur as 
kemmen in 75, 2. L. 2. If we read mann cf. the Breton mann 
'rien', 'neant', 'nulle chose'. L. 4. war }ellargh (cf. war tu dylarg, 
0. 961) became uardhelhar in modern Cornish, Lh. 248, 3; cf. 
Bret, war va dilerc'h 'derriere moi'. 

St. 206, 1. 1. megis 'stifled', cf. W. mygu, O.Ir. for-muichthe. gwyls = W. 
gwyllt = Goth, viltheis, Eng. wild. Foi nye\y read ney^y, and com- 
pare neid (in the Cornish Vocab.) = Lat. nidus (for gnisdus? cf. 
Slav, gne&do, the first syllable of which may, Dr. Siegfried thinks, 
be = y^o ? , GANAS). 

St. 207, 1. 4. eyn occurs infra 235 , 4. The Rev. R. Williams suggests 
W. tain 'cold', but a cold cry is rather forced. 

St. 209, 1. 2. lughes = W. lluched 'lightning', Bret, luc'heden. 

St. 210, 1. 1. egerys, cf. W. agori 'aperire' Z. 520, Bret, digeri. 

St. 211, 1. 1. Zer, lor (gl pavimentum vel solum) Vocab., = O.W. /awr, 
now llawr (solum; = A. S. /lor, Eng. floor, tan 'fire' = Ir. tene, gen. 
lenedj with which Zeuss compares Tenedon. guins Bret, guent, 
O.Ir. fet, Lat. ventus, Goth, uinrf-*, Skr. vdta (for vdnta?). howl 

NOTES. 97 

= W. Heul, Bret, heol, Goth, snuil, Lat. sol. steyr, pi. of aler-en 
(gl. stella) Vocab. ; cf. -ar/Jo, Skr. sir, Eng. star. L. 4. syns, 
pi. of sews, = W. sant, Ir. sancht from Lat. sanctus. 

St. 212, 1.2. sleyueth is a derivative from s/e (gl. peritus) Lhuyd 118. 
L. 4. fynweth = Br. /mwea Zeuss 155, i. e. fin + gued (W. g-tcedd}. 

St. 213, 1. 1. The latter half of this line has a syllable too much; for 
evef we should doubtless read ef (= Eva). L. 3. sewyas, cf. Eng. 
sue = Fr. suivre. 

St. 215, 1. 2. go-vynnys 'rogavit'. The Welsh er-fyn has the same root, 
but compounded with a different preposition. yn ro 'as a gift', 
cf. the O.Welsh kin map di iob 'ut Jovis films' Zeuss 571. So in 
French 'en fils de Jupiter'. In Breton, however, oz was used: oz 
roen 'as a king' Z. 572. L. 4. gorhomynnys, W. gor-chymyn, Br. 
gour-chemen, from Lat. com-mendo, with the Celtic prefix gor- = Ir. 
for-, Gaulish ver-. 

St. 216, 1. 4. ytlaseffsons = yt-daseffsons ; cf. desefsen R. 1771. 

St. 217, 1. .1. In herwyth 'side'(?) we have probably the W. prep, her- 
icydd, O.W. heruid, 'because', 'according to', Bret, hervez. prys 
(preys 255, 3) is, like W. prts, from Fr. prix or Lat. pretium, as 
negis from negotiwn. L. 3. gew (also in 218, 3; gyw 219, 2; 221, 1) 
= O.Ir. gdi, Gaulish gaison, latinised gttcsum. L.4. hynwys may per- 
haps be an adv., = yn wys, as in 0. 1545 ; W. gwijs 'deep'. The Rev. 
R. Williams and Dr. Siegfried propose W. hynaws 'mild', 'kind'. 

St. 218, 1.3. bechye, cf. Br. an becq 4 acumen' Buh. 152. 

St. 219, 1.1. stret (gl. latex), Vocab., is apparently a diminutive. Cf. 
Bret, ster 'river'. L. 2. ryp (ryb 71,2, 81,1) 'beside'. This pre- 
position, peculiar to Cornish, seems cognate with, or borrowed 
from, the Latin ripa. So glan (gl. ripa, Vocab.) is used for 'side' 
in R. 522: me a wel an men bras war glan an beth 'I see the 
large stone on the side of the tomb', resas (also 221, 2), cf. W. 
rhcdu 'to run', Bret, redek, Ir. rith. 

St. 220, 1. 1. eddrek = Ir. aithrige, Goth, idreiga. L. 4. edrege (for 
edregi?) appears to be the plural. 

St. 221, 1.1. herdhya = W. herddio. L. 3. lin 'water' = Ir. linn, W. llyn: 
gre-/in, gl. lacus, pisc-/in, gl. vivarium, occur in the Vocab. de- 
veras, W. dyferu. L. 4. gloys = W. gloes. 

St. 222, 1. 1. wher\yn. If the } be for dh compare W. chwarddu 'to 
laugh'. If for th, W. chwerthin. L. 2. dagrow (dagrennow 225, 1) 
pi. of dagr = O.W. dacr, Ir. der = tiaxyv, Skr. a$ru, Lat. lacrima 
(for rfetcrwma), Goth, tagr, Eug. tear, deichans = a Welsh dychurant 
from chwant with the intensive particle. 

St. 223, 1. 1. aeth, Br. saez, W. saelh, O.Ir. saigit are all most likely 
loan-words from Lat. sagitta. For if the word were originally 
Celtic , we should probably have had het h, haez, haeih in Cornish, 
Breton, and Welsh. L.2. moreth, cf. Bret, morchedus 'tristis', 'in- 


98 NOTES. 

felix', Buh. 126. more^eh (77, 1; 232,4) is exactly the W. name 
Moriddik cited by Zeuss from Reg. Caernarv. p. 100. denselh 
'humanity' = W. dyndawd. 

St. 224, 1. 2. crunys, cf. W. crawni 'to collect', 'to gather'. The Rev. R. 
Williams proposes W. croni 'to stagnate'. L. 3. galloys 'power', 
gallof 'possum' (W. gallaf, Br. gallaf) Ebel compares with Lith. 
galiu, galeti. Perhaps we may add Ir. galach 'valiant'. 

St. 225, 1. 2. yly = W. eli 'salve', from olivum. hueth = W. chwyddo 'to 
swell out'? chwaedd 'a relish'? L. 4. With anfueth cf. anfus D. 
1501, anfusyk R. 1520. 

St. 227, 1. 3. triugons = O.W. tri-uceint. pym\ek for pymlhek ttompymp- 
tek out of pymp-dek. 

St. 228, 1. 3. bly\en = Bret, bliien, W. bltcyddyn, O.Ir. bliadain, bliadan. 
ke-never would be in Welsh cy-nifer (nifer from Lat. numerus}. 

St. 229, 1.4. mor^osow pi. of morjos = W. morddwyd. The morboit (gl. 
femur vel coxa) of the Vocabulary, should certainly, as Zeuss 
says, be mordoit. 

St. 230, 1. 1. gwespar is, I believe, (like W. gosper, Ir. espar-tain') bor- 
rowed from Lat. vesper. The Welsh ucher and Corn, gurth-uher l 
(gl. vespera) point to an Old British uxer from vecser (= Ir. fescor\ 
which bears the same relation to vesper, as Gaulish Crixus, W. 
crych, does to crispus. L. 2. kemeas = cumtnyas D. 3146. L. 4. 
tyr is probably cognate with W. tirion (= lir -f iawri). I dare not 
compare T^/WJ, Tfo/j^, <ere, for the W. fir- points to an O.Celtic 
tiro or firi. 

St. 231, 1.3. tenewen 'side', cf. W. teneu, Lat. tenuis , Ir. tana, 7vf, 
Ohg. rfwnni, Eng. thin. 

St. 232, 1.1. wynnas (gicynnas), cf. W. gwyno. L. 2. Is yn tc/ms for 
yn fas 'well'? 

St. 233, 1. 3. logell from Lat. loculus. 

St. 234, 1. 3. What is dworen in dworen-nos ? The Rev. R. Williams 
suggests dew-or-an-nos 'at two hours of the night'. He also con- 
jectures that dworen may be a loan from the Eng. during. 

St. 235, 1. 2. pedry = W. pedru, Lat. putreo. 

St. 237, 1. 1. a-ugh = W. uwch 'above', 'over'. L. 2. leden = O.W. /itan, 
Ir. lethan niarvg, Eng. broad. L. 3. golyas = vigilarit. Per- 
haps y }otys may stand for yf^ wolyas (golyas). L. 4. Ire-menas, 
cf. Br. tremen 'transire' Buh. 90, 92. 

St. 238, 1. 1. bresel occurs in many O.Welsh names cited by Zeuss 156. 

St. 239, 1. 1. stevya. Mr. Norris suggests Ital. stivar (from stipare), our 

1 Wrongly read by Zeuss Gurthuper, by Mr. Norris gurthuwer. The form 
gurthuher occurs in one of the two Cornish versions of the first chapter of 

NOTES. 99 

Eng. stevedor. Is there an O.Fr. cslivc? L. 3. dyslovgh dystogh 
0. 2178. 

St. 240, 1. 3. mars is apparently a blunder for mats, see note on St. 
118, 1. 2. 

St. 241, 1. 2. yskerans, pi. of escar, an anf-stem, root car, Lat. earns, 
Fr. cAer. 

St. 242, 1. 2. (138, 4) dewen = dywen D. 1368, W. dwyen (dwy-geri) 'gills', 
Bret, r/iu 0tien 'malae' Buh. 166, cf. y4vvq t Lat. #ena, Skr. hanu, 
Goth. Ainnw*. 

St. 243, 1. 2. With depras cf. W. dyddwyre. L. 3. tewynnye - W. lywynu. 

St. 244, 1. 1. holergh perhaps from A0-, Ae- = W. Ae-, Ir. stt-, Skr. SM-, Gr. 
tu- t and Jer^A, a step, trace, y tefenas (defends) cf. dufun 'wide 
awake' R. 524. L. 3. umhelys = ommelys 253, 4; cf. D. 2594: 
"then dor prag na ymwhelaf" , 'why do I not cast myself to the 
earth?' ymchoelut Z. 639, cf. W. ymchwel 'return', dym-chwef 
'to overturn'. 

St. 246, 1. 1. govy 'vae mihi' = W. gwae ft = O.Ir. fe amdi. The inter- 
jection is also compounded with the pers. pron. of the 3 d pers. sg. 
in goef 259, 4, gwef 43, 4, giceff 95, 2. L. 2. rw, the same in 
Welsh, is the Ir. truag. huyn W. and Bret. Awn, Ir. snan = Lat. 
somtuts, unvos, O.N. *ce/>i, Mid. E. sweven. L. 4. With Irnssen 
cf. perhaps W. Irwydo 'to burst through'. 

St. 247, 1.1. Is gwevye the W. gwibio 'to roam'? 

St. 248, 1. 3. golowys y pi. of </o/oic 'a light', = W. golew, cf. yn peswere 
gureys then beys ol golowys glan, 0. 34, 'on the fourth (day) let 
bright lights be made for all the world'. 

St. 249, 1. 4. gustle seems connected with Bret, guestlas 'spopondit' Buh. 
158, W. gwystlo 'to pledge'. 

St. 250, 1. 2. For hadolos we should read Aa dolos. The Rev. R. Williams 
compares W. dolef 'shout', 'loud noise', but of this lief 'voice', 
'cry' is the root, bro 'country' (also Welsh and Breton) connected 
with -brox in Allo-brox 'otherlander', and occurs in composition 
in W. Cymro = cyn-bro 'conterraneus'. L. 4. monas = W. myned y 
Br. mont. fo, W. ffo, from fuga, g between vowels disappearing 
as in pow = pagus. 

St. 251, 1. 2. deank (dyenhys R. 520) = W. diank 'to escape'. 

St. 253, 1.4. }e worth (also in 12,2; 18, 4) = W. y tcrfA, Br. d\ oils 
(gwrth = Ir. frith), pu = 0. W. pwi, Ir. eta, 0. Celtic que = Lat. qul. 

St. 254, 1. 1. powessens gans; the Welsh say pwyso ar. L. 4. scrutk 
seems = W. ysgnclh 'a heap'. But this can hardly be the mean- 
ing here. Dr. Siegfried suggests ysgryd 'a shiver', the objection 
to which is that it would properly have been scry* in Cornish. 

St. 256, 1. 3, 4. Observe the alliteration here: Crist. Auf. colon. Ayff. Ayg. 
and, generally, remark the great metrical skill shewn in this poem. 
Regularly each stanza contains four lines (208 has five) rhyming 

100 NOTES. 

together. Each line is divided into two half-lines, which also 
rhyme together. In the MS. this division, which I have indicated 
by a dot, is made by a stroke drawn down from right to left. (In 
41, 3 and 4 this stroke is omitted, and in 43, 4 misplaced after veto.) 
Each half-line contains seven syllables. 

St. 257, 1. 3. tonek (gl. grex) Lhuyd. 

St. 259, 1. 2. brues (bres 98, 2) = O.W. bravt, Ir. brdth, Gaulish bratu. 
The verb brusy occurs in 113,4 and 117,4. brodit (gl. judex) 

W. S. 


THE following play, now for the first time printed, is taken from 
a small quarto volume of miscellaneous paper manuscripts, marked 
F.4.20, and preserved in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
The handwriting of the portion of the volume from which our 
text has been derived, is of the latter half of the fifteenth cen- 
tury ; and the scribe (the initials of whose name are R. C.) probably 
completed his work soon after the year 1461 the date given at 
the end of the play as that of the occurrence on which it is founded. 
That the drama was composed before such date might seem pro- 
bable from the evidence furnished by the forms italicised in the 
following quotations : 

Alas balys brewyth ryght badde. L. 513. 

Here goelh the Jewys away. Stage direction after L. 335. 

So therefore, frendis, 

Beth in no wauhope daye nor nyght. L. 67. 

Voydoth [leg. voydetli] from my syght, and that wyghtly, 

Ffor ye be inysseavysed. LL. 638, 639. 

For the dental ending of such forms as beth ( A. 8. and Semi- 
saxon beoft) and voydeth, was sometimes dropped as early as the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. Thus: 
Hastilich je him bind 
All his bonis }e to-draw 
Loke that je nojt lete. 1 

But plural forms in th were used down to a much later period 
than is generally supposed. Thus in Bale's Tragedtje &c. (1WS) 
the sixth act begins with 

'I brought up chyldren from their first infancye 
Whych now despy/ieth my godlye instruccyons/ 

and in (rammer Gurtoiis Needle (played at Cambridge about 1.V.1) 
\vr find: 

'It is the cat's eyes, fool, that shincth in the dark. 

1 Political Song*, ed. Wright, [>. 201. The manuscript from \vhi. -li 
tli.- almve quotation is taken , \v:\> written. say> Mr. Wriirht, in 1308. 



The other grammatical forms in our play appear to be those 
that usually occur in Middle-English, say from 1350 to 1550. 
Thus in the noun we find the genitive singular in -?'s, -ys, but 
the accusative with of is frequent. Sometimes the s is omitted 
('for that lor de sake' 310, 'the chyrche key' 364). The last 
example, however, is probably a compound and not an instance 
of the genitive singular of a feminine a-stem , for cyrice belongs 
to the n-declension. The dative singular seems flexionless. At 
least it would be rash to quote mowthe 54, daye, bedde 328, clothe 
383, lawe 395, reste 345, &c. , as sure examples, when we con- 
sider the frequency with which an inorganic mute e is found in 
our manuscript. The nominative and ace. plural masc. and fern, 
end in -ys, -is, -es, rarely in -s. One old neuter has no ending: 
twenti pownd 282, for an .C. pownd 312. Substantives ending in 
n are exemplified by eyn 613, fone 355, treyn 77. In chylder-n 866, 
the n is inorganic. There are no case-signs for the genitive and 
dative plural. 

Adjectives seem still to form their plural by adding -e: ama- 
tystis ryche 161, crystalys clere 164, fygis fatte 176, fayre men 982. 
The -e, however, is often dropped. The comparative degree is 
made by -ere, lengere 229 (A. S. lengre), and -er, strenger 432 (A. S. 
strengre)) or by the positive with more: mor wyse 921: the super- 
lative is made by -est (grettest 251). 

As to the pronouns: she and they supplant the older heo and 
hi: hem (== A. S. dat. him, heom) occurs once as the ace. pi. of he. 
The possessive pronouns offer nothing remarkable, save in the 
great frequency with which myn and thyn are used. Tower (A. S. 
cover) appears to be dissyllabic. The relative pronoun is that for 
all numbers and genders, also whych 11, whyche 740, dat. wyche 
20, {he whyche 800, 1002. In the genitive whoys occurs, 1003, and 
also ivhoses 150, a curious form like Nhg. wessen. The interrog- 
ative pronoun is who, ace. whom, neut. wat. The demonstrative 
singular masc. is this, fern, thes ('thes femely' L. 3, = A. S. peos?), 
neut. that. Plural masc. thes, L. 35, 145. Tho ( A.S. pa) oc- 
curs in the nom. and ace. 

The verb makes its infinitive in -yn, -n (to walkyn 304, 358; 
castyn 220; to doon 236; to donne 912; to gone 390; sene 183, 286; 
seyn 136; bene 76, 287, 464, 783), but generally in -e (to saye 11, to 
here 9), and sometimes the e is dropt (to tell 6, gyf S%). The 


participle present ends in -yny (freynend, L. 21, is a blunder for 
freyned). The present indicative in the 2 (l sg. lias -yst, -est ; in 
the 3 d sg. -eth, -yth; twice -th (dwell tit 5S9, gooth 544, 598), and once 
-s (hase 463): in me thynke 978 = me Ihynk 200,845, do 978, have 041, 
the termination appears to be quite lost: in the plural we have -n 
(mown 172 = mayn 183, waytyn 190, carpyn 394, grooft s. d. after .'>'.'i ; . 
desyryn 7GO); or -e. The preterite of strong verbs exhibits in the- ;;" 
sg. short forms, such as sprony 10, cam 17, tobrast 48, bad 945 (wr 
lind however 7/e brake 399): in the plural we have -en (youi 
or -e (gune 29, to&e 41, wounde 43, stotfc 09), or the -e is dropt. 

The participle passive of weak verbs has -ed, -yd, once -e tt : 
jugett 447. The participle passive of strong verbs has -n (sen 74, 
knowen 92, soden 704, smytyn 465, borne 846, brostyn 015), other- 
wise only -e: wree 31, 212, take 305, s/nytte 403, drunk e ;;!:': 
in Aom/,, 545, the -e is dropt: onkowth 147, kowthe 50, arc the A. S. 
wiCMO (Eng. uncouth), cu$. 

The following forms of the present indicative of the verb to be, 
are found in the play now printed: 

am 98. 1. be 5; ar 960. 

art 491. 2. te 385; ar 236, 718. 

2/s 346. 3. ben 305; foe 994; be 102; am 386; are 808; ar 055. 
The infinitive isbene 76, 287,464, 783, and the past participle fo, 109, 822. 

So much from the philological point of view. The storirs 
on one of which our play is founded, are known to all ac- 
quainted with the history of the continental Jews in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. Many of these unbelievers (if we credit 
the stories above referred to) ' obtained and outraged consecrated 
wafers. The miracles which thereupon necessarily took plain-, had 
the threefold effect of proving the doctrine of the real piv><-i,. 
establishing the needlessness of communion under both kinds, 
and of affording zealous Christians opportunities of killing )e\vs 
and acquiring their properly. It is noteworthy that the 

1 Those who wish to go into the literature of the subject, are referred 
to Basnage, Histoire des Jnifs, Rotterdam 1707, vol. V, p. 1G85; Ydeu.s, 
Hisloire du S. Sacrement Mirac/e, Bruxelles 1G05 (here the cliit-i Jew'a 
name is, as in our play, Jonatluis); Sauval, Histoire el Recherche* r/o 
Antiquites <le la Ville tit- Piirix, Paris 172-4, vol. I. p. 1 17; Villani. rronirhr, 
Ao. 1290; Nicola Laghi ila I.ny;:nii>, D> Miriintli *// ninths. ^ 
Venetia, 1615, p. 65 et seq. 



legious torturers of the Host, instead of being burnt alive, as 
they were (I think, invariably) according to the continental ac- 
counts, are dismissed by our tolerant English dramatist baptized, 
and undertaking a voluntary pilgrimage, their "wyckyd lyvyng 
for to restore." 

This is not the place for criticising the mode in which our 
dramatist has done his work. Let us, however, note his skill in 
various forms of verse , his love for alliteration , and the low but 
genuine humour of the scenes in which the quack-doctor and his 
servant appear. 

The play appears to have been performed at Croxton, in or near 
which was a place called the Colcote, a little beside 'BabwellMilP. 
See vv. 74, 618, 619. There is a Croxton parish in Cambridgeshire, 
another in Lincolnshire, another in Norfolk; a Croxton township in 
both Cheshire and Staffordshire; Croxton chapelry is in Norfolk: 
Croxton Keyrial in Leicestershire ; South Croxton parish in the same 
shire, and Croxton Green in Cheshire. There was a Croxton abbey 
in Leicestershire, and a Crokesden abbey in Staffordshire. Let 
some painful antiquary, who has nothing better to do, try to ascer- 
tain which of these Croxtons was the scene of the performance. 

Lastly, I may observe that in the MS. the lines which rhyme 
together, are generally connected by ligatures, that the names 
of the dramatis personae are written in the margin , and that the 
stage-directions are dashed with yellow. As to the printed text, 
the extensions of the contractions in the manuscript have been 
italicised. The lines, too, have been numbered. All other ad- 
ditions have been enclosed in brackets. Wherever a conjectural 
emendation has been hazarded, the reading of the original is given 
as a footnote. 

With this short preface I leave the reader to the play, trusting 
that it may prove a useful quarry for the dictionary of the 
Philological Society, and feeling sure that all who take interest 
in the history of the English Drama will welcome the publication 
of what appears to be the earliest dramatic poem in the language, 
of which the characters are not allegorical, and which is founded 
neither on a biblical narrative nor on the life of a saint. 

Dublin, October 16, 1861. W. S. 


[P. I-] 

Now y father & y e sune & y c holy goste 

that all y ls wyde \vorlde hat[h] wrowg[hjt 
save all thes f'emely Imthe leste & moste 

And bryw[g]e yow to y blysse y 1 he hath yow to bowght 
5 We be ful purposed w* hart & w 1 thowght 

Off oure mater to tell y e entent 
Off y c marvell/5 y* wer wondurfely wrowght 
Off y e holi & bleyssed sacrament 


Sideyns & yt lyke yow to here y c purpoos of y ls play 
10 that [ys] re presentyd now in yower syght 
whych in aragon was doon y c sothe to saye 

In eraclea that famous Cyte aryght 
I her in wowneth a merchante off mekyll myght 

syr arystorye was called hys name 
15 kend full fere w* mani a wyght 

full fer in y c worlde sprong hys fame 

A non to hym * ther caw a Jewe 

w* grete rychesse for the nonys 
And womierh in y e cyte of surrey y ls [ys] full trowe 
I'O yn wyche [he] had gret plente off precyous stonys 
Off y ls cristen merchante he freyned 2 sore 

wane he wolde haue had hys entente 
xxti pownd 3 and merchandyse mor 
he proferyd for y holy sacrament 


l j;> but y christen merchannte theroff sod nay 

be cause hys prolVr was of so lityll valewr 

1 MS. hyn. a MS . freynend. 3 MS. li. 


An C pownd ' but he wolde pay 
no lenger theron he shuld pursevve 

[P. 2.] 

But mor off ther purpos they gune speke 
30 The holi sacramente for to bye 

And all on the sauyowr of the world to be wreke a 
A gret sume off gold be gune down ley 

Thys crysten merchante corcsentyd y c sothe to sey 

And in y c nyght afiter made hym deliuerance 
35 Thes Jewes all grete Joye made they 

but off thys betyde a stranger chance 
they grevid our lord gretly on grownd 

And put hym to a newe passyon 
w l daggers gouen hym many a greuyos wound 
40 nayled hym to a pyller w fc pynsons plukked hym doune 

And sythe thay toke y l blysed brede so sowwde 

And in a cawdron they ded hym boyle 3 
In a clothe full Just they yt wouwde 

And so they ded hym sethe in oyle 
45 And than thay putt hym to a new tormentry 

In an hoote ouyn 4 speryd hym fast 
there he appyred w l wouwdz's blody 
the ovyn refe a sondre & all tobrast 


thus in ou r lawe they wer made stedfast 
50 the holy sacremewt sheuyd them grette faueur 
In contrycyon thyr hertis wer cast 

And went & shewyd ther lyues to a cowfesour 
thus be maracle off y e kyng of hevyn 

And by myght & power govyn to y e prestis mowthe 

1 MS. li. 2 MS. And all for yc woldr be wreke. cf. L. 212. 

3 MS. boylde. 4 MS. hoote ob ouyn. 

THE PLAY r.|- INI - \< RAMENT. 107 

55 In an hovvshold wer con[v]ertyd J w^ll wys xi 

At Ivninc V ' myrarlr ys kllOWdl Wi.'lh' kowtln 1 

thys marycle at Rome was presented for sot ho 

yn the yere of you r lord a M'cccc.c .Ixi 
that y c Jewes w l holy sacrament dyd w l 
r>0 In the forest seyd of Aragon 

[P. 3.] 
be low thus god at a tyme showyd hym there 

thorwhe hys mercy & hys mekyll myght 
vnio the Jewes he [did a-]gayn apperc 

that y cl shuld nat lesse hys hevenly lyght 

65 So therfor frend/# w 1 all your myght 

vnto youer gostly father shewe your synno 
beth in no wanhope dayc nor nyght 

no maner off dowght/s y l lord put in 
ffor y l y e dowgtht/s y c Jewys than in stodi- 
70 as yc shall sr. plt-.yd both more, & lesse 
was yff y c sacrament wer flesshe & blode 
therfor they put yt to suche dystresse 

And yl plai.-e yow thys gaderyng y l her- 

At Croxston on monday yt shall he sen 
75 To see the conclusyon of y is lytell proce> 

hcrtely welcu?w shall yow bene 
now Jhesu yow sawe from 8 treyn & trm 
To send vs hys hyhe ioycs of hevyne 
there myght ys w t outon mynd to ninic 
<SO now mynstrell blow vp \v l a mery stevyn 


[Here after foloireth if play of if courcrsi/on of .xvr ./ 
thas //' Jtu'c by nn/raclc of if blys*e<l sacnunentj 

1 MS. apparently, y s y. 2 MS. fron. 



Now cryst y l ys ou r creatour from shame he cure vs 
he l maynteyn vs w 1 myrth y 1 meve vpon y c mold 
vnto hys endlesse Joye myghtly he restore vs 

All tho y* in thys name in peas well them hold 
85 for of a merchante most myght therof my tale ys told 
In Eraclea ys now suche w[h]oso wyll vnder stond 
for off all Aragon I am most myghty of syluer & of gold 
ffor & yt wer a courctre to by now wold I nat wond 

[P. 4.] 

Syr Arystory is my name 
90 A merchante myghty of a royall araye 
fful wyde in y ls worlde spryngyth my fame 
fere kend & knowen y c sothe for to saye 
In all maner of lond& w*out ony naye 

My merchandyse renneth y e sothe for to tell 
95 In gene & in Jenyse & in genewaye 

In surry 2 & in saby & in saleruw I sell 
In Antyoche & in Almayn moch ys my myght 

In braban & in brytayn I am full bold 
In Calabre & in coleyn y er rynge I full ryght 
100 In Dordrede & in Denmark be y e chyffe cold 

In Alysander I haue abuwdaw[n]se in the wyde world 

In france & in farre fresshe be my flower[is] 
In gyldre & in Galys haue I bowght & sold 

In hamborowhe & in holond moche merchantdyse ys owns 
105 In Jerusalem & in Jherico a nuwg the Jewes jentle 

Amo[n]g tho caldeys & Cattlyngw kend ys my komyng 
In raynes & in rome to seynt petyrs temple 

I am knowen certenly for bying & sellyng 
In mayn & in melan full mery haue I be 
110 Owt of naveruw to naples moch good ys y l I bryng 
In pondere & in portyngale moche ys my gle 

In spayne & in spruce moche ys my spedyng 
In lombardy & in lachborn there ledde ys my lykyng 

In taryfe & in turkey there told ys my tale 
115 And in y e dukedom of oryon moche have I in weldyng 

And thus thorowght all y is world sett ys my sale 
1 MS. be. 2 MS. surgery. 


[P. 50 
No man in thys world may weld more Rychesse 

All J thank god of hys grace for he y l me sent 
And as a lord/s pere thus lyve I in worthynesse 
120 My curat waytheth vpon me to knowe myn entent 
And men at my weldyng & all ys me lent 

my well for to worke in thys world so wydc 
me dare they nat dysplese by no condescent 1 
And who so doth he ys nat able to a byde 

125 no man shall you tary ne t[r]owble thys tyde 

but every man delygently shall do yow plesance 
And I vnto my connyng to y c best shall hem guyde 

vnto gods's plesyng to serue yow to attrueance 
ffor ye be worthy & notable in substance of good 
130 Off merchant/s of Aragon ye have no pere 
And ther of thank god y i dyed on y e roode 
that was your makere & hath yow dere 

for soth syr pryst yower talkyng ys good 

And therfor affter your talkyng I wyll atteyn 
135 to wourshyppe my god that dyed on y e Roode 
ever 2 whyll y l I lyve ageyn y* wyll I seyn 
but petyr powle my dark I praye the goo wele pleyn 

thorowght All eraclea that thow ne wonde 
and wytte yff ony merchante be come to y is reyn 
140 of surrey or of sabe or of shelys down 

At you r wyll for to walke I wyl nat say nay 

smertly to go serche at y e wateris syde 
yff ony plesant bargyn be to your paye 

As swyftly as I can I shall hym to yow guydo 

[P. 6.J 
145 now wyll I walke by thes pathes wyde 

and seke the haven both vp and down 
1 MS. condestent. 3 MS. neuer. 


to wette yff ony unkowth l shyppes therin do ryde 
Of surrey or of saby [or] of shdys down 
[now shall y e merchantis man w l drawe hym and y* Jewe 
Jonathas shall make hys lest] 


Now Almighty Machomet marke in y l mageste 
150 whoses lawes tendrely I have to fulfyll 
after my dethe bryng me to thy hyhe see 

My sowle for to save yff yt be thy wyll 
for myn en tent ys for to fulfyll 

as my gloryus god the to honer 
155 to do agen thy entent yt shuld grue me yll 

or agen thyn lawe for to reporte 
for I thawke the hayly y* hast me sent 

godd syluer & presyous stonys 
& abunddance of spym y u hast me lent 
160 A[s] I shall reherse before yow onys 
I have amatysto's ryche for y e nonys 
and barylh's that be bryght of ble 
and saphyre semely I may show yow attonys 

And crystalys clere for to se 
165 I haue dyamant^s dere wourthy to dresse 

and emerawdzs ryche I trow they be 
Onyx and achatw 2 both more & lesse 
topajyons smaragdfs of grete degre 
perlys precyous grete plente 
170 of Rubes ryche I have grete renown 
crepawd^s & calcedonyes semely to se 

A[nd] curyous carbuwclys here ye fynd mown 

[P. 7.1 
spycz's I hawe both grete & smale 

In my shyppes the sothe for to saye 
175 gyngere lycoresse and cawnyngalle 

and fygf's fatte to plese yow to paye 
peper and saffyron & spyc?'s smale 

and data's wole dulcett for to dresse 
5 MS. on knowth. * MS. Machatis. 


Almundis and Keys full eu<?ry male 
180 and Reysones both more & lease 
Clowys greynis ' & gynger grene 

Mace mastyk that myght ys 
synymone suger as yow may?* sene 

leng peper and Indas lycorys 
185 orengis a[nd] apples of greto api 

pumgarnetw 2 & many other spycw 
to tell yow all I have now I wyse 

and moche other merchandyse of e[v]<?ry sondry spycie 
Jew Jonathas [thys] ys my nam. 
190 Jazon & Jazdon y ei waytyn on my wylle 
Masfat & malchus they do the same 

As ye may knowe yt ys bothe rycht & skylle 
I tell yow alle bi dal and by hylle 

In eraclea ys noon so moche of myght 
195 werfor ye owe tenderli to tende me tylle 

for I am chefe merchants of Jewes I tell yow be ryght 
but Jazon & Jazdon a mater wollde 4 I mene 

mer velensly yt ys ment in mynde 
y e beleve of thes crysten men ys false as I wene 
200 for y e beleve on a cake me thynk yt ys onkynd 

[P. 8.] 
And alle they seye how y c prest dothe yt bynd 

And be y e myght of hys word make y flessh & blode 
And thus be a conceyte y w wolde make vs blynd 
and how y l yt shuld be he y l deyed upon y e rode 


205 Yea yea master a strawe for talis 
that manot sale [?] in my beleve 
but myt we yt gete onys w l in our pales 

I trowe we shuld sone affter putt yt in a preve 5 


Now be machomete so myghty y' ye doon of[t] mono 
210 I wold I wyste how y l we myght yt 

1 MS. grenyis. * MS. pungarneti*. 3 MS. Jonathas ys my ys name. 
* MS. wolldi*. MS. praye. 


I seuer be my grete god & ellys mote I nat cheuc 
But wyghtly the[r]on wold I be wreke 

Yea I dare sey feythfulli y* ther feyth [ys so] 

That was neuer he that on caluery was kyld 
215 Or in bred for to be blode yt ys ontrewe als[o] 
but yet w 1 ther wyles y ei wold we were wyld 

yea I am myghty malchus y* boldly am byld 

that brede for to bete byggly am I bent 
Onys out of ther handz's & yt myght be exyled 
220 To helpe castyn yt in Care wold I consent 

Well syrse than kype cunsel I cuwmande yow all 

& no word of all thys be wyst 
but let us walke to see arystories halle 

& affter ward more counselle among vs shall [be] caste 
225 w l hym to bey & to sel I am of powere prest 

A bargyn w* hym to make I wyll assaye 
ffor gold & syluer I am nothyng agast 
but y* we shall get y 1 cake to ower paye 

[her shall ser ysodyr ye prest speke out ser arystori seyng 
on thys wyse to hym jonathas goo don of his stage] 


Syr be your leue I may [nat] lengere dwell 
230 yt ys fer paste none yt ys tyme to go to cherche 
there to saye myn evynsong forsothe as I yow tell 

and syth come l home ageyne as i am wont to werche 

[P. 9.] 

Sir Isydor I praye yow walke at yowr wylle 

ffor to serfe god yt ys well done 
* MS. cone. 


235 And syt[h] come agen & ye shall suppe your fylle 

& walke thaw to yor chamber as ye ar wont to doon 

[her shall if marchantis man l mete w* if jewesj 


a petre powle good daye & wele imett 2 
wer ys they master as I the pray 


lon[g] from hym haue I not lett 
iMO syt[h] I cam from hym y e sothe for to saye 
Wat tidyng w 4 yow ser I yow praye 
Affter my master y* ye doo fraye?/ 
liaue ye ony bargen y 1 wer to hys paye 

let me haue knowlech I shall wete liym to seyn 

:Mf> I haue bargenes royalle & ry[c]h 

ffor a marchante w l to bye and sell 
In all thys lond is ther non lyke 

off abu?idance of good as I will tell 

[her shall y" clerk goon to ser aristori saluting kirn thus] 


All hay 11 master & wel mot yow be 3 
250 Now tydynge can I yow tell 
y e grettest marchante in all surre 
ys come w 1 yow to bey & sell 

this tale ryght well he me (old 4 
Sir Jonat[h]as ys hys nam 
a inaivhant of ryght gret fame 
In- wollde sell yow w 1 out blame 
p[l]ente of clothe of golde 


pflrr powle I can y e thanke 

1 prey y 1 ' ryclirly arayr inyn \iu\\c 

1 MS. marcbaut men. a MS. I mett. a MS. yowhe. * MS. t 1 [?1 
ryght nell heme tell. 


260 as owyth for a marchant of y e banke 
lete non defawte be fownd at alle 

Sekyrly master no m[o]re ther shall 

styffly about I thynke to stere 
hasterli to hange yowr parlowr w* pall 
265 as longeth for a lordis pere 

[P. 10.] 

[here shall if Jewe merchante $ his men come to y e xpen 


All haylle syr aristorye semele to se 

The myghtyest merchante off arigon 
Off yower welfare fayn wet wold we 

And to bargeyn w* you y is day am ' I boun 

270 Sir Jonathas ye be well^cum vnto myn halle 

I pray yow come vp & sit bi me 

and telle me wat good ye haue to selle 

and yf ony bargeny mad may be 


I haue clothe of gold precyous stons & spyce plente 
275 wyth yow a bargen wold I make 
I wold bartre wyth yow in pryvyte 
on lytelle thyng ye wylle me yt take 

prevely in y is stownd 
& I wolle sure yow be thys lyght 
280 neuer dystrie yow daye nor nyght 
But be sworn to yow full ryght 
& geve yow xx t! pownd 2 

Sir Jonathas sey me for my sake 

what maner of marchandis ys y* ye mene 
1 MS. an. * MS. li. 



2s."> yowr god y l ys full niytheti in a cake 
& thys good anoon shall yow seen 

nay in feyth y l shall not bene 

I wollnot for an hundder powud 
to stond in fere my lord to tenc 
290 & for so lytelle a walew in conscyence l to stond bownd 

sir y e enlent ys if 1 myght knowe or vnder take 

yf y* he were god alle myght 
off all my mys I woll amende make 

& doon hym wourshepe bothe day & nyght 

[P. 11.] 
J'J5 Jonathas trowth I shall y e tell 

I stond in gret dowght to do y* dede 
to yow y l bere all for to sell 

1 tore me y* I shuld stond in drede 
tt'or & I vnto y c chyrche yede 
300 & preste or Clerke myght me aspye 
to y e bysshope y ei wolde go telle y 1 dede 
& apeche me of tresye 


Sir as for y l , good shyffte may ye make 
& for a vaylle to walkyn on a nyght 
305 wan prest & clerk to rest ben take 

than shall ye be spyde of no wyght 

now sey me Jonathas be this lyght 

\vat payment y r t'or wollde yow me make 

1 MS. constyene. 



xl. pownd 1 & pay yt fulryght 
310 evyn for y l lorde sake 


Nay nay Jonathas there agen 
I w[o]ld not for an .C. pownd 

sir hir ys [yo]w r askyng toolde pleyn 

I shall yt tell in this stownd 
315 here is an .C. pownd 2 neyther mor nor lesse 

Of dokettw good I dar well saye 
tell yt er yow from me passe 

Me thynketh yt a royalle araye 
but fyrst I pray yow tell me thys 
320 off thys thyng whan shalle I hafe delyumuice 

To morowe be tymes I shallnot myse 

this nyght therfor I shalle make pwrveance 

[P. 12.] 
syr Isodyr he ys now at chyrch 

There seyng hys evynsong 
325 as yt hys worshepe for to werche 

he shall sone cum home he wyll nat be long 

hys soper for to eate 
And whene he ys buskyd to hys bedde 
Ryght sone here after he shalbe spedd 
330 no speche among yow ther be spredd 
To kepe yo r toungw ye nott lett 


Syr almyghty machomyght be w* yow 
And I shalle Cum agayn ryght sone 


Jonathas ye wott what I haue sayd & how 
335 I shalle walke for that we haue to donn 
1 MS. li. a MS. li. 


[here goeth y e Jewys Away $ y e prQSte Comyth home] 

Syr Almyghty god mott be yo\v r gyde 
And glad yow where soo ye r 


Syr ye be welcom home thys tyde 
now peter gett vs wyne of the best 


340 Syr here ys a drawte of Romney Red 

tlier ys no better in Aragon 
And a lofe of lyght bred 

yt ys holesom as sayeth y c fesycyon 


Drynke of ser Isoder & be of good chriv 
345 thys Romney ys good to goo w l to reste 
tlier ys no precyouser fer nor nere 

for alle wykkyd metys yt wylle degr( 


Syr thys wyne ys good at a taste 

And ther of haue I drunke ryght wrlle 
350 to bed to gone thus haue I Cast 

Euyn strayt after thys inery mele 

[P. 13.] 

Now ser I pray to god send yow good > 
ffor to my chamber now wylle I gonm- 


S*T w l yow be god almyght[est] ' 

Ami shrlil vow eiier from yowr lone 

[here xJiall Ari#torfns call ////.s chirke to hyx / ; 
Howe peter in lli' vs all mv ti'iist 

In rs|Hvy;ilh' to kt-pc my ('oiisrll< 
1 The scrilx' h:ul u-Mcil a // an<l oxpun^pd it iniper!-- 


Ffor a lytylle waye walkyn I must 

I wylle not be long trust as I the telle 
360 Now preuely wylle I persew my pace 

My bargayn thys nyght for to fulfylle 
Ser Isoder shalle nott know of thys case 

for he hath oftyn sacred as yt ys skyllc 
the chyrche key ys at my wylle 
365 ther ys no thynge y* me shalle tary 
I wylle nott Abyde by dale nor hylle 

tylle yt be wrowght by saynt mary 

[here shal fie enter y e chyrche fy take y hoostj 
Ah now haue I alle myn entent 

vnto Jonathas now wylle I fare 
370 to fullefylle my bargayn haue I ment 
for y* mony wylle amend my fare 

as thynketh me 

but now wylle I passe by thes pathes playne 
to mete w l jonathas I wold fayne 
375 Ah yonder he Cormftyth in certayne 

me thynkyth I hym see 
welcom jonathas gentylle & trew 

ffor welle & tr[e]wly y" kepyst thyn howre 
here ys y e host sacred newe 
380 now wylle I home to halle & bowre 

[P. 14.] 

And I shall kepe thys trusty treasure 

As I wold doo my gold and fee 
now in thys clothe I shalle the couer 

That no wyght shalle the see 

[here shall arystory goo hys waye $ Jonathas $- hys ser- 
uauntis shall goo to y e tabyll y" s sayng] 


385 Now Jason & Jasdon ye be Jewys Jentylle 

Masfat & Malchus that myghty arn in mynd 


thys merchant from the crysten temple 

hathe gett vs thys bred that [wold] make v.s thus blynd 
now Jason as Jentylle as euer was the lynde 
^i)0 Info tin 1 , forsayd pffrlowr preuely take thy j.. 
sprede a clothe on the tahyll y l ye .shalle y orc fynd 

& we shalle folow after to Carpe of thys case 

[Now if Jewys goon fy lay the ost on if tabyll sayngj 


Sym I praye yow alle harkyn to my sawe 

thes crysten men Carpyn of a marvelous case 
395 they say y l y ls ys Ihesu y* was attnynted in ow r lawe 

& y l thys ys he y* crwcyfyed was 
on thes wordys there law growndyd hath he 

that he sayd on sherethursday at hys soper 
he brake the brede & sayd Acc-ipite 
400 and gave hys dyscyplys them for to cli 
and more he sayd to them there 

whyle they were alle together & sum 
syttyng at the table soo clere 

Comedite Corpus meum 

[P. 15.] 

405 and thys powre he gaue pet<r to proclaim- 

and how the same shuld be suffycyent to alle prechors 
The bysshoppys & curates saye tlie same 

and soo as I vnderstond do a lie hys progeny tors 


Yea sum men in y l law reherse a nother 
410 they say of a maydyn borne was hee 

& how Joachyms dowghter shuld be hys mother 

& how gabrelle apperyd & sayd Am 
& w 1 y l worde .sin- shuld i-omvyuyd In- 

& y l in hyr shuld lyglit the holy g 
415 ageyns ow 1 law thys ys false li. 

& vett thev >;iye he y> ..I' mv;;liP> I 



they saye y* Ihesu to be ow r kyngr 

but I wene he bowght y 1 fulle dere 
but they make a royalle aray of hys vprysywg 
420 & that in euery place ys prechyd farre & nere 
& how he to hys dyscyples agayn dyd appere 

to thomas and to Mary mawdelen 
& syth how he styed by hys own powre 

and thys ye know well ys heresy fulle playn 


425 yea & also they say he sent them wytt & wysdom 

if or to vnderstond euery langwage 
when y e holy gost to them [dyd] come 1 

they faryd as dronk men of pymente or vmiage 
& sythen how y 1 he lykenyd hym self a lord of parage 
430 on hys fatherys ryght hond he hym sett 
they hold hym wyser y an euer was syble sage 

& strenger than alexander y i alle y e wor[l]de ded gett 

[P. 16.] 

Yea yet they say as fals I dare laye my hedde 

how they that be ded shall com agayn to Judgement 
435 & ow r dredfulle Judge shalbe thys same brede 

and how lyfe euerlastyng them shuld be lent 
& thus they hold all at on Consent 

be cause that phylyppe sayd for a lytylle glosse 
to turne vs from owr beleve ys ther entent 
440 ffor that he sayd Judecare viuos & mortuos 


Now serf's ye haue rehersyd the substance of y r 2 lawe 

but thys bred I wold myght be put in a prefe 
whether y ls be he that in Bosra of vs had awe 

ther staynyd were hys clothys y 18 may we belefe 
445 thys may we know there had he grefe 

for ow r old bookys veryfy thus 
MS. came. 3 MS. or 


Thereon he was Jugett to be hangyd as a thefe 

Tinctio linsra vrslilms 


Yff y* thys be he that on caluery was mad red 
150 onto my mynd I shalle kenne yow a Conceyt good 
surely w l ow r daggars we shalle seson thys bredde 

& so w* clowt/s we shall know yf l he haue eny blood 


Now by Machomyth so myghty y* meuyth in my mode 

thys ys masterly menf thys matter thus to meue 
455 & \v l ow r strokys we shalle fray hym as he was on y e rode 
that he was on don w* grett repreue 

[P. 17.] 


yea I pray yow smyte ye in the myddys of y e cake 

& so shalle we smyte y er on woundys fyve 
we wylle not spare to wyrke yt wrake 
460 to prove in thys brede yf y r be eny lyfe 


yea goo we to than & take ow r2 space 

& looke owr daggam be sharpe & kene 
& when eche man a stroke smytte hase 

In y mydylle part there of ow r Master shalle bene 


465 When ye haue alle smytyn my stroke shalbe sene 

w l y ls same dagger that ys so styf & strong 

In y myddys of thys prynt I thynke for to prene 

on lashe I shalle hyme lende or yt be long 

[here slialle y e iiij Jewys pryk y er daggeris in iiij qua[r]ters 
y lts sayngj 

1 MS. ys. 3 MS. yowr. 



Haiie at yt haue at yt, w* alle my myght 
470 thys syde I hope for to sese 


& I shall w 1 thys blade so bryght 
thys other syde freshely a feze 


& I yow plyght I shalle hym not please 
for w 1 thys punche I shalle hym pryke 


475 & w 1 thys angus I shalle hym not ease 
a nother buffett shalle he lykke 


Now am I bold w* batayle hym to bleyke 

y s mydle part alle for to prene 
A stowte stroke also for to stryke 
480 In y c myddys yt shalbe sene 

[here y e ost must bledej 
Ah owt owt harrow what deuylle ys thys 

Of thys wyrk I am in were 
yt bledyth as yt were woode I wys 
but yf ye helpe I shall dyspayre 

[P. 18.] 


485 A fyre a fyre & that in hast 

anoon a Cawdron fulle of oyle 


And I shalle helpe yt wer in cast 
all y c iij howris fo[r] to boyle 

yea here is a furneys stowte & strong 


490 and a Cawdron therin dothe hong 
Malcus wher art thow so long 
To helpe thys dede were dyght 


loo here ys iiij galons off oyle clere 
haue doon fast blowe up y c fere 
495 syr bryng that ylke cake nere 
manly w* all yowre mygtlic 


and I shall bryng y 1 ylke cak[e] 
and throw yt in I undertake 
out out yt werketh me wrake 
600 I may not awoyd yt owt of my hond 
I wylle goo drenche me in a lake 
and in woodnesse I gynne to wake 
I rene I lepe ouer y ls lond 

[her he renneth wood w i y e ost in hys hond] 


Renne felawes renne 1 for cokkz's peyn 
fast we had ow r mayster agene 
505 hold prestly [?] on thys feleyn [?] 
& faste bynd hyme to a poste 


here is an hamer & naylys iij I s[e]ye 
lyffte vp hys armys felawe on hey 
whylle I dryue y es nayles I yow prayo 
w* strong strokes fast 


510 Now set on felouse w* mayne & myght 
and pluke hys armes awey in fyght 
wat yse [leg. yfe?] he twycche felovse a ryght 

alas balys breweth ryght baddo 
1 MS. reme. 


[P. 19.] 

[here shalle thay pluke if arme tj 1 if hand shallv fang } stylh 
w l y e sacrament] 


alas alas what deuyll ys thys 
515 now hat[h] he but oon hand I wyse 
ffor sothe mayster ryght woo me is 
y* y e y is harme hawe hadde 


Ther ys no more I must enduer 

now hastely to ow r chamber lete us go 
520 Tylle I may get me sum recuer 

and ther for charge yow euery choon 
That yt be conselle that we haue doon 

[here shalle y e lecliys man come 'into y c place sayng] 


Aha here ys a fayer felawshyppe 
Thewhe I be nat sh[ ]pyn I lyst to sleppe 
525 I haue a master I wolld he had y c pyppe 

I tell yow in consel 
he ys a maw off alle syence 
but off thryfte I may w 1 yow dyspewce 
he syttyth 2 w* sum tapstere in y c spence 
530 hys hoode there wyll he selle 
Mayster brendyche of braban 
I telle yow he ys y* same maw 
Called y e most famous phesy[cy]an 

y 1 euer sawe vryne 

535 he seeth as wele at no one as at nyght 
and suwtyme by a candelleyt 
Can gyff a Judgyment 3 aryglit 

as he y* hathe nood eyn 
he ys all so a boone setter 
540 I knowe no man go y e better 

1 MS. sang. 2 MS. sytthyt. 3 MS. Judyyment. 


In euery tauerne he ys detu T 

yt ys a good tokenyng 
but euer I wonder he ys so loni; 
I fere ther gooth sum thyng a wrong 
545 for he hath dysayde to be hong 
God send neuer warse tydyng 

[P. 20.] 

he had a lady late in cure 
I wot be y ls she ys full sun- 
There shalle neuer crysten creature 
550 here hyr tell no tale 

and I stode here tylle mydnyght 
I cowde not declare a ryght 
my masteris cunyng in syght 

y 1 he hat[h] in good ale 

555 By what deuyll dyleth hym so long to tare 
a seekman myght soone myscary 
now alle y e deuyllys of hell hyni wari 

God g[ra]nte me my boon 
I trowe best we mak a crye 
560 yf any man can hym l aspye 
led hym to y e pyller[ye] 
In fayth yt shall be don 

[here sJialle he stond vp $ make proclamation seyny 


yif therbe eyther ma?* or wormu? 

That sawe master brundyche of braban 
565 Or owyht of hym tel can 

shall wele be quit hys mede 1 ' 

he hath a cut berd & a flatte n 

a thcrde bare gowne ct a ivni li<> 

he spekytpi] neuer good matere nor 
570 to y e pyllere ye hym led[e] 

What thu boye what Jangk-st heiv 
1 MS. I. * MS. men. 



A master master but to your reuerence 
I wend neuer to a seen yowr goodly chere 
ye tared hens so long 

575 What hast thow sayd in my absense 


Nothyng master but to yowr reuerence 
I haue told all y is audiense 
and some lyes among 

but master I pray yow how dothe yowr pa[c]yent 
580 that ye had last vnder yowr medycamente 

I warant she neuer fele annoyment ! 

why ys she in hyr graue 

[P. 21.] 


I haue gyveri hyr a drynke made full well 
wyth scamoly and w 1 oxymell 2 
585 letwyce sawge and pympernelle 


nay than she ys fulle saue 
ffor now ye ar cum I dare welle saye 
betwyn Douyr & Calyce y c ryght wey 
dwellth non so cuwnyng be my fey 
590 in my Judgyment 


Cunwyng yea yea & w* prattise 
I haue sauid many a manys lyfe 
1 MS. a noynment. 2 MS. oxennell. 



On wydowes maydese and wy[v]se 
Yowr connyng yow haue nyhe spent 

595 were ys b[r]owg[h]tt y 1 1 drynke profytable 


Here master master ware how ye tugg 
The devylle I trowe w 1 in shrugge 
for yt gooth rebylle rable 


here ys a grete congregacyon 
600 and alle benot hole w*out negacyon 

I wold haue certyfycacyon 

stond vp & make a proclamation 

haue dofaste [?] & mak no pausa[c]yon 

but wyghtly mak a declaracion 
605 To alle people y* helpe w[o]lde haue 

(Sic interim [?] proclamacionem faciet) 


all manar off mew y* haue any syknes 

To master brentberecly loke y* yow re dresse 

[P. 22.] 

what dysease or syknesse y e euer ye haue 

he wyll neuer leue yow tylle ye be in yow[r] graue 

610 who hat[h] y e canker y e collyke or y c laxe 
The tercyan y e quartane or y e brynny[n]g axs 
fforwormysforgnawy7zggryndy[n]giny e wombeorinylxl(lMi' 
alle maner red eyne bleryd eyn & y e myegrym also 
for hedache bonacho iV: therto y tothache 

615 The Coltugll & y e brostyn men he wyll under tak 
all tho y* [haue] y e poose y* sneke or y e tyseke 
Thowghamanw[e]re ryghtheylehe cowd soonemakehymsokc 
1 MS. wt. 


Inquyre to y c Colkote for ther ys hys loggyng 

a lytylle besyde babwellernylleyf yc wyll haue und[er]stondyng 


620 now yff therbe ether man or woman 
That nedethe helpe of a phesyscian ' 


Mary master y* I tell can 
& ye wyll vnderstond 

Knoest any abut y is plase 


625 ye[a] y* I do master so haue [yow] grase 
here ys a Jewe hyght Jonathas 
hath lost hys ryght hond 

ffast to hym I wold inquere 

ffor god master y e gate ys here 2 

630 Than to hym I wylle go nere 

my master wele mot yow be 

what doost here felawe what woldest thu hanne 


Syr yf yow nede ony surgeon or physycyan 
Off yow[r] dyse help yow welle I cane 
635 what hurt's or hermes 3 so euer they be 

[P. 23.] 

Syr thu art ontawght to come in thus [onjhenly 
1 MS. phesyscion. 3 MS. hyre. 3 MS. herniet, 


or to pere in my presence thus malepfrtly 
voydeth 1 from my syght & y l wyghtly 
ffor ye be mysse a vysed 


640 Syr y hurt of yowr hund ys knowrn 1'ullc r\ 
and my master haue sauyd many a nianrs lyl'<- 


I trowe ye be cum to make sum stryfe 
liens fast lest y 1 ye be chastysed 


Syr ye know welle yt can nott mysse 
Gl") Men that be Masters of scyens be proiytable 

In a pott yf yt please yow to pysse 
He can telle yf yow be curable 


Avoyde fealows I loue not yow r bable 
brushe them hens bothe & that anon 
650 Gyff them ther reward y* they were gone 

[here .s/m//e if iiij Jewys betf a way if leche $ hys man] 


Now liaue don felawys & that anon 

for dowte of drede what after befalle 
I am nere masyd my wytte ys gon 

Therfor of helpe I pray yow alltf 
',").") And take yowr pynsonys y l ar so sure 

& pluck owt the naylys won cNc won 
Also in a rlothr ye yt cure 

& throw yt in y Cawdnm i\c y l anon 

[here ,s7/ </// ,/axnn /'//r/- /// t/ic //,//////- iV a/n// 
hi to //" 

MS. voydotb. 


[P. 24.] 


And I shalle rape me redely anon 
G60 To plucke owt the naylys that stond so fast 

& bear thys bred & also thys bone 

& in to the Cawdron I wylle yt Cast 


and I shalle w* thys dagger so stowte 

putt yt down that yt myght plawe 
665 & steare the clothe rounde abowte 

that no thyng ther of shalbe rawe 


and I shalle manly w l alle my myght 

Make the fyre to blase & brenne 
& sett ther vnder suche a lyght 
670 that yt shalle Make yt ryght thynne 

[here shalte y e Cawdron b[o]yle apperyng to be as bloodj 


Owt & harow what deuylle ys here in 

Alle thys oyle waxyth redde as blood 
& owt of the Cawdron yt begynwyth to rinn l 
I am so aferd I am nere woode 

[here shalle Jason fy hys compeny goo to er Jonathas 


675 Ah Master Master what there ys w 1 yow 

I Can not see owr werke wyll avayle 
I beseche yow avance yow now 

sum whatt w* yowr Counsayle 


The best Counsayle that I now wott 
680 ys [leg. and] that I Can deme farre & uere 

1 MS. run, or perhaps ran. 


[ys] to make an ovyn as redd hott 

as euer yt Can be made w* fere 
and when ye see yt soo hott nppere 

then throw yt in to tin; ovyn l';i>i 
G85 sone shalle lie stanche hys bledyng chnv 

when ye haue done stoppe yt be not a: 

[P. 25.] 

Be my fayth yt shalbe wrowgh[t] 

& that anon in gret hast 
bryng on fyryng sem fere } ye nowght 
C 1 JO To hete thys ovyn be nott agast 


Here ys straw & thornys kene 

Couer on malchas & bryng on fyre 
tt'or that shall hete yt welle I wene 

[h ere y ei kyndylle if fijre] 

blow on fast that done yt were 


Gi)5 Ah how thys fyre gynnyth to brenne clere 

thys ovyn ryght hotte I thynk to make 
now Jason to the Cawdron [see] y* ye stere 
and fast fetche hether that ylke cake 

[here shalle Jason goo to the Cawdron $ take owt the 
ost w* hys pynsonys fy cast yt in to the oryn ] 


I shalle w l thes pynsonys w l owt dowt 
700 shake thys cake owt of thys clot lit- 

& to the ovyn I shall yt rowte 

and stoppe hym there thow lie be loth 
The cake I haue cawght here in good sotlu- 

the hand ys suden tin- tlrshe from y* I" 
705 now in to tin: ouyn I wyll ther w* 

>topi>r \ I Ja>doii for the m>u\ - 
1 MS. here. 


I stoppe thys ovyn wythowtyn do\vte 

w i Clay I dome yt vppe ryght fast 
that non heat shall Cum [ther] owte 
710 I trow there shalle he hete & drye in hast 

[here the owyn must ryve asunder $ blede owt at y" 
cranys 4" an Image appere owt w' woundis bledyng] 

[P. 26.] 

Owt owt here is a grete wonder 

thys ovyn b[l]edyth owt on euery syde 


Yea y e ovyn on peacys gynnyth to ryve asundre 
Thys ys a nwvelows case thys tyde 

[here shalle y e Image speke to the Juys sayng thus] 


715 O mirabiles Judei attendite et videte 
Si est dolor similis dolor meus 
Oh ye merveylows Jewys 

Why ar ye to yow r kyng onkynd 
And so bytterly bowt yow to my blysse 
720 Why fare ye thus fule w fc yowr frende 

Why peyrie yow me & straytly me pynde 

And I yow r loue so derely haue bowght 
Why are ye so vnstedfast in yo r mynde 

Why wrath ye me I greve yow nowght 
725 Why wylle ye nott beleue that I haue tawght 

And forsake yo r fowle neclygence 
And kepe my Commandemewtz's in yow r thowght 

And vnto my godhed to take credence 
Why blaspheme yow me, why do ye thus 
730 Why put yow me to a newe tormentry 

And I dyed for yow on the Crosse 

Why Consyder not yow what I dyd crye 


Whylc that 1 was w l vow ye drd mr velanye 

Why remember yc nod my hitter dimmer 
735 How vow 1 ' kyime dyd me awance 

ll'or eliiymyng of myn enhrrytauner 
I shew vow thr htrryliirhM- of my greuaiice 
And u\\e to ineiui yow to mv mrrcy. 

[P. 27.] 

Tu es protedor vite nice a quo trrjddabo 
740 thu lord whydu; art my defendowr 

ft'or dred of thr 1 trymblr & quake 
Of thy grrt iwn-y h-tt vs rrcrue y e showre 

& mekely I aske ai<?n-y amr//dys to make 

[here shall they knele down all* on fht-r kneys 


Ah lord w 1 sorow & care & grete wepyng 
745 Alle we felawys U-tt vs save thus 

W* Condolent harte & grete sorowyiig 

lacrimis nostris consciendam unstrain baptizeinus 


Oh thow blyssyd lord of mykylle? niyglit 

Of thy gret m^rcy thow hast shewyd vs y path 
750 lord owt of grevous slepe & owl of dyrknes to lyght 
ne grauis sompnus irruat 


()}} lord I was very cursyd for I wold know y l crede 

I can no men[d]ys make but cryr to thr thus 
() gracyous lorde for^ytr m- my mysdede 
755 w l lamentable hart misrrrrr mri deus 


Lord 1 haur oiVrndyd thr in many a sundry 
that styrkyth at m\ hart as hard ;. 



lord by y water of contrycon lett me aryse 
asparges me domine ysopo el mundabor 


760 All ye that desyryn my seruauntts for to be 

And to fullfylle y e preceptzs of my lawys 
The Intent of my Cowmandemerct knowe ye 
Ite et ostendite vos sacerdotibus meis 
to all yow y* desyre in eny wyse 
765 to aske mercy, to grauwt yt redy I am 

Remember & lett yow r wytt?s suffyce 

Et tune non auertam a vobis faciem meam 

fP. 28.] 
. . Jonathas on thyn hand thow art but lame 

And [thys] ys thorow thyn own cruelnesse 
770 ffor thyn hart y u mayest y 1 selfe blame 

thow woldyst preve thy powr me to oppresse 
but now I consydre thy necesse 

thow wasshest thyn hart w i gret contrycon 
Go to the Cawdron y 1 care shalbe the lesse 
775 And towche thyn hand to thy saluacon 

[here shall ser Jonathas put hys hand in to y e Cawdron 
And yt shalbe hole agayn $ then say as fo[lo]wyth] 


Oh thow my lord god & sauyow r osanna 
thow kyng of Jewys & of Jerusalem 

thow myghty strong lyon of Jwda 

blyssyd be the tyme y* y u were in bedlem 
780 Oh y u myghty strong gloryows & gracyows oyle streme 
thow myghty conquerrowr of Infernalle tene 

1 am quyt of moche combrance thorowgh thy meane 

that euer blyssyd mott y u bene 
Alas y* euer I dyd agaynst thy wylle 
785 In my wytt to be soo wood 

that I so [leg. with] ongoodly wyrk shuld soo gryll 

A^ens my mysgoumiaunce , thow gladdyst me w* good 


I was soo prowde to prove the on y Rood*- 

& y" haste sent me ly^htyn^ y l laic was lame 
7!H) To bete tlie & boyle the I tpgj myghty in monde 

ct now y" hast put me from durose cNc dy>l'ame 
lut lord 1 take my le\v at thy hygh presens 

i\c put me in thy myghly mercy 
the bysshoppe wyll 1 .^oo I'clchc to sc ow 1 ' otl'-ii> 
795 & onto hym shew o\v r lyl'e how y' we In- j\ll\ 

[P. 29.] 

[here shall y'' /natter Jar ;/<> to //'' lii/x/mpp $ hys men 
l-nele styll] 


Hayle father of grace I knele vpon my knee 

hertely besechyng yow & Interely 
a swemfullc syght n\\e for to see 

In my howse apperyng verely 
SOU the holy sacrament [to] y e whyche \ve haue done torme/ar\ 

& thei- we haue putt hym to a n-\ve pass\ on 
A chyld apperyng w 1 wondys blody 

a swemfulle syght, yt ys to looke vpon 


Oh Jhesu lord full? of goodnesse 
bOo w 1 the wylle I walke w l all? my myght 

Now alle my pepull? w l nif ye dresse 

flfor to goe see that swyml'ulh- sy^ht 
Nbw a\\e ye peple that here are 

1 Commande yow euery man 
810 on yow r feet for to goo bare 

In the devoutest uvse that ye -an 

[here shalfa if btj*xhoj>e enter info if Jewyi hot 

Jhesu iili Dei 

how thys paynfulb' pas.^von rancheth my// hart 
Lord I crye to the. Mi>nviv m-i 
815 ffrom thys i-ufull- 



lord we alle w* sorowys smert 

ffor thys vnlefulle work we lyue in langow r 
now good lord in thy grace let vs be gertt J 

& of thy souereyn marcy send vs thy socow' 
820 & for thy holy grace forgyfe vs ow r errowr 

now lett thy pete spryng & sprede 
thowgh we haue be vnrygh[t]fulle forgyf vs o r rygore 
& of ow r lamentable hartz's good lord take hed[e] 

[P. 30.] 

[here shalle y e Im[a~\ge change ayayn on to brede] 
Oh thu largyfluent lord most of lyghtnesse 
825 on to owr prayers thow hast applyed 

thu hast receyued them w 1 grett swettnesse 

ffor alle ow r dredfulle dedys y u hast not vs denyed 
ffulle mykylle owte thy name for to be magnyfyed 

w* mawsuete myrth and gret swettnes 
830 & as o r gracyows god for to be gloryfyed 

ffor thu shewyst vs gret gladnes 
now wylle I take thys holy sacrament 

W humble hart & gret devocon 
And alle we wylle gon w 4 on Consent 

835 And bear yt to chyrche w i sole[m]pne processyon 

now folow me alk & sume 

and alle tho that bene here both more & lesse 
Thys holy song O sacrum 2 Doniinum. 

Lett vs syng all w fc grett swetnesse 

[here shalle if pryst ser Isoder aske hys 3/aster u'lat 
y' s menyth] 

840 Ser arystory I pray yow what menyth alle thys 

sum myracle I hope ys wrowght be godd/s-myght 
the bysshope Cowmyth [in] processyon w 1 a gret meny ofIewys 

I hope sum myracle ys shewyd to hys syght 
to chyrche in hast wylle I runwe full ryght 

845 ffor thether me thynk he begynnyth to take hys pace 

the sacranient so semly is borne in syght 

I hope that god hath shewyd of hys grace 
1 MS. grett. 2 MS. scacruiu. 



To tell yow tin- trowth I wylle not) l<-li 
Alas y l uuer thys dedc \vas dyght 

[P. 31.] 
850 An nnlcfulle bargayn be^ari for to brat 

I sold yon same Jewvs ow r lord fulle ry^lit 
for Couytyse of good as a cursyd wyght 

woo the \vhyle that bargayn I dycl euer make 
but yow be my defensour in owr dyoccsaiis svght 
855 ffor an heretyke I feare he wylle me take 


ffor sothe nothyng wellavysed was yo r wytt 

wondrely was yt wrowght of a man of dyscrescon 
In suche perayle yo r solle for to putt 

but I wylle labor for yo r absolucyon 
860 Lett vs hye vs fast that we were hens 

And beseche hym of hys benygne grace 
that he wylle shew vs hys benyvolens 

To make a menyn for yow r trespas 

[here shall if mvvcliant $ hys prest go to if chyrche $ 
if bysshop shalle enter if chyrche $ lay if os[t] it[p]on 
if miter sayng thus] 

Estote fortes in bcllo et pugnate cum ' antico serpente 
865 Et accipite regnum eternum et cetera 

My chyldern be ye 2 strong in bataylle gostly 

for to fyght agayn the fell serpent 
that nyght and day ys euer besy 

to dystroy owr sollys ys hys Intent 
870 look ye be not slow nor neclygent 

% to arme yow in the viTtm-s souyn 
of synnys forgottyn" takr i^ood avyscnn-nt 

and knowlege them to yowr Confessor full*' oiiyn 
ft'or thai xvpeiit the deny lie ys fulle strong 
875 mrnu'lmy.s in for man to i: 

but that the passyon of ri -y-t ya iiu-ynt vs among 

and that ys in dyspyte of hys Inteniallc tene 
1 MS. co. a MS. ye be. MS. fog..tyn. 


[P. 32.] 
Beseche ow r lord & sauyow r so kene 

to put doun that serpent cuwberer of man 
880 to w*draw hys furyous fro ward doctryn by dene 

ffulfyllyd of y e fend callyd leuyathan 
GyiF lawrelle to that lord of myght 

that he may bryng vs to the Joyous fruycon 
ffrom J vs to put the fend to flyght 
885 that neuer he dystroy vs by hys temptacon 


My ffather vnder god I knele vnto yow r kne 

In yowr myhty mysericord to tak vs in remembrance 
As ye be materyall to owr degre 

we put vs in yow r moderat ordynance 
890 yff yt lyke yow r hyghnes to here ow r greuaunce 

we haue offenddyd sorowfully in a syn mortalle 
wherfor we fere vs owr lord wylle take vengaunce 

ffor owr synnes both grete and smalle 


And in fatherhed that longyth to my dygnyte 
895 Vn to yow r grefe I wylle gyf credens 

say what ye wylle in y e name of the trynyte 

agayn[s]t god yf ye haue wroght eny Incorwenyence 


holy ffather I knele to yow vnder benedycite 
I haue offendyd in the syn of Couytys 
900 I sold o r lordys body for lucre of mony 

& delyueryd to the wyckyd w 1 cursyd advyce 
And for that presumpcon gretly I agryse 
that I presumed to go to the auter 
there to handylle y e holy sacryfyce 
905 I were worthy to be putt in brenyrcg fyre 

[P. 33.] 
But gracyous lord I can [?] no more 

but put me to goddys mercy & to yow r grace 
1 MS. fform. 


my cursyd werkys for to restore 

I aske penaunce now in thy.s place 


910 Now for thys offence that y" hast domic 

Ajens the kyng of hevyn & Emperow r of ln-lk 
Euer whylle y 11 lyuest good dc-dys lor to done 

and neuer more for to bye nor selle 
Chastys thy body as I shall the telle 
915 w l fastyng & prayng & other good wyrk 

to w*8tond the teiiitacyon of fend/6' of hell 

& to Calle to god for grace looke y" neiw be lrk> 
Also y u preste for thy neclygens 

that thou were no wyser on thyn ofikv 
920 thou art worthy inpresu[n]inent for tliyii offence 

but beware euer herafter & be inor w^ 
And allf vow creaturys & curatys that Ju-re be 

Off thys dede yow may take example 
how that yo r pyxys lockyd ye shuld see 
925 and be ware of the key of goddys temple 


And I aske crystendom w* great devocoii 

w* repentant hart in all degrees 
I aske for vs all a generally absolucon 

[here y'' Juys must knele al down] 
ffor that we knele all vpon ow r knees 
930 ffor we haue greuyd ow r lord on groviul 

& put hyrn to a new paynfulle passion 
w l daggars styckyd hym w 4 greuos wo[u]mh> 

newnaylydhyintoapost&w t pynsonyspluekydhy//Ml>\vn 

[P. 34.] 

And syth we toke that blyssyd bred so ->wnd 
W'> And in a cawdron we dyd livin boyK- 

In a clothe fulle just we hym wotunle 
And so dyd we seth hym in oyle 


& for that we myght ' onercom hyin w l tormentry 

In an hott ovyn \ve speryd hym fast 
940 ther he apperyd with wench's all bloody 

the ovyn rave asunder & all to brast 


In hys law to make vs stedfast 

there spake he to vs woordw of grete favor 
In contrycyon owr hart?s he cast 
945 And bad take vs to a confessor 


And therfor all we w 1 on consent 

knele onto yow r hygh souereynte 
ifor to be crystenyd ys ow r Intent 

now all ow r dedys to yow shewyd haue we 

[here shall y e bysshoppe crysten if Jewys w t gret so- 


950 Now the holy gost at thys tyme mot yow blysse 

As ye knele alle now in hys name 
& w* the water of baptyme I shalle yow blysse 

to saue yow alle from the fendz's blame 
Now that fendys powre for to make lame 
955 In y e name of y e father y e son & y e holy gost 

to saue yow from the deuyllys flame 

I crysten yow all<? both lest & most 


Now owr father & byshoppe y* we welle know 

we thank yow Interly both lest & most 
960 now ar we bownd to kepe crystis lawe 

& to serue y e father y e son & y e holy gost 

[P. 35.] 

Now wylle we walke by Contre & cost 
owr wyckyd lyuyng for to restore 
1 MS. myght not. 


And trust In god of myght/s most 
965 neuer 1 to offend as we have don het'ore 3 

now we lake <>w r Iea[v]e at lesse & nmre 

forward on ow r vyage \vc \\\\\,- \s dr. 
God send yow all as good welfare 

as hart can thynke or towng expressc 


970 In to my centre now wylle I fare. 

For to amende myn wyckyd lyfe 
& to kep[e] y c people o\vt of care 

I \vyll t cache tliys lesson to man & wyfe 
now take I my leave in thys place. 
975 I wylle go walke my penaiwce, to full IV II' 1 

now god ajcns whom I haue done thys tivspas 
graunt me forgyfnesse [yf] yt be thy \vylle 


ffor joy of thys me thynke my hart do wepe 

that yow haue gyujm yow alle cryst/6- seruaunt/s to be 
980 hym for to seme w 4 hart fulle meke 

God fulle of pacyens & humylvie 
and the conuersacon of alle thes fayre men 

w 1 hart/s stedfastly knett in on 
godd/s lawys to kepe & hym to serue by dene 
985 as faythfulli crystyanys euermore for to gon;te 


God omnypotent euermore looke ye serue 

w 1 deuocon & prayre whylle y e ye may 
dowt yt not he wylle yow pre* 

ffor eche good prayer y* ye sey to hys i 
990 & therfor in euery dew tynie loke ye nat del;n 
ffor to s^rue the holy tryiix te 

(!'. 36.] 

and also Mary that swete May 

and kepe yow in perfyte loue & chary te 
1 MS. neuerer. a MS. befer. 


Crystis commandementis .x. there bee 
995 kepe welle them doo as I yow telle 

Almyght god shalle yow please in euery degre 

& so shalle ye saue yow r sollys from helle 
ifor ther ys payn & sorow cruelle 

& in heuyn ther ys both Joy & blysse 
1000 More then eny towng can tell 

there angellys syng w* grett swetnesse 
To the whyche blysse he bryng vs 
whoys name ys callyd Jhesus 
And in wyrshyppe of thys name gloryows 
1005 To syng to hys honor Te Deum laudamus 


Thus endyth the play of the blyssyd sacrament whyche myracle 
was don in the forest of Aragon In the famous Cite Eraclea 
the yere of ow r lord God .M 1 cccc. Ixi. to whom be honow r amen 

[P. 37.] 

The namys & nwmber of the players 

Aristorius christianus Mercator 

Jonathas Judeus i mns 
Jason Judeus ij us 
Jasdon Judeus iij us 
Masphat Judeus iiij u * 
Malchus Judeus v tl13 
Magister phisicus 
Colle seruus 
IX may play yt at ease 

R. C. 




a, 573, 'have': I wend never to a 

seen yowr goodly chere. 
u-lmtis, 167 (MS. machalis} 'agates'. 

"Found it (the agate) was first 

in Sicilie near unto a river called 

likewise Achates'. Holland cited 
aferd, 674, 'afraid', [by Richardson, 
afeze, 472, Shakspere's pheeze 

'chastise', 'beat'. (Til pfice:.e 

you, i' faith, Taming of the Shrew', 

Indue. 'An he be proud with 

me, I'll pheeze his pride', Troilus 

and Cressida, ii, 3.) 
agast, 227, 686, 690, now wrongly 

written aghast: a participle pass. 

A. S. gcesan 'percellere'. 
ageq,155, 156, agayn,867, 'against': 

A.S. agen: ageyns, 415: ajens, 

787, 911. 
agryse, 902, 'to be terrified', A.S. 

iigrysan (agrlsan ?), cr^ri,?en,Wick- 

liffe Ecclus. xxxviii, 4. 
allmyght, 292, 996, 'almighty'. 
Almayn, 97, 'Germany', 
almund, 179, Yr.amande, Sp. afmrn- 

dra, ixttvydaKi}. 
Alysander, 101, 'Alexandria', 
ainatyst, 161, 'amethyst'. 
auienyn,863, 'amends', apparently a 

mistake for amenity n, amende,293. 
and, 551, 'if. 

angus, 475, 'anguish', angustia. 
annoyment (MS. a noynment), 581: 

ennui = in odio, Diez. 
anon, 17, anoon, 286, 'soon', A.S. 

on an 'continue', 
apeche, 302, 'impeach', 'accuse'. 

apply 825, 'bend to'. 

apryce, 185, 'value', 'estimation'. 

at, prep.: 'we take our leave at 
lesse and more', 966. 

attonys, 163, 'at once'. 

nttruGance, 128: perhaps for utter- 
ance, Fr. out ranee. 

auter, 903, 'altar', Wicklitfe (Jen. 
viii, 20. Fr. autel. 

awance, 765, 'advance', Fr. avancer 

awoyd, 500, avoyd, 648. 

a-wrong, 544. 

axs, 611, 'ague'. 

bale, 513, 'injury', A.S. beatu; cf. 
Goth, balvjan, paanviZiir, and 
Gr. (f uvlos from 7 A Fo (Kuhn) ; 
perhaps, too, O.Ir. Loire .i. bds 
'death' (Cormac's Glossary). 

banke, a merchant of the, 
A.S. benc, Ohg. bane. 

baryll, 162, 'beryl', fanvMog. Mir- 
rors were sometimes made of 
beryls, but, as Gnscoign. 

"the days are past and gone 
That berral glass, with f>;. 

lovely brown . 
Might serve to she\- 

favoured : 

be, prep., 'by', 841. 

Bedlem, 779, 'Bethlehem'. 

berd, 567, A.S. leard, O.N. barfr, 

(>h^. bart = Lat. iarlxt (from 

barfa, bardha, as Goth raunl 

I 1 = L-Ai.rerbum from tcrfutn. 

terdhum. Lottner). 



beth 'be ye', 67, A.S. beoti. 

bey, 225, 252, = A.S. bycgan, bay, 

ble, baryllis that be bright of, 162, 

'hue', A.S. bleo 'color', Ettmiiller 

bleyke, 477, 'to bleach', A. S. blcecan : 

our bleach is from A.S. blcecean, 

O.N. bleihja. 
bokiyro, 612, the penis? 
boun, 269, 'ready', 
bowre, 380, 'chamber', A.S. bur. 
bowt to, 719, 'butt against', from 

Fr. bouter, which (like* It. di- 

boltare, Sp. botar') is from Mhg. 


bred, 964, brede, 41, 'bread', 
brew, 513, 'balys brewyth right bad', 
brostyn man, 615, tierniosus Pr. P., 

'ruptured mail': cf. A.S. berstan. 
brushe, 649. 

brynnyng axs, 611, 'burning ague', 
buskyd, 328, 'arrayed'. 
but yf, 484, 'unless', 
bydene, 880, 984, 'presently', 
byggly, 218, 'strongly'. 

Calabre, 99, 'Calabria', 
calcedony, 171, from Chalcedon. 
can, 258, 'do', 
canker, 610, 'cancer 1 , 
cannyngalle, 175, 'galingale', 'the 

aromatic root of the rush cyperus', 

Wright. Fr. galangue. 
carpe, 392, carpyn, 394, 'they talk', 
caste, cast, 224, 350. 
Cattlyngis, 106, 'Catalans'? 
cawdron, 42 , 'caldron' = Fr. chau- 

dron, an augmentative of chau- 

diere = Med. Lat. caldaria. 
cherche, 230, 'church', A. S. cyrice, 

said to be from xvoiuxii]. 
chere, 573,685, 'face', 'countenance', 

O.Fr. chiere, Sp. cara, perhaps 

from x'o. 

cheve, 211, 'thrive', 'succeed', Fr. 
chevir, to come to the end(ca/wf) 
cf anything, chevyn tigeo Pr. P. 

chyffe, 100, 'chief. 

dome, 708, 'to stop a chink with 
clay'. Compare c/oam (A.S.cfrim, 
luturn, plasma), a Devonshire 
word for earthenware, clomer 'a 
maker of earthenware'. Halliwell. 

clowt, 452, 'a blow'. 

clowys, 181, 'cloves', a nail-shaped 
spice, from clavus. 

cokkis peyn, 503, 'God's pain'. 

Coleyn, 99, 'Cologne'. 

coltugll, 615, the name of some dis- 
ease or bodily defect, doubtless 
corrupt in the MS. Can it be 
lameness? cf. ' coltax clodus a 
coxa vel claudicans', Du Cange : 
'coltax lain, manck', Diefenbach, 
Gloss. Lat.-Germ. 

condescent, 123, 'agreement'. 

condolent, 746, 'suffering greatly'. 

centre and cost, 962, 'country and 
coast', a proverbial expression. 

core, 757, 'kernel', 'stone'. 

counsell, 522, counsel, 526, 'secret'. 

covytys, 899, Fr. convoitise, for 
cotoilise a Latin cupiditia. 

cranys, stage-direction after 710, 
'crannies'. Fr. cran, Lat. crena. 

creaturys, 922. The line appears 
corrupt. Might we read 'Now 
alle you curatys wyth creaturys 
that here be' and explain creaturys 
by 'consecrated wafers'? Cf. the 
Ir. gloss "creatura .i. cotsregad", 
and see Du Cange s.v. Crealura: 
"Deinde fiat benedictio palmaruni 
et postea creaturae, Asperges me 
etc. Ordinar. Capellae. reg. MS." 

crepawd, 171, 'toadstone' the 
precious jewel that a toad (Fr. 
crapaud) bears in its head. Fr. 



cruelnesse, 769. 

cure, G57, 'cover', kyuere, kcuere, 


dale and hill, hi dal and l>y liylle, 

19.".; by dale nor hyll . 

proverbial expressions our '!>y 

hill and dale'. 
dar, :51('>, = A.S. dear i'.ir dean; 

drnrs: c\'. (lio 2d pel's. pros, illdic. 

deni'x-t, now durs-t, and the pret. 

durs-le, darn-Ion cf. itaunt-ii 1 , 

9ttnnnr. Kttmiiller, Ixx. Skr. 

datf, ITS, Fr. dalle, Sp. dulil, from 

dacli/liis (Diez). 
dt'fensour, 854. 
dokett, 310, 'ducat'. 
drenehe, 501, 'to drown', A.S. a- 

dn-nfi'-im, immorjvoro. ailrenchc.n, 

Piers Plouhman, 198. 
dresse,967, 'to direct' = Fr. d-rexticr, 

ItnLf/i-rivC-rt/'c = aLat. dirccliara, 

from directus, 'dyamantis dere 

WOUlthy to drexse', IGa. 
duresse, 791, duritift. 
dyght, 492, 849. A.S. dilttan, 

dictare, disponere. 
dyleth, 555? 
dyrknes, 750, 'darkness'. 
dy>ayde, 545? 

dysrrescou, 857, 'discretion'. 
ilyso, GG4, perhaps a blunder for 

dysrxctt. Mr. Halliwell, however, 

gives 'dyse, to break or bruise'. 
dysfaiiie, 71)1. 
dystrie, 280, 'destroy'? Perhaps 

we should read dyscrie = describe, 

Fr. dettcrier, i. e. to betray by 


t-llys, L'll, 'elie'. A.S. flics, Ohg. 
dllrs. ( ien. s^. of a form 


1,11 , 

cntent 'intention', 120, 1 ."..",, -JIM, 


er, 317, 'ere\ 
everychoon. ,'rJl, 'every .UK-' 

exyled, 219. 

r, t, <1. altrr 513, for, 
fi-finiircd for l ahungered' in the 
Legend of St. p,nnd;in. p. y) : 
'Tho this irrap.- e i-d-i, 

hi were (/fun/red sore', and in 
Piers Plonhman, ed. Wright, 
pp. i:J3, 17C,, ^s:{, .jo:;. 

Farre, 102, Tl 

fatherhed, 894. 

fee, 382, "my ,^old and fee", 
feoh, Khg. rich, Goth, fnihus 
Lat. pecus, Skr. ;^/ci*. 

feleyn, 505, 'felon'? 

fend, 881, 884, 963, 054, 'fiend', 
A.S. feond, Goth, fijtmd 
root jriy. 

fere, 494, 682, fire\ 

/tr, Gr. Trfo, 0. Ir. tir. 

fey, 689, Fr. foi, Lat. //(/r.t. 

flow r er, 'fresshe bo my tlo\\ 

fray. v. a. 455. Fr. effrayer. 

frayen (leg. frayne), 242, 'to 
frey nend (leg. frey ned), 2 1 , 
A.S. fregnan, Goth, frailtnnn, 
O.N. fregna: ofranyd 'iniuired' 
Townley Mysteries 32s. / af- 
fi-fiyned, Piers Plonhman 

frende, 720, A.S. fretnd, (Joth. 
frijonds, Skr. root pri. 

fruycon, 883, 'fruition'. 

fnle, 720, 'foul', fowle, 72G, = 

(i(\\. r/<Ht issc: 

\\ln-thtM- in ''! it ii, 
j.tnnn ( \.S. ///) 1 



Gene, 95, 'Genoa'? 

Genewaye, 95, 'Geneva'? 

glosse, 438, yltiance. 

godd, 158, a mistake for gold. 

goste, 1, 'ghost', A.S. gdst 'breath', 

'spirit', Nhg. geist. 
gouen, 39, 'they gave', govyn, 

54, 'given', 
grenyis, 181, (leg. greynis) 'grains' 

of Paradise, cardamums a sort 

of spice. 

grue, 155, 'to pain', 'grieve', 
gryll, 786, 'provoke', A.S. griellan, 

griltan, grellan, 'ad liteni pro- 

vocare' Ettmiiller. 
Gyldre, 103, 'Guelderland'? 
gynger, 181, Fr. gengembre, It. 

zenzero, fryytpfQi, Skr. qringa- 

gynne 'begin', 502, gynnyth, 695. 

harow, 671, harrow, 481, a Norman 
exclamation, fromOhg. hera, hara 
'hue', according to Diez. 

hasterli, 264, should perhaps be 
hasteli 'hastily'. The MS. seems 
to have hafterli. 

hayly, 157. 

hem, 127, 'them', A.S. dat. pi. him, 
heom, Goth. am. 

henly,666, 'politely', Nhg. handlich. 

here, 9, 'hear', A.S. heran, Goth. 
hausjan, Gr. -xo?'('))f/r, - 
xova- Tixog. 

hond, 627, 'hand'. 

hong, 490, 'hang'. 

hoode, Ohg. huot, Nhg. hut 'hys 
hoode there wyll he sell', 530, 
apparently a proverbial ex- 

hundder, 288, 'hundred'. 

hye, 860, A.S. higian, festiuare. 

hyght, 626, 'called', A.S. hiiten. 

i-mett, 237, 'met'. 

inconvenyence, 897. 
Indas, 184, 'Indian', 
inquere to, 628, 'inquire at', 
irke, 917, 'weary', cf. trA-some: 

0. N. yrkja, laborare, = A.S. 
vyrcean, Lat. urgere. 

i-wys, 483, 'certainly'? i-wyse, 515, 
Nhg. geiriss. But see trys and 

1. 55. 

jangle, 571, 'to prate' (joculari, 

Jenyse, 95. 

kene, 878, 'valiant', A.S. cene, 
Nhg. kukn. keue, 462, 'sharp', 
kend 'known', 15, 92. 
kenne, 450, 'teach', 
knowlech, 244, 'knowledge 1 , 
knowlege, 873, 'acknowledge', 
kowthe, 56, 'known', p. p. of hunne. 

Lachborn, 113, 'Luxemburg'? 

lame, 'on thyn hand thow art but 
lame\ 768, 'that fendys power 
for to make /awe', 954. 

largyfluent, 824, 'largifluui. 

lashe, 468, 'stroke'. 

lawrelle, 882, Fr. latirier, Lat. 
laurus for daurus (Siegfried), 
etyf-ff, Ir. dair, Skr. ddru y dru, 
Goth. triu. * Daurus from dartus, 
cf. 0. Celtic Darvernon. 

leche, s. d. after 650, 'a physician', 
A.S. lece, lyce, Goth, lekeis = 0. 
Ir. lieig. 

lesse 'lose', 64. lesyn perdo, Pr. 
P., or 'lessen 1 ? 

lest? stage direction after 1. 148. 
Perhaps connected with A. S. 
IcBstan 'to perform'. 

lett, 848, 'omit'. 

lofe, 342, A.S. Mdf, Goth. Mails. 

longeth: 'as longeth for a lordis 
pere', 265, 894, 'and in father- 



bed that longyth to my dygnyte, 
lycoresse, 17f>, lycorys, 184, j-Ai- 

xr>m>/ for y>). vxu- f-oi. 

lyghtyng, 789, 'deoneration 1 . 

lykke, 476, A.S. gehecan, caperc, 
avripere. lakken, lacche, tuicke 
in Piers Plouhman. 

Jyiule, 380, 'the linden tree'; lyynde 
tilia, Pr.P.; cf. 'Than were yt c '] 
glad and ly,t as lynde\ Ilalli- 
NM-li II, 521. The phrase 'as 
gentylle as ever was the lynde' 
is like tho Nhg. 'weich wie lin- 

mace, 182, Lat. 
machatis, 167, a mistake for achatis 

q. v. 
Machomete, 200, Machomyght, 332, 

Machomyth, 453. 
male, 179, 'bag', 'pack', Fr. malle, 

Ohg. tnalaha 'sack', 
malepertly, 637, 'presumptuously 1 , 
mansuete, 821, 'gentle', 
mastyk, 182, uaaifyij. 
masyd, 653, 'bewildered', 
materyall, 888. 
Mawdelen, 422. 

may, 992, 'maiden 1 , perhaps a cor- 
ruption of maid, perhaps = Goth. 

tnavi, 0. N. iney, Dan. mu. 
Mayn, 109. 
meaue, 782. 

mede, 566, 'reward 1 , Nhg. mieihc. 
mekyll, 13, mykylle, 748, 'great 1 , 

A.S.wyce/, Goth.mtftifa, ///j'aAof. 
meuyn (or amenyn?), 863, 'amends', 
meve, 209, 454, 738, 'move', 
moche of inyght, 194. 
mode, 453, 'mind', 'mood', A.S. 

mod, Goth. mu(/.v. 
mold 'earth', 8'2. A.S. moMt, Goth. 

mot*-, :M I, in..!! 

= A.S. mote: mot, 249, 631, = 

A. S. mot <'ii. 

myddys, 457, 467, 480, 'midst'. 

myegrym, 613, 'megrim' = Fr. mi- 
graine (as ransom = randan, re- 
demptio) from ij/K/xpay/n 'pain 
on one side of the h<-:ir. 

myght, 85, 182, 'strong'; see all- 

mys, 293, 'error', to amend our 
mis, Pol. P. i. 252. 

mysseavysed, 639. 

mysericord, 887, misericordia. 

nat, 88, 141, 211, 'not'. 

Naverun, 110, 'Naverino'? 

naye, 93, 'denial'. 

ne, 138, 'not'. 

necesse, 772, 'necessity'. 

neclygence, 726. 

neclygent, 870. 

non defawte, 261, 'no default'. 

none, 230, 'noon'. 

nonys, 'occasion', 'nonce', for the 
nonys, 18, 161, idcirco, ex pro- 
poxito, Pr. P. 

nood, 538, nood eyn 'use or pos- 
session of eyes'? A.S. noiu? 

of, prep., 654, "Therfore of help 
I pray yow all." 

on, prep., on thys wyse, stage-direc- 
tion after 228, on thyn 

on, oon, 'one', 983, 946, 515, = won, 

ondon, 456, 'undone'. 

onys, 207, 'once'. 

onknowth, a mistake for onhoirtk, 
147, 'unknown', A.S. una 

onkytul, 200, 'unnatural'. 

onl.'full. 8;")0. 'unlawful'. 

ontawglit, (',:',(',, 'iintaught'. 



orengis, 185, 'oranges', Fr. orange, 

Sp. naranja, Arab, narang (Diez). 
Oryon, 115.? 
owe, 195, = A.S. agon: a ye owe 

tenderli to tend me tylle", "as 

owylh for a marchant of the 

banke", 260. 

owt, 481, 671, an interjection. 
owte, 828, ' ought '= au\i Wickl. 

Mt. xviii. 24. A. S ahte. 
oxeunell, 584, a mistake for oxymel, 

Q$uptlt t a mixture of vinegar 

and honey. 

pales, 207, leg. palis = palyce , or 

pale of closynge. Pains , Pr. P. 
pall, 264, from pallium. 
parage, 429, 'rank', Fr. parage. 
parlowr, 264, 'speaking-room', lo- 

cutorium, Pr P., Fr. parole, Lat. 


pase 'passus\ 390, pace, 845. 
pausacyon, 603, pausalio. 
paye, 143, 228, 243, pay, 989, 


peas, 84, 'peace', paix, pax. 
pepull, 806, 'people', 
perayle, 858, 'peril' (periculuni), 
to pere, 637, 'appear'. So in Hamlet 

iv, 4: 

It shall as level to your judg- 
ment pear 

As death doth to the eye. 
pere, 265, 'peer', Fr. pair, Lat. 


pete, 821, 'pity', 
place, 73, 'please' (placeo). 
plase, 624, 'place', platea. 
plawe, 664. Plawyn bullio, ferteo, 

Pr. P. ; to plaw 'to parboil', Nor- 
folk (Forby). 
plesance, 126, plesawns or plesynge 

complacentia , beneplacitum, Pr. 

pleyu, 137, "goo well pleyn", 

bien pleinement, pleine, 313, 

plyght, 473, plyghtyn truthe affido, 
Pr. P. A.S. plihtan, 'spondere', 
Nhg. ver-pflichten. 

Pondere, 111.? 

poose, 616, = Pose calarrus, coriza, 
Pr. P.? (so rume ... pose, Cot- 
grave). Or is it the Fr. pousse 
'asthma', = pulsus, according to 
Diez? Our pursy seems a cor- 
ruption of Fr. poussif, as hoa-r-se 
of A.S. has (Nhg. heiser). 

Portyngale, 111, 'Portugal'. 

prattise, 591, Fr. pratique, t] non- 
y.jixrj, as lettcyce, 585, from 

prene, 467, 478, 'to pierce thro'? 
so Wickliffe, 1 Kings xviii. 11. 
Cf. A. S. preon fibula, prenan 
figere, beprenan inh'gere, Ett- 
mu'ller, 275. 

prest, 225, prestly, 505, 'readily' 

preve, 208, prefe, 442, 'proof. 

processe, 75, 'proceeding'. 

pryk, stage-direction after 468. A.S. 
pryccjan, O.Fr. esprequer. 

pumgarnetis, 186 (MS. pungarnetis), 
' pomegranates ' ; powmgarnettis, 
Wickliffe, Ex. xxviii. 33. 

pyrnente, 428, Fr. piment, Ital. pi- 
miento, Lat. pigmenlum, a mediae- 
val beverage; see Halliwell IT, 
624, and Way, Prompt. Parv. 
399 n. for receipts for making it. 

pynson, 40, 655, 933, 'pincer'. 

pyppe, 525, sekeness Pttuita, Pr. 
P. 401. Fr. pepie, Ital. pipita (= 
pituita, Diez), a disease of hens : 
Low Germ. pips. 

pyx, 924, pyxis, 

quit, 566: 'shall well be quit his 
uiede'. ' quyt of moche com- 



brance', 782. Solulus, iiberatus, 
Pr. P. From quietus. 

rancheth, 813, 'rends 1 ? "And 
ranrhcd his hips with one con- 
tinued wound" Dryden. 

rape, 659, 'to haste'; rape fesli- 
nacin, Pr. P. O.N. rajm, ruere, 
cadere, Egilsson; rappe and 
rapplirlir are in P. Plouhnian. 
So in the Sangreal, ed. Fnrni- 
vall, p. 252: 'And whanne these 
thevis gonnen aspie, Redeliche 
they raped hem and in hye.' 

Raynes, 107, 'Rennes'. 

rebylle rable, 598. 

recuer, 520, 'recovery'; recuryn, 
of sekenesse, contaleo, reconvaleo, 
Pr. P. 

redresse, 607, 'to repair to'. See 

refe (rave), A.S. redf, pret. of rice, 
A.S. reofan, 48, 941. 

renneth, 94, 'runneth'. 

repreve, 456; reprele opprobrium, 
Pr. P. 

restore, 908, 963. 

reverte, 815, 'turn back'. 

reyn, 139, 'realm 1 , 'regnwn. 

reys, or perhaps rys, 179, 'rice', 
Fr. ris, oryia. 

reyson, 180, Fr. raisin, Lat. ra- 

Romney, 340, 345, a red wine (from 
Rumania?}, spelt Rumney in the 
Interlude of the Four Elements, 
cited under Malvesie, Halliwell, 
II, 539 ; rumney, Pr. P. 

roode, 131, 135, rode, 204, 'cross 1 , 
A.S. rod. 

rowte, 701, 'to cast', 'throw'; rutton 
projicto, Pr. P. 

rubes, 170, 'rubies', Fr. rubis, It. 
rubino, from Lat. rubeus. 

rychesse, 117, 'wealth'. 

rycht and skyll, 192, 'right and 

ryfe, 640, 'manifest'; ryyf mani- 

feslu.s, pnjiltcaltts , Pr. P. A.S. 

rif 'frequens', O.N. rtfr. 
be-ryght, 196. 
rygore, 822. 
rynge, 99, possibly a blunder for 

rei/gut', or perhaps A.S. firingian 

'in orbe ponere'. 

ryve, 713, A.S. reufan, O.N. riufa. 
Saby, 96, 'Sabaea'? 
sacre, 363, 1579, 'consecrate', sacryn, 

Wickliffe. Lat. sacrare. 
saffyron, 177, Fr. tafrun, Ital. nf- 

ferano,fTom Arab, zafuran. Diez. 
sale, 116, 'sail 1 , 'sett ys my sale'. 
Salerun, 96, 'Salerno'? 
sawe, 393, 'saying', A.S. sagu, <>.N. 

say a. 
sawge, 585, 'sage' (Fr. sauge = Lat. 

scamoly, 584, 'scammony' 

se, see, 151, (We*). 

seek, 556, 'sick 1 , A.S. sedc, Goth. 

xinks, O.N. sidkr, Nhg. siech. 
sekyrly, 262, 'certainly', Nhg. .yi- 

cherlich, Lat. secure. 
serche, 142, Fr chcrcher, Lat. cir- 


Shelys down, 14o, 148.? 
Shore -Thursday, 398, 'the day 

before Good-Friday'? A.S. scir 

'bright'; cf. the Nhg. (iruner 

shrugge, 597? 
sideyns, 9, see sythe. 
skyll, 192, :>63, 'reason', A.S. 

stile 'disc ri men'. 
smaragd, 168, from .imaraydus, Skr. 

mrtraAa/a(L)iez). The Vr.emeraudc, 

cur emcratcd, 166, is acorrui 

of smaragdits. 
sinert, 816, A.S. tmeorlan, > 



schmerzen: cf. a^ufWc/s, mordeo 

for smordeo (Ebel). 
eneke, 616, 'a cold in the head', 

sneke, pose, rime (leg. rume?), 

Pals, cited by Halliwell. Hardly 

cognate with O.Ir. snige, stillatio; 

Skr. snih 'stillare', Lith. snig-ti, 

Lat. ni-n-gere, Goth, snairs'snow'. 
solle, 858 (sollys, 869), 'soul', A.S. 

sdtol, Goth, sdivala, Nhg. seele. 
sothe, 'sooth', A.S. soV, O.N. saVr, 

sannr, Dan. sand. 
sownde, 41, sownd, 934, A.S. ge- 

space, 461, 'place'. Fr. espace, 


spence, 529, 'a buttery', 
speryd, 46, 'shut up', A. S. sparrian 

'obdere', 'occludere', Nhg. sperren. 
Spruce, 112, Prussia? Prwee-lond 

in Piers Plouhnian, 8813. 
stere, 263, 'move', 697, steare, 665. 
stevyn, 80, 'voice', 'noise'. A.S. 

stefen, Goth, stibna, Ohg. stimna, 

Nhg. stimme. 
stownd, 314, 'a time 1 , slownd-meel 

'at several times' Wickliffe. A. S. 

slund, Nhg. stvnde. 
straw, 'a sir awe for talis', 205. 
streytnesse of my grevance, 737. 
stye, 423, 'ascend'. A.S. sligan, 

Goth, steigan, Nhg. steigen, Gr. 

tiTtt%tiv. The root of this verb 

is still preserved in sti-le = Nhg. 

stieg-el, stir-rup (= stig-rope, A.S. 

stig-rdp), sly (rising) in the eye, 

and iu the Yorkshire stie 'ladder', 
sum: all and sum, 402, summit. 
sure, 'assure', "I woll sure yow", 


Surrey, 19, Surry, 96, 'Syria', 
swemfull, 798, 803; swyrnfull, 807, 

'dizzying'? A.S. svima, vertigo. 
Syble sage, 431, = Sibile Sage 'the 

Queen of Sheba' Halliwell II, 741, 

'Syble the Sage' Chester Plays, 

i. 100. 
synymone, 183, 'cinnamon', Lat. 

sythe, 41, syth, 423, sythen, 429, 

sideyns, 9, 'then', A.S. sifftfan. 

tapstere, 529, 'the woman in care 
of the tap', A.S. Iceppextre, cau- 
pona, from tceppa = O.N. tappi, 
Ohg. zapfo. 

tary, 125, perhaps O.Fr. tarier 'to 
irritate', 'torment' "vom ndd. 
targen, ndl. tergen", Diez E.W. 
732. In 365, and possibly in 125, 
tary seems to mean 'to delay'. 

Taryfe, 114, 'Tarifa'. Hence tariff. 

tene, 77, 781, 'grief, A.S. teona, 
injuria; to tene, 289, 'to grieve', 
A.S. teonjan, tynan, vexare. 

therde-bare, 568, for thredbare, A. S. 

thes, 3, 'this'. [prarf. 

tho = A.S. pa, nom. 837, ace. 84. 

thow, 702, 'though'. 

thynk, verb impers. with dat., 'vi- 
deri', A.S.pycean,pt/ncan, Goth. 
^ugkjan, Ohg. dunhan, Nhg. dun- 
ken; me thynke, 978, me thynk, 
200, 845, 'as thynketh me', 372: 
me thynkyth, 376. 

to, prep., Goth, and O.Ir. dit, Nhg. 
zu, perhaps Lat. du in in-rfw-pe- 
rator, in-dw-pedio : inquyre to, 

tobowght, 4, 'bought'. 

tobrast, 48, 941, 'burst in sunder'. 
Here to- is = 0. N. tor-, Nhg. 
aer-, Gr. Jr,-, O.Ir. du-, do-. 

tokenyng, 542, A.S. tdcen, Goth. 
tdikn-s, taiknjan, tStixvvfut, Ohg. 

topazyon, 168 (MS. copajyons), 
'topaze', zo7TC'or. 

tormentry, 45, 730, 800, 938. 

tresye, 302? 



treyn, 77, 'sorrows'? A. S. trege 
(gen. -aw), Goth, trigo, ^imrj (tene 
and treyn seems a formula). 

trowe, 559, A.S. Ireovan, Goth. 

trymble, 741, trem-b-ler, tremolare, 
from tremulus. 

tugg, 596, A.S. teohhian. 

tyde, 125, 'time', A.S. tid, O.N. 
tiff, Nhg. *ei. 

tylle, prep., 195. "til conj. donee, 
Cfiron. Sax. 1140. til praep. et 
til conj. haud dubie ex Danorwn 
ore recepta sunt". Ettmuller, 519. 

tyseke, 616, 'a consumption', still 
living in Devonshire; (fOiaix^. 

unlefull, 817, 'unlawful 1 , 
unryghtfull, 822. 

vaylle, 305, 'veil', velum. 
Telensly, 198, 'villanously'. 
vernage, 428, said to be a sweet, 
white wine. 

walew, 290, 'value'. 

wanhope, 67, 'despair', wan- = A.S. 
van 'dericiens' (Goth, vans, Ohg. 
icaw). So van-deed 'malefactum', 
van-halfi, van-hdlnyss, 'invali- 
tudo', ran-siiJ, van-vyrd, 'infor- 

ware, 596, 'beware'. 

wari, 557, 'abuse', 'curse', warie 
mWickliffe,Nuni.xxiii.8, = A.S. 
d-varigan ; awyrien in P. Plouh- 
man, 1319, = A.S. d-virigan. 

weld, 117, weldyng, 115, 121, 'gov- 
ern', 'governing', A.S. vealdan, 
valdan, Goth, radian, Slav, vla- 
difi, Ir. flaith. 

wene, 199, pret. icend, 573, A.S. 
venan, putare. 

werche, 232, = A. S. vyrcean, 325. 

were, 482, 'doubt'? (read irare on 

account of the rhyme). A.S. 

varu cautio. 
wette, 147. wet, 268, A.S. vitan. 

wott, 334. wott = A. S. vdt, 679. 
wheresoo, 337, 'wheresoever', 
whyle, 853, ('woo the whyle') = Goth. 

hvei-la = xi-o.-J s . 
woldr, 31, a mistake for world? 
wole, 178, perhaps a mistake for 

wele, A. S. vela, vel = Goth, vaila, 

Ohg. urola: cf. Skr. vara, Gr. 

Fnottwv, Lat. vateo, validvt, 

valde, and in Celtic the Gaulish 

prefix ver-, Ir. ferr 'better', W. 

woll, 279, 'will' (I wall sure yow). 

wollnot, 288. 

won and won, 656, 'one by one', 
wond, 88, wonde, 138, 'to neglect, 

delay '. 'And for to speken wolde 

he tconden for non', San Greal, 

ed.Furnivall,p.445. A.S. cane/tan, 
wondrely, 857, A.S. irundorlice 

wonneth, 13, 19, leg. wanned? 'dwelt'. 

A. S. vuniode. 
woo me is, 516; woo the whyle, 853. 

woo = A.S. vd. 
wood, 785 (woode, 483, 674), 'mad', 

A. S. vod, O.N. offr; woodnesse, 

502, 'madness', A.S. vodnett. 
worthynesse, 119, A.S. veorffnest. 
wott, 334, =A.S. vilon. 
wound, 932 (A.S. vund), where note 

the use of the word as a col- 
lective noun, 
wrake, 459, 499, A.S. vrcecu, ultio, 

poena, malum. 
wrath, 724, 'to molest', A.S. ge- 

vrcetian 'inioMure'. 
wreke, 31,212, part. reke 

= A.S. vrecan 'ulcisci', Goth. 

r/iA'rt/i, O.N. reha. 
wrowght, 2, 7, = A.S. ge-troht for 




wyfe, 973, 'woman', A.S. vif. 
wyght, 384, 852, A.S. Af, crea- 

tura, animal, O.N. txett. Hence 

M0M = A. S. d-viht, naught = 

wyghtly, 212, 604, 638, 'actively'. 

Of I cast my frer clothing 

And wyghtly went iny gate. 
Pol. P. i. 268. 
-wykkyd metys, 347, 'unwholesome 

foods '. 

wyrke, 459, = A.S. vyrcan. 
wys, 55, = A.S. visse for visle, indie. 

pret. sg. of vat. 
wyse, 764, 811, 'way', 'manner', 

A.S. vise, Ohg. wisa, whence It. 

guisa, Fr. guise, our guess in the 

phrase 'another guess sort', 
wyste, 210, A.S. tyste, conj. pret. 

wythouton, 79, wythowtyn, 707. 

A.S. vitfutan. 
wytte, 139. 

yede, 299, = A.S. code, 1 pers. sg. 

pret. indie, of gang an. Goth. 


yff that, 449. 
ylke, 495, 497, 698, 'same', A.S. 

se ylca, seo ylce, \>cet ylce. 

Berlin, printed by Unger brothers, Printers to the King. 





The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's. 


The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of London. 
The Right Hon. Lord LYTTELTON. 
E. GUEST, Esq., LL. D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 

Ernest ADAMS, Esq. Charles K. HORTON, Esq. 

Beriah BOTFIELD, Esq., M. P. E. S. JACKSON, Esq. 

P. J. CHABOT, Esq. 
The Rev. Derwent COLERIDGE. 
The Rev. Dr. B. DAVIES. 
The Rev. John DAVIES. 
Sir John F. DAVIS, Bart. 
Henry H. GIBBS, Esq. 
Theodore GOLDSTUCKER, Esq. 
J. Power HICKS, Esq. 

Henry MALDEN, Esq. 
J. M. NORMAN, Esq. 
Whitley STOKES, Esq. 
Tom TAYLOR, Esq. 
The Very Rev. Dean TRI:N< n. 
Thomas WATTS, Esq. 


Hensleigh WEDGWOOD, Esq. 

T. Hewitt KEY, Esq. Fredk. J. FIHMVAI i . Esq. 




Professor Immanuel BEKKER. University, Berlin. 

Editor of "Anecdota Grceca" , &c. 
Signor Bernardino BIONDELLI. Milan. 

Author of "Saggio sui Dialetti" , &c. 
Professor Franz BOPP. University, Berlin. 

Author of the " V ergleichende Grammatik " , &c. 

Jacob GRIMM. Berlin. 

Author of the "Deutsche Grammatik", &c. 

Montanus de Haan HETTEMA. Leeuwarden, Friesland. 
Editor of "De Vrije Fries", &c. 

Professor Christian LASSEN. University, Bonn. 

Author of the "Indische Alterthumskunde" , &c. 

Professor Johan N. MADVIG. University, Copenhagen. 
Author of the "Latinsk Sproglture" , &c. 



1847. Ernest ADAMS, Esq. University College, London. 
1853. Dr. ALTSCHUL. 9, Old Bond Street. 

1849. John F. VON BACH, Esq. 

1842. Archibald BARCLAY, Esq. 

1858. J. T. BARHAM, Esq. Highwick, Newton Abbot, Devon. 

1861. The Rev. Mordaunt BARNARD. 37, Upper Brunswick 

Place, Brighton. 
1860. The Rev. S. BENHAM. St. Mark's College, Chelsea. 


J. P. BIDLAKE, Esq. 14, Upper Park Street, Islington. 
1842. The Rev. J. W. BLAKESLEY, B.D. Ware Vicarage, Ware. 
1842. Nathaniel BLAND, Esq. 
'1847. Beriah BOTFIELD, Esq., M. P. Carlton Club, Pall Mall; 

5, Grosvenor Square, W. 

1856. The Rev. W. J. BRODRIBB. 7, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
1856. Lothair BUCHER, Esq. Berlin. 

1854. Edward BULLER, Esq. Dilhorn Hall, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 
1842. E. H. BUNBURY, Esq. Jermyn Street. 

1842. The Venerable Archdeacon BURNEY. Wickham Bishops, 
Witham, Essex. 

1842. P. S. CAREY, Esq. Condie House, Guernsey. 

1861. Ralph CARR, Esq. Hedgeley, near Alnwick. 

1842. The Rev. W. CARTER. Eton College, Eton. 

1851. W. H. CASE, Esq. University College, London. 

1860. Charles CASSAL, Esq. University College, Gower Street, 

1842. Philip J.CHABOT, Esq. 41, Claremont Square, New Road, N. 
1846. Captain CHAPMAN. Athenaeum Club, S.W. 

1860. The Rev. S. CHEETHAM. Chichester. 

1858. The Rev. A. CHURCH. 9, Bedford Row, W.C. 

1851. W. G. CLARK, Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1851. Campbell CLARKE, Esq. British Museum, W.C. 
1858. The Rev. H. J. CLARKE, abroad. 

1858. The Rev. S. CLARKE. Training School, Battersea, S.W. 

1843. The Rev. T. Oswald COCKAYNE. King's College, Lon- 

don, W.C. 
1860. Albert COHN, Esq. Berlin. 

1844. Sir Edward COLEBROOKE, Bart. Park Lane. 

1858. The Rev. Derwent COLERIDGE. St. Mark's, Chelsea, S.W. 
1858. The Rev. F. CRAWFORD. Cook's Town, Co. Tyrone, 

1858. The Rev. Albert CREAK. 118, Lansdown Place, Brighton. 

1860. The Rev. Charles CROWDEN. Merchant Taylor's School, 


1861. The Rev. W. B. CUNNINGHAM. Preston Pans. 

1855. The Rev. C. U. DASENT. King's College School. 
1861. Charles DAUBENY, Esq. 9, Wellington Road, Redland, 


1852. The Rev. John DAVIES. Walsoken Rectory, near Wisbeach. 

1858. The Rev. Benj. DAVIS. Regent's Park, College, N.W. 

1842. Sir John F. DAVIS, Bart. Athenaeum. 

1858. The Rev. W. DENTON. Finsbury Square. 

1844. F. H. DICKENSON, Esq. Upper Harley Street, W. 

*1842. W. F. DONKIN, Esq. University College, Oxford. 

1860. The Rev. A. J. D'ORSEY. Cambridge. 

*1854. Professor EASTWICK. 38, Thurloe Square, S.W. 

1859. The Rev. J. EASTWOOD. Eckington, near Chesterfield. 
1842. The Rev. John EDWARDS. College, Durham. 

1842. The Rev. W. FARRER. 35, Belsize Road, St. John's 

Wood, N.W. 
1854. O. FERRIS, Esq. 

1859. C. W. FRANKS, Esq. 5, John Street, Berkeley Square, W. 
1842. Danby FRY, Esq. Poor Law Office, Whitehall. 
1847. F. J. FURNIVALL, Esq. 3, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W. C. 

1859. William GEE jun., Esq. Boston, Lincolnshire. 

1861. The Rev. G. C. GELDART. 3, Francis Terrace, Kentish 

Town, N.W. 

1859. H. Hucks GIBBS, Esq. St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

1860. William GIBBS, Esq. 16, Hyde Park Gardens. 

1842. The Right Rev. Turner GILBERT, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

Chichester. Chichester. 
1859. Webster GLYNES, Esq. 8, Crescent America Square, E.G. 

Francis GOLDSMID, Esq. Portland Place. 

1854. Professor GOLDSTUCKER. 14, St. George's Square, Prim- 
rose Hill, N.W. 

1842. John T. GRAVES, Esq. Poor Law Office, Whitehall, S. W. 
1842. J. G. GREENWOOD, Esq. Owen's College, Manchester. 
The Right Hon. Sir G. GREY. New Zealand. 

1859. S. GRIFFITH, Esq. Redland, near Bristol. 
1842. George GROTE, Esq. Saville Row, W. 

*1842. Edwin GUEST, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius and Gon- 
ville College, Cambridge. 

1860. Fitz Edward HALL, Esq. 

1842. J.T.V.HARDY, Esq., Principal of the College, Huddersfield. 
1858. W. H. HART, Esq. 15, Folkestone House, Russell Park, 

1842. The Rev. Dr. HAWTREY, Provost of Eton, Eton College. 

1849. The Rev. Lord A. HERVEY. Ickworth, Suffolk. 
*1854. John Power HICKS, Esq. 6, South Crescent, Bedford 

1849. The Rev. H. A. HOLDEN, Head Master, Queen Elizabeth's 

School, Ipswich. 

1860. Charles K. HORTON, Esq. 5, Gower Street, W.C. 
IS52. The Rev. H. J. HOSE. Australia. 
1842. Dr. William HUNTER, Rector of the Academy, Ayr, N.B. 

Martin H. IRVING, Esq. Australia. 

1856. E. S. JACKSON, Esq. Totteridge House, Enfield High- 
way, Herts. 

1844. The Rev. Dr. R, W. JELF. King's College, London. 
1842. The Rev. Henry JENKYNS. University, Durham. 

1842. The Rev. Dr. KENNEDY. Shrewsbury. 
1842. Professor KEY. University College, London. 48, Cam- 
den Street, Camden Town, N.W. 
1842. The Rev. Dr. KYNASTON. St. Paul's School. 

1842. Dr. LEE. Doctors' Commons. 

1842. The Right Hon. Sir G. Cornewall LEWIS. Kent House, 

1842. The Rev. W. LIN WOOD. Birchfield, Handsworth, Bir- 

1858. The Rev. R. F. LITTLEDALE. 13, St. Augustine Road, 
Camden Square, N.W. 

1860. George LONG, Esq. Clapham Park. 

1856. The Rev. A. LOWY, Ph.D. 3, Southampton Street, Fitzroy 


*1842. Professor LUSHINGTON. The College, Glasgow. 
*1843. The Right Hon. Lord LYTTELTON. Hagley Park, Wor- 

1842. Professor MALDEN. University College, London. 
1842. C. P. MASON, Esq. Denmark Hill Grammar School. 

1855. Professor Cotton MATIIKR. L>9, ArumK-l St., \V.C\ 
The Rev. F. 1). MAI iu< K. ;>. Russell Squan-. N\ 

1856. G. W. METIVIER, Esq. Guernsey. 


1842. The Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, Dean of St. Paul's. 

Deanery, St. Paul's. 

*1854. Lord Robert MONTAGU. Cromore, Port Stewart, Coleraine. 
1860. John Mum, Esq. 16, Regent's Terrace, Edinburgh. 

1858. J. M. NORMAN, Esq. Dencombe, Crawley, Sussex. 

1842. The Right Rev. Alfred OLLIVANT, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

Llandaff, Llandaff Court. 
1860. E. OSWALD, Esq. 5, Park Place West, Glo'ster Gate, 


1859. The Ven. Archdeacon OTTER. Cowfold, Sussex. 

1856. John OXENFORD, Esq. 16, John Street, Bedford Row. 

1858. Cornelius PAINE, Esq. Surbiton Hill, Surrey. 

1859. R. B. PEACOCK, Esq. Hest Bank Lodge, Lancaster. 
The Rev. J. R. PEAKE. Witchurch, Salop. 

1854. The Rev. J. J. S. PEROWNE. King's College, Strand. 
1842. J. G. PHILLIMORE, Esq., Q.C., M.P. Old Square, Lin- 
coln's Inn. 

1855. I. L. PHILLIPS, Esq. Beckenham. 
1859. J. T. PRICE, Esq. Shaftesbury. 

1859. Newton PRICE, Esq. Grammar School, Dundalk. 

1855. Henry RAIKES, Esq. Chester. 

*1842. W. RAMSAY, Esq. The College, Glasgow. 

1860. William H. REECE, Esq. Oak Mount, Edgbaston. 
1859. F. REILLY, Esq. 22, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 
1858. Christ. ROBERTS, Esq. Norwood, Surrey. 

1842. John ROBSON, Esq. Clifton Road, St. John's Wood. 
1842. i he Rev. Joseph ROMILLY. Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1858. Ch. SAUNDERS, Esq. Plymouth, and 3, Hare Court Temple. 
*1842. The Rev. Robert SCOTT, D.D., Master of Balliol College, 

1854. The Rev. J. E. SELWYN. Grammar School, Blackheath. 

1859. The Rev. George SMALE. 22, North Street, Red Lion 

1859. Bassett SMITH, Esq. 1, Elm Court Temple, E.C. 

1842. The Rev. Philip SMITH. Grammar School ,*Hendon. 

1843. The Rev. Arthur Penrhyn STANLEY, Dean of Christchurch, 


1 858. Whitley STOKES, Esq. 3, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W. C. 

1857. The Right Rev. A. C. TAIT, D.D., Lord Bishop of Lon- 
don. St. James's Square, S.W. 
1842. H. Fox TALBOT, Esq. Laycock Abbey, Wilts. 

1859. The Rev. C. J. F. TAYLOR. Cemetery, Ilford. 
1842. The Rev. J. J. TAYLOR. Woburn Square, W.C. 

1847. Tom TAYLOR, Esq. Board of Health, Whitehall, S.W. 
*1842. The Right Rev. Connop TIIIRLWALL, D.D., Lord Bishop 

of St. David's. Abergwili Palace, Carmarthen. 
* 1842. The Rev. Professor W.H. THOMSON. Trin. Coll., Cambridge. 
*1842. The Venerable Archdeacon THORP. Kinnerton, Tewkesbury. 

1857. The Very Rev. R. C. TRENCH, Dean of Westminster. 

Deanery, Westminster, S.W. 

1859. Nicholas TRUBNER, Esq. 60, Paternoster Row. 
1842. The Hon. E. TWISLETON. 

1848. A. A. VANSITTART, Esq. New Cavendish Street, Port- 

land Place, W. 

1861. F. WATERMEYER, Esq. 27, Alfred Place, Bedford Square, 

1856. The Rev. J. D. WATHERSTON, Grammar School, Monmouth. 

1SC1. The Rev. J. S. WATSON. Montpellier House, Stockwell. 

is 47. Thomas WATTS, Esq. British Museum, W.C. 

1842. Hensleigh WEDGWOOD, Esq. 1, Cumberland Place, N.W. 

1861. Charles WELLS, Esq. 12, Euston Road, N.W. 

1851. R. F. WEYMOUTH, Esq. Portland Villas, Plymouth. 

1842. The Rev. W. WIIEWELL, D.D., Master of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

1842. The Rev. R. WHISTON. Grammar School, Rochester. 

1859. Prof. WHITTARD, Victoria College, Jersey. 

1859. The Rev. T. C. WILKS. Hook, Winchfield. 

1846. J.W.WiLLCOCK, Esq. Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1842. The Rev. R. WILLIAMS, D.D. New College, Oxford. 

1842. The Rev. R. WILLIAMS, Vice - Principal of St. David's 
College, Lampeter. 

1842. Cardinal WISEMAN. 8, York Place, Marylebone, N. 

1858. H.D.WOODFALL, Esq. 14, Dean's Yard, WestminM.-r.>.\v 
1858. B. B. WOODWARD, Esq. Royal Mews, Pimlioo; and 

Library, "Windsor C;i-rlr. 

1843. James YATES, Esq. Lauderdale House, Highgate. 

Assistant Secretary. John WILLIAMS, Esq., Royal Astronomical 

Society, Somerset House, London, W.C. 
Bankers. Messrs. RANSOM, BOUVERIE & Co. 7, Pall Mall East. 
Publishers of the Transactions of and after 1858, Messrs. A. ASUKK 

& Co., Berlin; London Agents, D. NUTT, Strand; 

TRUBNER & Co., Paternoster Row. 
Publishers of the Transactions before 1858, BELL & DALDY, Fleet 

St., London. 


The Philological Society's Proceedings for 1842-53, 6 vols., 
12 guineas, reduced to 3. 

The Philological Society's Transactions for 1854, -5, -6, -7, 
one guinea each; for 1858, Part I, 5s.; Part II is in the press; 
for 1859, 10s.; for 1860-1, Part I, 5s.; Part II is in the press. 

Members can obtain the Proceedings, and the Transactions before 1858, 
at a reduced price, on application to the Assistant Secretary. 


RICHARD CHENEVIX TRENCH, D.D., Dean of Westminster, 2nd Edition, 
revised and enlarged. To which is added a Letter to the Author 
from HERBERT COLERIDGE, ESQ., on the Progress and Prospects of 
the Society's New English Dictionary. J. W. Parker & Son, 1860. 3*. 

PROPOSAL for the Publication of a New English Dictionary by the 
Philological Society. Trubner & Co., 1859. 6rf. 

ner & Co., 1859. 5s. (Being the Basis of Comparison for the First 
Period, 12501526.) 

BASIS OF COMPARISON. Third Period. Part I, A to D. Part II, 
E to L. 

[The next Part will be issued early in 1862.J 

CANONES LEXICOGRAPHICI; or, Rules to be observed in Editing the 
New English Dictionary of the Philological Society. 

Berlin, printed by Unger Brothers, Printers to the King. 

Philological Society, London 
11 Transactions